maintenance, care, compatibility
Deciding what kind of fish to start first in your tank can be sudden, and can be thought out. Unfortunately, novice aquarists are often guided by the very first impulse, completely without understanding the fish.
And then, instead of joy and pleasure, they get a headache and problems. You need to choose the fish wisely, because their life and your comfort depend on your choice.
Before you go to the store or to the market, study all the available information about the fish that you liked.
What kind of fish is not worth buying for beginners, we have considered here. And the top 10 unusual fish here.
And in order to make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of the best aquarium fish for beginners and briefly described them. All of them are distinguished by unpretentiousness, tolerance to conditions in an aquarium, peaceful nature, livableness and modest size.
We hope that it will help make your choice easier!
Danio rerio is a small (up to 5-6 cm), elegant fish. For its small size, peaceful disposition and unpretentiousness, it has earned great popularity in aquarium.
Since this is a schooling fish, it is better to keep at least 5-6 individuals. The aquarium can be planted with plants, but it is important that the danios have free space for swimming near the surface, as this is a very mobile fish. If you are going to have a veil form, do not plant them with fish that may tear off fins, for example, with a Sumatran barbus.
The aquarium should be closed, as danios can jump out of the water.
Omnivorous, they eat any kind of feed – branded, live, frozen. It is better to feed them with flakes, as they pick up food from the surface of the water and they don’t collect them for a long time without sinking.
It is very easy to breed danios, for once the female lays from 200 to 500 eggs.
This is a very small (2.5-3 cm) and very unpretentious fish. However, it is brightly colored, just divorced and completely non-aggressive, even the cardinals do not touch their fry. They tolerate cold water, some even keep them in the summer in a pond in the yard.
They love to move in the middle layers, and also like to gather in flocks. You need to keep them in small flocks, from 6 pieces. Although it is possible and large, with its modest size, the cardinals do not require large aquariums.
With good content can live up to 3 years.
Fishes belong to the same genus – labyrinth. These fish live in water that is poor in oxygen and adapted to this by learning to breathe oxygen from the surface.
You will see how they rise to it, to take another breath of air. Small, peaceful, males are very brightly colored, and their ventral fins have turned into long processes.
You can feed any feed, including floating. Only give the moth with care and a little, it is poorly digested.
Already after the publication of the article, my readers corrected. The essence – liliaus can be difficult for beginners (he is just a little flaky and jealous of females). I agree, and add that there is another wonderful fish of the same kind – gourami.
There are many types, but for beginners a good choice would be marble gourami. Very hardy, peaceful, of unusual shape and color.
It is generally similar to lyalius, but larger and less demanding. So you can stop at this gorgeous fish, and start up a little later.
Peaceful, small fish, the males of which have a very bright color, for which they got their name. This is a schooling fish, so to keep a cherry barb is better from 5 pieces. But you will notice that he keeps loosely, gathering in a flock only in case of fright.
The size of the cherry barb is small, the color of the males is bright red and very noticeable, the requirements for the content are low. This is a good fish to mention on our list.
A pair of cherry barbs
Type of aquarium fish and compatibility of different species (table)
Another pets for beginners – goldfish. Aquarium species of these fish are very common.
If you look at the compatibility table, the line devoted to goldfish will be completely filled with red, with a few yellow areas, just like many cichlids. But if cichlids are aggressive, then goldfish often become victims themselves.
Goldfish are large, and little things like rasbor and neon, they gradually eat. And the other inhabitants of the aquarium themselves can offend the slow and delicate little crowns with long fins.
Golden fish is best to settle with their own kind, there are enough interesting varieties of this breed. It should not be forgotten that if you want to get offspring, then you cannot keep different species together. Who do goldfish can get along with?
Aquarium species of calm catfish – the Tarakatum, fighting-clowns, corridors, peaceful tetras – Congas, terntions and calm danios will be fine. There are also examples of successful cohabitation of gold with neons, scalars, viviparous, but we must remember that any neighborhood of goldfish with other species may result in conflicts and death of the inhabitants of the aquarium.
Guppi (lat. Poecilia reticulata) is an aquarium fish that is known even to people who are very far from aquaria, to say nothing of amateurs. Perhaps, every aquarist at least once in his life contained a couple of gupas, and many started their journey with them, and even now they contain luxurious, selective guppy species.
To answer all the questions about them, you probably need to write a book, but we will try to consider especially popular ones.
Males of guppies of different breeds
The homeland of the guppy fish is Trinidad and Tobago, and in South America, in Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. As a rule, they live in clean, running water, but also like brackish coastal waters, but not saline sea water.
They feed on worms, larvae, bloodworms and various small insects. Because of this peculiarity, they even began to be massively colonized in areas where there is a lot of anopic mosquito, as guppies eat its larvae.
The males of guppies in nature are much brighter than the females, but still their coloring is far from aquarium breeding forms. She must protect them from predators, as the fish is small and defenseless.
Wild guppies in nature:
Guppy fish are named after their discoverer (Robert John Lechmere Guppy). Robert Guppy was the first to find and describe this fish on Trinidad Island in 1866.
Like all tropical fish, guppies love warm waters (22–25 ° C), but can live in the wider limit of 19.0–29.0 ° C. As for the parameters of water, for ordinary forms it is almost irrelevant.
They adapt to local conditions so quickly that they can transfer to a new aquarium without any problems at all. It would be ideal if the aquarium will have: 7.0 – 8.5, and a stiffness of 12.0 – 18.0, but the parameters can be completely different, which will not prevent the guppy from living and breeding.
The aquarium may be small, 20 liters will be enough for 5 fish. But, the greater the volume, the greater the number of fish you can keep and the more beautiful it will look.
It is best to have a lot of plants in the aquarium, as this will be similar to the natural habitat and will significantly increase the survival rate of the fry in the general aquarium. Lighting can be any, from bright to twilight.
It is advisable to use a filter, for gupeshek quite internal enough, but if there is an external, then great. Only it is better to close the holes in it with an additional small net, since a powerful filter is not only capable of sucking the fry, but even an adult fish.
Guppies cannot be called a schooling fish, but there is almost no point in keeping it with a pair. It is very small in size and in small quantities is almost invisible in an aquarium.
For guppies, the rule is simple – the more there are in the aquarium, the more impressive and beautiful they look.
Very peaceful fish that does not cause any trouble to the neighbors. But it can be offended, especially large and predatory fish, which gupeshek perceive only as food.
So with fish like slaughter, giant gourami, pangasius or shark ball it is not worth keeping.
It is also impossible to keep with fish that can tear off male guppies with fins – Sumatran barb, Denison barb, fiery barb, some gourami, such as kissing, with ternitsemi.
Guppies get along best of all with peaceful and small fish: – rastori, cardinals, congo, neons, cherry barbs, speckled catfish, tarakatum.
Some species have already been listed above, but you can still see the article – the 10 best fish for beginners, everything on this list is good for keeping with guppies.
How to find out that guppies are pregnant or about to give birth?
Usually, the female guppy gives birth to fry once a month, but the timing may vary depending on water temperature and conditions of detention. Note the time since the last time she gave birth, and watch.
The female is ready for new genera, the stain becomes darker, it is visible the fry eyes.
Like all fish – oxygen dissolved in water, do not forget to include aeration and filtration.
About two years, but it all depends on the conditions and temperature. The higher the temperature of the water, the shorter their life.
Some fish live up to 5 years.
Daily, and in small portions two to three times a day. For example, in the morning and in the evening.
Once a week, you can arrange a hungry day, but keep in mind that the fish will actively look for food and the first victims will be their own fry.
There may be a lot of reasons, but the most common is old water, which is rarely replaced. It accumulates ammonia and nitrates, and they poison the fish and destroy the fins.
Regularly change the water to fresh. There may also be a sharp change of water, injury or poor feeding, when there are few vitamins.
If the guppy has lost its tail, then this is an alarming sign – either someone breaks off its tail, and you need to carefully study the fish with which it is kept, or it has become infected with an infectious disease, and you need to look more closely at the other fish.
Again, either old and dirty water, or an infection, or scant feeding. Try changing 20% of the water once a week and watching the condition of other fish.
Such fish are found in almost all species, as a rule it is a defect from birth. If this happens in adult fish, then this may be due to the fact that it is contained in too close an aquarium, with a large number of fish.
In guppy, the spine curls in the same way from old age, and this is normal, but the most frequent cause is fish tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis. The disease is complex, and its treatment is not easy, does not always bring results.
In order to avoid the spread of infection, these fish are better isolated.
The exact answer to this question is not found. Apparently with an excess of males, the laws of nature are included and the population compensates for the females in order to preserve itself.
It is possible, although it looks like something sad … All the same, this is a cheerful and brisk fish that loves company. If you are looking for a fish that would be beautiful, unpretentious and live wonderfully, then look towards the rooster.
Not required, but desirable. You can buy an inexpensive, internal filter with a washcloth.
It will perform its functions well enough and will not suck the fish into itself. Consider that if you bought a filter, and it is set higher (so that the surface of the water in the aquarium is in motion), then you will not need to buy additional aeration or simply put oxygen.
This is your choice. An empty aquarium is easier to clean, but it looks worse, the fry cannot survive in it, and the gupies themselves love to frolic among the plants.
I am for an aquarium with soil and plants.
No, the fish do not need light at all, except that it falls on the aquarium during the day. Light is needed for plants to grow.
No, they are viviparous. That is, the fry is born completely ready for life and can immediately swim. Sometimes it falls in the egg, but it breaks and it floats.
Sometimes he has a yolk sack, which he quickly assimilates.
Yes, but not like people. It is rather an active holiday, when at night the fish reduce activity, but still swim.
And it is better to turn off the lights at night, although some do not, but is it dark in nature at night?
Depends on the female, her age and size. Usually about 30-50 pieces, but sometimes 200
Very fast in good conditions. Males become mature in two months, and females in three.
No, they tolerate poorly salted water, but they die in the sea, this is a freshwater fish.
They breathe oxygen dissolved in water, and in your aquarium it is not enough. Because of which?
Maybe it’s too hot, maybe you haven’t cleaned the aquarium for a long time and didn’t change the water, perhaps too closely. Be sure to turn on aeration or filtration (place the filter closer to the surface of the water to enhance gas exchange) and replace some of the water with fresh one.
They can do it both by chance and because of bad water – for example, if it has not been changed for a long time and the soil is not siphoned in the aquarium. Also, the reason may be a small amount of oxygen in the water, read about it above.
Unfortunately, the exact cause can not be named, even if the aquarium is near you. This may be improper feeding (monotonous, only dry food or abundant), there may be unsuitable water parameters (a lot of ammonia), and there may be a disease.
The minimum that needs to be done is to replace part of the water, siphon the soil and change the type of feed.
Any small. More or less large catfish, almost without exception predators. The only exception is tarakatum, it can be contained with guppy.
Well, any corridors, for example speckled, will get along superbly with guppies and will be very useful, eating the rest of the food from the bottom.
The most unpretentious of the fry, survive in the wild. But, if you regularly change water, feed so much that they eat in a couple of minutes and feed the fry two or three times a day, they will quickly grow, color and please you.
What to feed the guppy fry? There are no difficulties in feeding, they eat crushed flakes, but it is better to give Artemia naupilii or shredded strawberry.
Today cockerels (lat. Betta splendens) are popular aquarium fish. Belong to the family Macropod, suborder Labyrinth fish.
In males, the character is snooty, for which they are called “fighting fish”. They do not always tolerate settlements with other fish, it is difficult for them to live with their neighbors because of their pugnacity.
If a male cockerel is housed in one aquarium together with another cockerel, then conflicts will arise between them that will result in bodily injuries and plucked fins.
But this does not mean that they can not be settled with fish. On the contrary, a good neighborhood harmonizes life in an aquarium.
If your tank is spacious, it has created an excellent aquascap that resembles a natural biotope, there are many plants, shelters, a biological balance is established – then all inhabitants will be comfortable. An important rule – it is impossible for more than one male cock to live within the same aquarium.
They can not be called territorial fish, but it so happened that they will fight. On one male you can settle several females, so it will be comfortable.
Betta splendens females are smaller in size, their fins are shorter, their character is calmer. But females can also conflict with each other, as well as with the male.
Females can be kept in one nursery by 3-4 individuals. They are less aggressive, but their character is also unpredictable.
If you notice that the betta fish show constant aggression towards their neighbors, and this leads to fatal consequences, then do not spare money for another reservoir, settling in it a restless pet.
Rules for keeping Betta splendens in a common tank
These fish tolerate temperature drops and can feel good at a temperature of +18 and +25 degrees Celsius. But you can not allow sudden drops, because they harm the health of the pet.
Like a labyrinth fish, a cockerel should live in water that corresponds to the ambient air temperature in the room: + 22-26 degrees. Due to the fact that he knows how to breathe a labyrinth organ, aeration is not necessary – this should be taken into account by settling to him other fish that cannot live without dissolved oxygen. Replace the water should be once a week, 20% of the total volume of the tank.
Do not forget to clean the bottom of the remnants of food and dirt.
What rules should be followed so that cockerels can live peacefully in an aquarium with other fish? These rules apply to all cockerels, which can result in peaceful cohabitation with representatives of different types of fish.
- It is not recommended to keep with betta fish with long fins and brightly colored scales. Although the males themselves have a beautiful appearance, they are painfully perceived by “competitors”, which are external stimuli for them.
- You can not settle cockerels with large and predatory fish, for example, African and South American cichlids. The latter in themselves are peaceful creatures, friendly, but they do not get along with the fighting fish.
- Try to keep the fish in water that is suitable for everyone. You can not settle heat-loving and cold-loving species. For example, a golden fish cannot live in warm water, therefore it is incompatible with betta.
- Betta splendens fish can be settled with speckled catfish, tetras, gourami, swordtails, mollies. After settling the fish in the aquarium, observe their behavior. You can also keep the fish from a young age together, so they are better accustomed to each other. Fish should not be less than 5 cm in length. If the neighbor fish has died, do not hook the new fish with the rooster, otherwise it will score it.
- Compatibility with other fish will be successful if the betta lives in a spacious tank of 50-100 liters. There you can put a lot of decor, shelters, which will reduce to the “no” territorial claims and conflicts.
Take a look at the common cockpit aquarium.
There are such aquarium fish, the compatibility with which the betta is good, they live peacefully, with periodic fights that do not lead to death. These include gourami marble, cardinals, labo, lyalius, macrognathus, scalar.
But it should be noted that the first days of the settlement should be monitored for their reaction, in case of aggression, they are settled separately from each other.
Almost perfect compatibility of the fish Betta splendens with platies, Donaciinae, black mollies, ornatusami, nagging gourami, akantoftalmusami, befortiyami, Ancistrus, minors, ototsinklyuchami, rasbora, black tetra, Congo, botsiyami, tarakatumami, lorikariyami, gastromizonami Siamese, brocade catfish.
Males and guppies – it is believed that guppies and betts live in water with different parameters, therefore they are only conditionally compatible. There were examples of good compatibility, but it’s not always worth the risk. Males can chase guppies throughout the aquarium until their fins are torn off.
Guppies can live at a temperature of 18-28 degrees, although 22-25 degrees for them more than acceptable temperature. The diet of both fish is the same, so some razvodchiki did not have difficulty in keeping.
Scalar and betta – compatibility is not bad, provided a spacious tank. These fish almost ignore each other, without attracting attention.
The males will rather distort each other than the scalar will bother. However, during spawning, scalars become more aggressive and can drive all neighbors, including labyrinth ones.
Set in the nursery a lot of shelters and plants to protect all.
Gourami – all species are close relatives of cockerels, so compatibility can be great. Gourami – curious creatures, tenacious and active, also feed, breathe with gills and atmospheric oxygen. Males do not bother them, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Plant them together in a tank of at least 70 liters cubic. All Macropod enemies are the same: they are large and predatory fish, with which they should not be settled.
Look at the cockerels in the company of gourami.
Mollies and cockerels can live in an aquarium because they carry the same water parameters. But there is one fact – slightly brackish water is preferred by mollies, but Betta is not.
Temperatures of 24-27 degrees is optimal for content. At low temperatures, both fish begin to hurt.
Molly – viviparous fish that must breed in a separate, spawning tank, so that no one will destroy their fry.
The bets are alone in aggressive hydrobionts, so they can be moved to the males only with a flock of 4-7 fish. In the aquarium fights are small, reaching only 8 cm in length.
Peaceful, you can keep them with the same neighbors, provided space and shelters. Males with them almost no conflict.
Corridors – as neighbors are suitable for many fish. They have a calm disposition, an interesting body color, and bring a lot of benefits.
If the rooster does not eat the food, the corridor will pick it up. Somiki swim at the bottom of the aquarium, cockerels at the bottom only sleep. Compatibility between them is proven, cockerels rarely bother corridors.
The corridors, like labyrinths, can use atmospheric air for breathing. Such a pet can survive under critical conditions. Somiki poorly tolerate salt and organics, as well as betta.
Replacement of water in the general aquarium should occur once a week.
Due to the peaceful nature of pets, you should think about the possibility of keeping them separate from other fish, but if you still want to make an aquarium with many types of fish, carefully select your neighbors. They in no case can not be planted to predators.
Guppies get along well with some catfish, gouras, tetras, battles and some species of haracin fish, and corridors will do. But in practice it has been proved that even among them there are snooty individuals who strive to offend guppies.
The most popular options are:
- Angelfish. Most novice aquarists believe that this option is the most optimal. In fact, he is successful until the angelfish grows up. Therefore, the belief that fearful scalars are harmless is fundamentally wrong. However, there are cases when they peacefully get along with each other in huge aquariums.
- Swordtails. These fish are not the most suitable option, since adult Swordtails often bite their neighbors and eat their offspring. You can plant them together only if you have taken care to grow dense thickets of plants in which both fry and adult fish will be able to find shelter.
- Barbusses. Barbusses are dangerous for beautiful guppy fins. Because the bright colors attract the attention of this fish, and they tend to bite guppies. Pay attention to other fish that will not be so aggressive.
- Goldfish. This option is strictly prohibited. A goldfish can bring a small guppy to death, so consider other options.
Therefore, be careful with your neighbors for such tender and defenseless fishes. Leave the stereotypes and carefully study the approach, both to the owners of the aquarium and to their neighbors. Guppies get along well with peace-loving fish, but categorically do not accept fighters.
Be attentive to the behavior of all pets. If you notice aggression from the other fish during feeding, you should try to increase the dose of food.
It is hunger or lack of free space that can make ideal neighbors the worst enemies, leading to injury and stress. Choosing neighbors, read as much information as possible and consult with other breeders about whether new inhabitants will not eat the fry of the viviparous guppy.
What aquarium fish live without oxygen and air
Video about labyrinth fish that breathe atmospheric air
PRESENT TO YOUR ATTENTION
a selection of photos of fish that do not need oxygen