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The structure of the heart of fish and their blood

Fish is a cold-blooded aquatic vertebrate that lives in both salt and fresh water. Like mammals, fish have a closed circulatory system, that is, the blood is always in the blood vessels, if they are not damaged.

Their circulatory system is quite simple. It consists of the heart and blood vessels.

The heart is a primitive muscle structure, which is located behind the gills.

The circulatory system of fish consists of the heart and blood vessels.

The question of what kind of blood is in the heart of fish, and what is the heart of fish, was asked by many early researchers, since it is believed that the two-chamber heart played a vital role in the progressive evolution of four-chamber heart and vascular circuits.

In fish, this organ is also called the gill heart, becauseIts main function is the injection of venous blood into the abdominal aorta and into the gills., and then into the somatic vascular system, so the blood in it is venous.

The structure of the heart of fish is simpler than in mammals, amphibians, and some terrestrial vertebrates. This organ is enclosed in the pericardial membrane or pericardium and consists of four parts:

  • atrium;
  • ventricle;
  • a thin-walled structure known as sinus venosis;
  • tube called bulbus arteriosus.

The main function of the heart of fish is the injection of venous blood into the abdominal aorta and into the gills.

Although the heart of these animals consists of four parts, it is considered a two-chamber, since the four parts of the heart do not form a single organ. Usually they are one after another.

Gill and systemic blood vessels are located in series with the heart.

In adults, the four compartments are not located in a straight row, but instead form an S-shape with the last two compartments located above the previous two. This relatively simpler pattern is found in cartilage and radiation fish.

In bony fish, the cone arteriosis is very small and can be more accurately described as part of the aorta, rather than the heart organ itself.

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The work of the fish heart mainly depends on two factors: the heart rate and the volume of the beat. With each heart rate, the ventricle pumps blood.

The volume is called stroke volume, and the heart rate time is known as heart rate.

The atrium of the fish is filled with suction created by the stiffness of the pericardium and the surrounding tissue. The venous blood returning to the atrium is accompanied by a contraction of the ventricle in the systole, which causes a drop in the intrapercardial pressure that is transmitted through the thin wall of the atrium to create aspirator effect or font effect.

Fish have a circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart only once during each complete cycle. Deprived of oxygen, it comes from the tissues of the body to the heart, from where it is pumped into the gills.

Gaseous exchange occurs inside the gills, and oxidized blood from the gills circulates throughout the body.

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Fish blood contains plasma (liquid) and blood cells. Red cells – red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen throughout the body. White cells are an integral part of the immune system.

Platelets perform functions that are equivalent to the role of platelets in the human body.

Although the cardiovascular system of fish is simple compared to other mammals, it serves an important purpose, illustrating the different stages of the evolution of the circulatory system in animals. Fish cardiovascular system includes:

Capillaries are microscopic vessels that form a network, called the capillary layer, where arterial and venous blood merge. Capillaries have thin walls that facilitate diffusion, a process through which oxygen and other nutrients are transferred to cells.

Capillaries are microscopic vessels

The capillaries form small veins called venules, which in turn merge into larger veins. Veins carry blood to the sinus venosus, which looks like a small camera.

Venous sinuses have pacemaker cells that are responsible for initiating contractions, so that the blood moves to a thin-walled atrium that has very few muscles.

The atrium creates weak cuts to pour blood into the ventricle. The ventricle is a thick-walled structure with a large number of heart muscles.

It generates enough pressure to pump blood flow through the body and into the bulbus, a small chamber with elastic components.

The ventricle is a thick-walled structure with a large number of heart muscles.

While bulbus arteriosus – This is the name of the camera in bony fish, in fish with a cartilaginous skeleton, this camera is called conus arteriosus. Conus arteriosus has many valves and muscles, while bulbus arteriosus does not have valves.

The main function of this structure is to reduce the pulse pressure created by the ventricle in order to avoid damage to the thin-walled gills.

The lateral tract to the ventral aorta consists of a tubular cone arteriosis, an arteriosa bulb, or both. Conical arteriosis, commonly found in more primitive fish species, shrinks to aid blood flow to the aorta.

The ventral aorta delivers blood to the gills, where it is saturated with oxygen, and flows through the dorsal aorta to the rest of the body. (In tetrapods, the ventral aorta is divided into two parts: one half forms the ascending aorta, and the other – the pulmonary artery).

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