Thailand tertroodon is one of the most common aquarium fish from the chetyrehzyubyh family. And despite this fact, this hydrobiont is rarely found in domestic tropical aquariums.
This is due to some difficulties of reproduction and keeping in captivity.
Unfortunately, in literary sources there is very little reliable information about chetyrekhzubykh. It is known that Thai tetraodons originate from the South-Eastern regions of Asia, but about the biotopes in which these fish live they know virtually nothing.
Description of content in captivity are limited to isolated cases of successful breeding and only.
The Thailand tetraodon has a characteristic appearance peculiar to the members of the chetyrehzubykh family, such fish you will not get along with anyone. Unlike other fish that move in the water due to the caudal, anal and dorsal fins, tetraodons move at the expense of their pectoral fins. On the belly of the fish fin is not at all.
Tetraodon tail is always compressed, and slightly rotated to the side. As a rule, the tail is activated in cases where you need to make a rapid and powerful throw.
Body color is expressionless. On a light gray background there are dark gray spots, the belly is white.
On top of the head, a yellow arc passes between the eyes. All fins, with the exception of the caudal, are transparent in appearance. Closer to the tail there is a large black round spot.
In adults, in the middle of the dark spot there is a pink dot, which in females can be seen more clearly. However, it is not necessary to consider this physiological feature as a guaranteed sex trait.
In general, Thai tetraodons are devoid of pronounced sexual characteristics and become noticeable only during periods of spawning.
The skin of the fish is naked and covered with a special mucus, which is toxic to almost all aquatic parasites. Due to this feature, the fish tolerates attacks from ectoparasites rather tenaciously.
Under the conditions of an aquarium, the body length of tetraodon does not exceed 10 centimeters and the fish are not spawning before reaching maximum sizes.
The unsophisticated appearance of tetraodons is more than compensated by the numerous features of the behavior and structure of the body. Immediately to mind comes the property to inflate like a ball when it detects the first signs of danger.
What is interesting, does this fish, even in a state of absolute calm.
In addition, I would like to note the structure of the eye of the fish. They are large and convex in shape, very mobile and create the feeling that they move asynchronously from each other, like in chameleons.
Thai tetraodons have one more interesting feature, which practically all other aquarium fish are deprived of: if a hydrobiont examines something in the immediate vicinity of its muzzle, then its vision becomes binocular.
Tetraodons are twilight fish, therefore, in the aquarium with this pet should not be bright lighting. In order to create comfortable living conditions for pets, floating aquarium plants are welcome, such as: pista, riccia, etc.
In daylight, in front of the fish, there is a bluish phosphorescent film, which serves as a kind of “dark glasses.” A similar feature is observed even in tetraodon fry at early stages of development.
Thailand tetraodon is considered to be a freshwater fish, and it perfectly exists without the salting of aquarium water recommended in many aquarium springs, which creates certain difficulties in landscaping the reservoir. It was noted that the fish is able to live in soft water, but after gradual adaptation.
Although it is still recommended to organize light salinity and increase the hardness of the water, because these features are characteristic of natural habitat conditions.
In the aquarium, the fish leads a passive lifestyle, and keep a certain territory. The males select large flat stones as the center of their territory, which must necessarily be present in the aquarium with tetraodons.
For keeping a pair of fish, an aquarium with a volume of 80 – 100 liters is considered optimal, in which you need to thickly plant aquarium plants.
The unsteady nature of tetraodons wakes up quite early, and among the smallest individuals there are cases of interspecific aggression. Adult fish are able to kill a neighbor of similar size, as well as medium-sized cancer without much difficulty. Very often there are clashes between former partners.
On the body of each fish there are numerous bite marks that do not cause any special harm and quickly heal. Even the most brisk inhabitants of the aquarium are not able to escape from the teeth of the Thai tetraodon. This brat is able to do away with a flock of ternations or ornatus in just a couple of days.
Snails in the aquarium also can not see a calm life. In a rather interesting way, the fish extracts them from the sand: puffing out the cheeks of the tetraodon with the force releases water into the soil, washing away the substrate.
But in relation to aquatic plants, the fish is not such a merciless tyrant, as we are described in some aquarium sources. Yes, they can leave holes on the leaves of plants or bite the stem. However, healthy and well-developed plants such minor damage is not terrible.
Intentional destruction of plants can be seen in those cases if they prevent the male from getting to the chosen flat stone before spawning.
In feeding adult Thai tetraodons are unpretentious. The hydrobiont perfectly eats various mollusks, meat of squids, earthworms, fish, shrimps. The main condition is that it is not recommended to feed the fish with meat for a long time, because it is poorly absorbed and it can provoke a breakdown of the digestive system.
It is recommended to use as a feed coils and fizy, but you should not take them from natural reservoirs, because you can bring a lot of diseases into your aquarium. You can also feed tetraodons rejected aquarium fish.
It is not advisable to feed the pets with whole earthworms, because if two individuals grab from different ends, they may ultimately hurt each other during the fight for food.
In no case do not allow overfeeding, and after daily single feeds for 8 to 10 days, it is advisable to arrange fasting days for the fish. It was proved that after a long intensive feeding, starvation does not benefit the fish for a couple of days, in some cases hydrobionts begin to spawn even if you did not raise the water temperature and did not add fresh to the aquarium.
Selection of manufacturers is best done in a similar way, as is done with cichlids. A flock of 5-6 teenagers is selected, who are kept in a spacious aquarium.
True, this process may seem harsh, since by the end of the selection you can only have one pair of fish alive, and this will be lucky for you. It is better to transplant the individuals themselves into another aquarium.
The first spawning of the tetraodon occurs at the age of one. Before spawning, the fish first take care of each other.
Cavalier swims to the female and straightens his fins, slightly inflating his body. When the demonstration of their abilities is over, the male sends in search of a suitable stone for spawning, which he with diligence clears a couple of days before spawning.
As a rule, females do not differ by modesty with tetraodon and respond rather quickly to courtship. Now both future parents are busy cleaning the stone. When the substrate and the female are ready, the female is perpendicularly positioned towards the partner.
This procedure can take several days, since during this process the maturation of the sexual products is synchronized in the fish. At the same time, the substrate will be ready for spawning.
Directly by spawning themselves, the movements of the parents slow down, and they are parallel to each other.
Unlike many aquarium fish, in which spawning occurs in portions, in Thai tetraodon, it is thrown out all by volley. The male impregnates the calf and fertilizes the calf with its belly to the stone, as if slapping.
Due to the high stickiness, the eggs are evenly distributed over the substrate and adhere reliably to it. Ideally, the stone should be smooth, but manufacturers often choose stones from an inclined surface and caviar can be left without proper parental care. The best result can be achieved using a dark saucer with a diameter of about 10 centimeters.
Thanks to the raised edges, the caviar will remain on the saucer and will not roll down on the ground.
Immediately after spawning, the male becomes extremely aggressive and the female leaves the spawning site. However, far from the laying itself is not removed. If the aquarium is spacious and densely planted with aquarium plants, you can leave the female in this tank.
At this time, the male, like a needle, literally incubates its eggs and vigorously waves its fins, constantly ventilating it. Eggs that are whitened are removed by the male himself from the clutch by means of a jet of water being released from the mouth.
Under aquarium conditions, seasonality is not observed during breeding. Under optimal conditions, spawning will occur at intervals of several months. After a couple of spawning comes a short break.
The smallest interval between two spawns was 10 days. The number of roe will vary depending on the spawning intervals and the physical condition of the fish themselves.
As a rule, average producers are able to bring up to 250 eggs.
It was noted that the males are not always caring for caviar, there are times when he eats it completely. This feature is characteristic of young individuals. With age, cannibal tendencies disappear and tetraodons turn into caring parents.
In the case of artificial incubation, the roe with the substrate is placed in a separate container with a low water level. If spawning proceeded in an aquarium with soft water, then you need to slightly increase the stiffness.
A small amount of caviar is perfectly incubated in the aquarium without aeration.
When water temperature is from 24 to 26 degrees, larvae hatch after 7 to 10 days. It was noted that if the incubation proceeded without a male, then the larvae hatch, as a rule, before the appointed time. However, this does not mean that such caviar will develop faster, just the larvae appear ahead of time.
This is indicated by a larger yolk sac than that of the larvae patronized by the male.