maintenance, care, compatibility
What you need for the aquarium, what to consider when choosing it and what kind of fish to have?
Before you buy an aquarium, you should find out what you need to have for a comfortable keeping of fish in it. To do this, first of all, decide on the location and size of the aquarium.
Equipping a new aquarium with fish, you need to buy immediately the necessary minimum of what is needed for the livelihoods of living organisms.
Equipment for aquarium
Initially, equipment, soil and live, possibly artificial, plants are acquired in an aquarium. A necessary item in an aquarium is filter pump, it not only removes dirt from water, but also provides oxygen to it.
Also immediately need to install in the aquarium heater, equipped with a thermostat in it. It sets the optimum temperature for water, it is 24 degrees, the heater will maintain it automatically.
Very often, aquariums are sold with fluorescent lamps already built into their covers, but if they are not there, you should also purchase light source, it is not as important for fish as it is for photosynthesis of plants, and this process contributes to the release of oxygen for fish.
These items – that’s all you need to keep a small aquarium with fish.
After all the necessary conditions for the minimum arrangement of the aquarium and the initial ecosystem are created, you can run the fish into it.
HOW IT IS CORRECT TO NEED TO START THE AQUARIUM FIRST TIME.
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium – not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium was convenient, and there were a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.Ground and scenery.
As a rule, the entire future ecosystem of your aquarium depends on the purity of the soil and scenery. Therefore, it is necessary to treat its processing especially carefully: rinse well with soda or sea salt, boil the soil, and ruthlessly refuse it, if the water suddenly becomes colored – this can further harm the fish. The most optimal soil size -3-5-8 mm.
- All that is smaller – caking and sour very quickly, larger – it is harder to clean and rinse. Yes, and plants on coarse soil will be a little more difficult to root. As a rule, if live plants are planned in your aquarium, it is advisable to place a nutrient composition for future vegetation under the ground, and the ground itself should be dispersed on a slope from the back wall to the front.
- This is done taking into account certain optical properties of aquarium glasses, because through the thickness of glass and water the aquarium landscape looks somewhat different. When decorating and setting up housing for your future pets, do not get carried away with sea shells and pieces of limestone – the entire chemical composition will gradually be washed out and excessively alkaline the water, which also may not well affect the health of future fish. and other decoration elements are installed,
it’s time to fill your pond with water. If an aquarium is planned to be in the form of an air wall in the aquarium, it is also worthwhile to think in advance whether it will lie on the ground or whether it should be fixed under the ground at the bottom. Water is poured in a small trickle, so as not to destroy the landscape that you conceived. For example, you can put a small tank in an aquarium into which water will flow, and it will merge gradually over the edge. Plants.
A few days later, when the water settles, it’s time to plant the plants. Of course, if you are in a hurry, water can be prepared with the help of special tools, now there is an excellent choice and variety in pet stores. But it is quite possible to do without chemistry, allowing the ecosystem to develop naturally and independently. But then it will take time. Before planting, all new plants that you have brought from the store or another aquarium should be sanitized. To do this, it is enough to hold the plants for 10-15 minutes in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature. Tall plants, densely growing, are best planted closer to the rear window of the aquarium, and in the future they will partially hide the equipment. Small plants are planted near the front glass so that they do not obscure the view. Not all plants root well. Some of them, in order not to emerge, have to be weighed down with special “weights”, or they must be fastened with fishing line on snags.
It is not necessary to load your future aqua-system with a large amount of equipment, but the main points must still be observed:
Filter pump. Its main function is the purification of water from dirt, turbidity and all that floats in water. The filter can be internal, as a very primitive, consisting of a piece of sponge, and more complex – with carbon filtration, and external – with a complex multi-stage water purification system.
The main thing is that it should be correctly selected for the volume of your aquarium, and cope with the task of cleaning.
Initially, the water is always quite turbid. This is a normal process, and if the filter is chosen correctly in terms of volume, it will cope with this within a few hours.
But soon after planting in your tank, complex biological processes will begin, and the water will again lose transparency: bacteria will begin to develop on the dying parts of the plants, ciliates will follow them … In general, as in Cosmos, Life begins to emerge in the aquarium. That is why experienced aquarists are not in a hurry to start running the fish right away – biological balance must be established in the water.
The rapid growth of microorganisms will stop, and the water will again become transparent.
Sometimes experienced aquarists are advised to take some water from old aquariums, or “squeeze” out of their filters. But even if the old aquarium fish are not sick, it does not mean that the water is free from pathogens. Most likely in this system everything is already settled, and the fish have developed a certain stability.
But in the new conditions, pathogens can start to develop very actively. Therefore, do not do this.
Aerator, or compressor. His task is to saturate the water with oxygen. In essence, a compressor is a pump that pumps air and delivers it to the water through the nozzles.
But at the same time, it also has a decorative function. Therefore, it is decided in advance whether it will be a thin stream of bubbles, decorated additionally or a whole air curtain.
The choice of sprayers and compressors is now huge!
Lighting will depend on which direction of the aquarium you have chosen. If you plan to fish with artificial plants – the quantity and quality of light is not important, everything will depend on your taste. If you have live plants, there is no way to do without additional lighting.
Most often, aquariums are already sold with fluorescent lamps when sold, but for plants the most optimal will be lamps with a pink spectrum.
As a rule, if there is enough light, the plants quickly take root and actively start growing.
If the light is not enough, the glass and the ground are covered with brown bloom, if there is an excess of light, the water turns green.
You can put the lighting with a timer. Then you won’t have a headache – did you remember to turn the lights on or off …
Heater with thermostat. As a rule, aquarium fish, like other aquarium animals, live in nature in warm lands, and are not adapted to the climate of our (not always well heated) apartments. The optimum temperature is mostly 22-24 degrees, and in some species and higher.
Therefore, a heater with a thermostat is very convenient – just set the required temperature.
Without a heater is still not enough if the fish suddenly fall ill. With an increase in temperature in the aquarium to 28-30 degrees, treatment with drugs is faster and more efficient, and in a shorter time.
The aquarium is equipped, the plants are planted and are actively growing, the water has settled in a week and has become clear … It’s time to think about the fish.
But first check the water.
Water hardness test. Different groups of fish prefer different hardness.
Based on the test results, you can pick up fish that you will feel comfortable with, or vice versa, change the water hardness for those fish that you have chosen.
There are also other tests. All of them are important in order to find your way in time, what is the state of water in your tank, and what needs to be changed to make the fish feel good.
With the parameters of the water coped, finally you can run the first batch of fish. Initially, they should not be many: 3-5 fish, depending on the size of the aquarium. Each new portion of fish necessarily breaks the existing balance, and the aquarium, as a complete biosystem, is easier to cope with the arrival of a small number of residents than to rebuild under a big surge of guests.
But between the launch of the next portion of fish should take at least a week. So, with intervals between batches, we gradually settle the aquarium, without forgetting
before releasing the fish adapt.
How to properly adapt?
Many people advise you to put a tank with new fish “swim” into your aquarium so that the temperature and pressure level up, and gradually the water mixes with the aquarium. Yes, for fish so stress is reduced to a minimum, but then you risk on a package with beginners to bring pathogenic bacteria into your tank. Much more correct, although it will be somewhat longer in time if you place a tank with a new fish near your aquarium.
Having installed the compressor, within two hours it is necessary to add 20% of water from your aquarium into it every 10-15 minutes. So the water will gradually be completely replaced by the desired composition. After that, it will be enough just to transplant fish with a net.
Finally, the planned number of fish settled, the balance of water restored, life enters a quiet course. Do not forget to make them fasting days, as the plants are not yet ready to fully process organic food residues. And in the future, such discharge once a week will only benefit.
It is always better to underfeed than to overfeed.
Water changes are advisable to do regularly, every week about 20% of the total.
So, if your fish is active, the color does not become paler, and the appetite does not suffer – it means you did everything right. We congratulate you!
You have created a piece of nature with your own hands and patience, which will give you a lot of pleasant moments, give beauty, comfort and peace.
Care of a small aquarium, on the one hand, easy, and on the other, takes the hassle. Choose a mini tank rectangular, with straight and smooth walls.
It is convenient to clean them with a scraper, to maintain. If the tank is round, then it will be inconvenient to reach its corners, it is difficult to wash.
A 10-liter aquarium pollutes faster than a 50-100-liter aquarium. Water changes will have to be done more often, as well as comprehensive cleaning, which is not useful for the biobalance of the aquatic environment and the health of the fish.
The main disadvantage of mini tanks is a small amount of water. It does not fit a lot of fish. There you can settle 1-2 fish, and no more.
In a large aquarium, water changes are not strongly felt, in a small one this is a great stress. Any changes in the biological balance: fish death, overfeeding, pollution immediately affect the aquatic environment.
The only thing that can be done is to adjust the water parameters in time, feed the fish gently, clean the bottom.
See how the ground siphon in the nano aquarium.
To care for a small aquarium should be the same as for a large one. Once a week you need to change 10-15% of water, if necessary. So that the fish do not have stress, do not replace the water completely, try to add it in small portions.
The ideal aquarium filter for such a tank is a pump with an internal sponge. The sponge cannot be washed out under running water, otherwise all beneficial bacteria participating in the nitrogen cycle will die.
If you choose the smallest reservoir, then it will be almost impossible to install plants and decorations. Some skillfully planted even in 3-liter jars of dwarf plants, but it is inconvenient to take care of them.
In the 10-liter tank there is the possibility to hold a dwarf anubias, a dwarf arrowhead, an echinodorus “dwarf amazon”, a dwarf cryptocoryne. Plants for a small aquarium are able to control the level of nitrite, nitrate and ammonia, create shelters for fish. Make sure that the aquarium was the ground.
Choose a substrate treated, clean, without paint. Remember that using a regular scraper to clean aquariums of minimal size is very difficult from the layer of plaque.
Now about feeding. As you know, overfeeding harms not only the health of the fish, but also adversely affects the quality of water. All uneaten decays, turning into harmful impurities and bacteria.
Decay products are deposited on the bottom and reservoir machines, disturbing the stability of the biological environment. Fish should be fed, hunger is also not an option.
Once a week, arrange fasting days for fish. Add food to 4-6 grains, which pet is swallowed by force.
What is not eaten, you need to remove the gauze net.
Let’s for fish that live in a small 10-20-liter nursery as much feed as they eat in 2-6 minutes. Flakes, live food, sinking granules fit. They sink slowly and do not pollute the environment.
If you live on bottom catfish, they will eat everything on their own. Fish can be fed to their usual high-grade food, without disturbing the diet.
It is important to clean everything in time.
See how to make a small aquarium.