The maintenance of viviparous aquarium fish is considered to be something difficult among beginning aquarists, but this is not at all the case. Viviparous fishes are common in Russia and abroad due to simple care and undemanding to environmental conditions.
That is why zhivorodki considered frequent pets freshwater and saltwater aquariums.
The viviparous fishes are called those fishes that do not lay eggs during spawning, and give birth to live fry already adapted to the environment.
But it is impossible to call this process a live birth, as in higher animals. Fry all the same for a long time form and grow in eggs, located in the abdomen of the mother.
Only after that they are born. That is why sometimes fish are called not viviparous, as higher animals, but ovoviviparous.
Live-bearers are distinguished by endurance and unpretentiousness in care.
The famous aquarist Bernd Posekert described some popular species in his work, including viviparous aquarium species of fish. Most often for aquariums choose small fish with a calm character that peacefully belong to other species.
The Gundeev family is a transitional stage between fish laying eggs and viviparous creatures. They live in the mountain rivers of Mexico.
The name is given in honor of the ichthyologist D. Goode.
The Gudiyevs have a high body, compressed laterally. Females are larger than males by a couple of centimeters and have a dimmer color.
Duration of life is 3-4 years.
Representatives of the Gudiev family need a reservoir of 50 or more liters. Frequent water changes, aeration and filtration are required.
These fish are considered the most common inhabitants of aquariums and tanks with underwater pets. The look is different from other bright body color. Breeders were bred colors from white to black.
A distinctive feature is the long void-shaped tail, lateral and dorsal fins of the guppy in males.
The length of the body in the aquarium fish guppy is 2–6 cm. The females are much larger than the males and have a more modest appearance that hides from enemies.
Suitable for keeping in cramped conditions – there will be enough an aquarium for fish from the family of viviparous in volume of 15-17 liters and the minimum amount of equipment. Guppies easily forgive mistakes beginners in care, so it is recommended as the first pet for an inexperienced aquarist.
In the natural environment lives in lakes and rivers of Central America. In popularity is not inferior to guppies.
The color of the fish in nature is pale red or greenish, but due to the selection, bright color variations from yellow to black were derived. But most of this species is known for its traditional red-orange body and long arrow with a black stripe on the tail of the males, because of which it got its name.
And also suitable for beginners. Impervious to food and water parameters, aquarium fish swordtails are able to endure long hunger strikes and eat vegetable food.
The species is distributed in the center and south of America, in Yutakan, Texas and Colombia. Belongs to the family Pitsilievyh.
In nature, fish color varies from yellow-sandy to gray-spotted. In the XIX century, this species was opened and became widespread. The natural color was popular, but over time, mollies were characterized as fish with a coal-black body color.
As well as mollies are noticeable due to their developing fins. In size, the females dominate and grow to 9 cm, and the length of the male’s body is 6 cm.
The content of mollies require careful. She will need an aquarium of more than 65 liters of water and rich lighting.
Mollies do not show aggressiveness and calmly get along with other species, but intraspecific clashes between males are possible, especially during spawning.
The view of the Pecilli is included in the Pecillian family. The place of distribution in nature is the north and center of America, found on Guatemala.
Imported from America in the twentieth century, since then they have gained wide popularity and love of aquarists.
In nature, has a more modest color – yellow-gray with dark spots near the tail. But the breeders have withdrawn several more colors.
The length of the body of both sexes is 5–6 cm. The body of the fish is short, with a volumetric abdomen and a raised muzzle.
Petsilii do not need large spaces. Two patziliyam will be sufficient reservoir of 5–6 liters, and a flock of 7–8 fish will need 40–50 liters.
It is required to arrange a thorough aeration and bright illumination.
The species is the only one belonging to the genus Ameka. In the natural environment was completely exterminated in 1996, previously lived in the rivers of Mexico.
But this fish is bred in captivity.
The body is flattened laterally and grows to 5–12 cm. The body is sandy-silver with black spots all over the body.
A distinctive feature of the species is a bright yellow edging of the tail and anal fin. In the dark, the black sideband becomes brighter and barely noticeable during the day.
Ameka – schooling fish with a strict hierarchy and distribution of posts. There may be fights and clashes between males.
Originally from South America, it is preferred to dwell in the stagnant water of lakes, backwaters, marshes.
The size of the females is 6 cm, and the males are 3 cm. The females are more massive and larger, and the males are smaller and more elegant.
The color varies from yellow to silver, the whole body is covered with small black specks.
Girardinus will be a good helper in the study of aquarium. The fish is not demanding, the flock is suitable volume of 40 liters.
This pet attracts the attention of an unusual appearance. Although some do not consider it beautiful, but fans of this kind are glad to have such a creature at home.
Area of distribution – Southeast Asia: Thailand, Java, Singapore. It lives in mangrove forests near coastal waters.
Formosa has a highly elongated and elongated body. The fins are far behind.
The lower and upper jaws differ in structure: the upper one is much shorter than the lower one. This structure of the mouth contributes to the extraction of food from the surface of the liquid.
The body is painted in seropeschy color, and the fins have a reddish tint.
The species is from the family of Pitsiliyev and the class of ray-finned fish. Inhabits the Yutakan Peninsula in brackish ponds.
The size of females reaches 15 cm, and males 17 cm. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced in sail-like mollies.
The body is colored gray with shiny dots. The lower part has a golden color.
Fish-toothed – detachment, a member of the class of ray-finned fish. This squad includes more than 400 species of freshwater fish in countries in Africa, America and Asia.
The name Karpazuboobraznye occurred due to the external similarity of the squad with the species from the Karpov detachment. But the difference was the lack of Karpov teeth, which are found in the Karpazuboobraznye.
Artificially derived multiple colors.
Habitat in nature – mountain rivers and lakes of Mexico. Discovered in 1974 and since then gained popularity among aquarists.
The body is compressed from the sides, the males have a hump over their heads, because of which the head seems disproportionately small, if we compare the shape with the body. The coloring of the body of the male is from pale brown to bluish-gray.
At the caudal fin, a yellow spot begins, the same color as the caudal fin itself. Body size usually does not exceed 8 cm.
When the content of xenotokov planted a sufficient amount of vegetation.
It was first discovered in the Caribbean, in the vicinity of the island of Haiti. It lives in small lakes and in shallow waters with a large number of plants.
Limia – schooling fish and keeping it alone in an aquarium will lead to stress or even death of the fish.
Limia grows to 6–7 cm, but the size of the males is smaller and they look more elegant and graceful. The predominant color is silver, there are places painted in yellow on the head and stomach.
Limits differ from other characteristic vertical stripes. The tail fin is also often pale yellow in color.
The dorsal fin is rounded in shape and is colored black and yellow with marble stripes.
Limia is an unpretentious and easily adjustable look, therefore it brings to beginners. A flock of limy will feel good in a 35-40 liter tank with vegetation.
Poluryl, or Dermogenis in a different way, belongs to the Poluryly family. A strange name and quaint appearance attracts attention.
An unpretentious pet will be an addition to the aquarium’s biosystem.
Habitat lies in South and East Asia, in Malaysia and Singapore. It is found in reservoirs with a weak current and copious amounts of silt and driftwood at the bottom.
The body is long and slender, the color is from gray to blue. There are blue rims on the fins.
The half-lip has an unusual structure of the oral cavity: the upper jaw is much shorter than the lower. This is due to the feeding habits of this species.
Poluryly capture insects and invertebrates caught on the surface of the water. On the lower jaw there is a “hook”.
It lives in rivers and lakes of Mexico. The body is elongated and flattened laterally. The dorsal fin is not located in the middle of the back, as in most fish, but closer to the tail.
Color gray with green and olive tint. On the sides are visible light lines on which are black spots. The abdomen is pale yellowish.
The length of the body is 8–12 cm, and the females are larger.
The Iliodons are characterized by aggressive temperament and territorial behavior. Keep a better group.
The group maintains and maintains a strict hierarchy, and each fish has its own place. They live in the upper and middle layers of water.
In an aquarium with 8–10 individuals, 40–50 liters of water with a large amount of dissolved oxygen is sufficient.
Viviparous aquariums are easy to clean and not too demanding of conditions. Life givers have high adaptability to new living conditions and are able to withstand temperature fluctuations, lack of oxygen, water pollution or insufficient lighting.
List of care features:
- In order for the pets to be healthy and comfortable, they will need adequate lighting. It can be daylight or artificial light. If you choose daylight natural light, then the aquarium should be located near the window and to prevent drafts. And also if daylight is insufficient, then use additional lighting. Good lighting will help the fish to feel normal and fully reveal their color, which pales with lack of lighting.
- Viviparids feed on all kinds of plant and animal origin of food: dry, frozen, alive. In the diet must contain vegetable ingredients, vegetables, fruits. Their number can reach up to half of the total feed. When feeding vegetables and fruits, they are first poured with boiling water and only then are fed to fish. Mature individuals are fed once a day, and the fry require 4 servings of feed per day. Malkam feed carefully crushed. In times of hunger, they can only eat plants.
- Most often viviparous fish are schooling animals, therefore keeping them alone is dangerous for the psyche of the fish. To avoid clashes and fights with a large population of the aquarium, it is necessary to prevent a large number of males. To each of the males to correlate 2-4 females. Then the probability of fights will decrease.
- Although live beetles are able to survive in adverse conditions, it is better to maintain clean water in the aquarium with a substitution of a portion of water every week.
- Water temperature is from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius, and hardness and acidity are average.
- Conditions should be close to natural. Plant enough vegetation.
- It is recommended to equip the tank with aerating and filtering devices.
Viviparous aquarium fish hardy and unpretentious:
- The temperature regime is not too important and its variation is wide.
- The size of an aquarium is not important for zhivorodkam – most of them are able to feel comfortable in the cramped conditions of a small displacement aquarium.
- Water hardness does not matter much either, and water can be both soft and hard.
- Reproduction live beetle – easy.
The distinctive features of viviparous are considered to be that they breed easily in an aquarium and have high fecundity.
Puberty of fish occurs at 4 months after birth.
In the female, caviar is formed in the abdomen, and the male fertilizes it with seminal fluid using gonopodium. During pregnancy, the abdomen becomes rounded, and as the birth approaches, near the anal fin a dark spot appears. Eggs hatch after a month and a half and are born.
The female is able, after 1 fertilization by the male, to perform labor 3–4 times more. At one time, the female is able to give birth to 170 fry.
After birth, the fry float to the surface of the water, straighten their swim bladder with air and are already able to live independently. Begin to eat on the second day of life.
For a comfortable stay you will need plants in which the fry after birth can hide, for example, Riccia. Adult fish and fry are kept in separate tanks, because fish often eat their offspring.
With the joint content of the inhabitants provided a sufficient amount of food, then the fry will survive.
Female and male live beetles are easily distinguishable between themselves. In almost all species, females are larger and more massive, and males are smaller and graceful.
The females are endowed with a low-key and grayish color, while the males are bright, with long fins of different shapes.
But the main difference will be the shape of the anal fin: in mature males, it lengthens and becomes an organ for fertilization of the calf inside the female – gonopodia. In females, the anal fin has a rounded shape and small size.
Viviparous fishes are considered the best first pets of novice aquarists. These creatures are unpretentious in the care, and attract the attention of bright color and behavior.
Live beetles are universal and able to live both in freshwater aquariums and in marine ones. These features make viviparous fish an excellent choice for acquiring an aquarium.
With their help, each tank will become a source of beauty, and let you enjoy the closeness of nature in the house.