maintenance, care, compatibility
These fish are just universal! They can be contained in both large and small aquariums.
Not only professionals can take care of them, but also beginners who have just embarked on the path of aquarism. Watching them is a pleasure.
And even “exotics” can envy their brightness, decoration and variety of colors. We are talking now about tetras – a large group of fish belonging to the family of haracin – the favorites of many breeders.
What are these creatures, how to create optimal conditions for them, what to feed them and much more, read on.
Keep these fish should be only flocks of 7-10 or more pieces. Loneliness for the tetra is contraindicated, because it is a guarantee that her character will deteriorate.
Then, instead of a calm and peace-loving creature, you will get an aggressive, annoying and poisonous life to other inhabitants of the aquarium pet.
In most cases you should not be afraid for the safety of plants or the landscape – tetras do not spoil them. They perfectly coexist with similar sizes of peaceful fish, such as guppies, mollies, swordtail, cardinal, neon, congo and others.
But the neighborhood with cichlids, astronotus and goldfish is better to exclude.
The character and temperament of the tetras are similar, and the shape and color vary greatly. They are the basis of the classification of species. Here are some of them:
Golden or gold. Grow up to an average of 5 cm.
They are distinguished by the characteristic “golden” color, active behavior, and also the love of bright light and floating plants.
Diamond. When light hits their scales sparkles and shimmers like a real jewel.
Red Spotted. On the 6-centimeter body of the fish a red spot is clearly visible, which is sometimes called a bleeding heart.
Colombian. You can easily recognize these 6-7 cm fishes by the red tail and silver belly.
Lemon. Sometimes they are called yellow.
You can recognize them by the smooth lines of the body, in the lower part of which there is a notch, as well as by the yellow or grayish-silver-green color and two oval dark spots near the gills.
Fireflies. Look very impressive in dim light due to phosphorescent lines on the body.
This species is very sensitive to nitrates, so a good filter for them is a vital necessity.
Fiery. If you see on each side of a 4-centimeter translucent tetra calf a long bright red stripe, then they are the “ognevichki”.
Black or terns. Their black and purple diamond-shaped body is strongly flattened from the sides, and their eyes are striking in their blue with blue dots.
Copper. More common than other species. This is a miniature fish with a slender long calf and golden peach color.
They are very fond of the abundance of plants and look great on a background of dark soil with not very bright light.
Royal. They are painted very “nobly”: pinkish, bluish or violet transparency of the back contrasts with the dark belly, and their border is marked with a fat dark stripe.
The tail has a narrow black process in the middle. The average size of the fish is 5.5 cm.
An aquarium with a dark background is what you need to highlight the exquisite beauty of these tetras.
There are also many other not so common species, for example, red-flipper, blue, bloody, mirror, pink, ruby, amanda, Mexican Astyanax, flashlights, blind, etc. Experts note that royal, copper, Congo are most loved by aquarists and tetragonopterus. That’s why it makes sense to talk about them in more detail.
Colombia is considered the birthplace of this species, or rather the north-western part of the Cordillera, where the Nematobrycon palmeri were found in small forest streams by the American collector Palmer (hence its name). She has been familiar with European aquarists since 1959, and domestic – since 1965.
- The strong, 6-centimeter body of the palmer is elongated and slightly flattened laterally.
- The back is arched more than the abdomen.
- Teeth are clearly visible on short jaws.
- The shape of the caudal fin is unique due to the long central rays – it is three-lobed.
- The fin on the back also has the first saber rays. Fat fin no.
In addition to the main fish described above, there are also individuals with an olive-brown back and a yellowish-white belly.
The sides of the young brownish, but with age brighten. Two long and wide longitudinal shiny stripes are clearly visible on both sides. The top one is usually light green or blue, and the bottom one is dark brown or black.
The eyes of the males are blue, and the females are green. Fins are yellowish-green.
Anal edged dark purple, dorsal and caudal reddish-brown.
Conditions of detention. For the maintenance of royal tetras it is better to equip a specific aquarium, but in general they can also live.
These fish swim in all layers of water. Like the rest of the species, they are kept in flocks, in which there are more females than males.
The hierarchy of these fish is highly developed: the stronger the male, the more territory he controls and the more he has the harem.
- For seven fish (5 females + 2 males), an 80-liter capacity will be sufficient, which must be covered from above due to the jumping ability of the fish.
- The reservoir must be densely filled with plants (including floating) and provide snags, shelters. Vallisneria, cryptocoryne, echinodorus, thai fern, etc. are quite suitable.
- The temperature of the water is best maintained at 23-26 degrees, the hardness is not more than 8, the acidity is within 6-7.
- Substitutions do twice a month in the amount of 20-30 percent.
Feeding. As for food, these fish are not picky and willingly take as dry food in the form of plates, pellets, etc., and live. They can be given artemia, a pipe worker, a cortex, a bloodworm, a cyclop.
They love mosquito larvae very much. Complement the diet of these fish with herbal supplements and oatmeal.
Breeding. Raising royal tetras is not very difficult.
This becomes possible at the age of six months. A spawning fish is prepared in advance (or a separator grid is installed directly into the species), at the bottom of which several shrubs of plants are planted, such as Javanese moss, peristristis or hell, and floating species are laid out on the surface of the water.
Optimum breeding water should have a temperature of 24-28, acidity 1-5, hardness 6-6.8. For these fish, pre-separation of females and males is practiced with their abundant feeding.
One male and 2-3 females are placed in the prepared container in the evening. Spawning occurs already the next morning.
Eggs are large, transparent, they can be 50-150. After the fish “swept away” the eggs, they are deposited.
Spawning water from the spawning tank (up to a height of 5-8 cm) and shading it. On the 2nd day the fry appear, and on the 6th they are already swimming.
You can feed them with a microworm, artemia, ciliates.
If you live in a mode of almost constant employment and total lack of time, but still want to have any pets, then the fish will be the perfect solution for you. In addition, the fish do not need too much of your attention, watching the aquarium has a beneficial effect on the psyche and emotional state, allowing you to relax. If you do not want to start large aquarium inhabitants, then turn your attention to such fish as tetras.
These are short-nosed fishes a maximum of eight centimeters in length, possessing bright and very various colors.
Tetras are schooling fish, so it is worth buying a digging of 7-10 individuals. Aquarium will suit them from 30 liters, with lots of different plants and a place for free swimming. By the way, tetras will not mind pinching algae, so you can buy aquatic plants with numerous small leaves.
The optimal water temperature for these fish ranges from 21 ° to 26 ° C, the water must be partially changed once a week.
Remarkable is the fact that the appearance of the fish is very sensitive to the state of the environment. That is, if you follow the conditions of the fish, they are very colorful and beautiful, otherwise – all their attractiveness quickly disappears.
In food, these fish are unpretentious, can eat both live and combined dry food.
Tetras are very friendly and easily get along with other small peace-loving fish (for example, with neons or cardinals).
There are several types of tetra fish:
- royal tetra: size 5.5 centimeters, most effectively look on a dark background of the aquarium;
- Colombian tetra: about 6-7 centimeters long, tail fin red, silver belly;
- bloody tetraA: body length 4 centimeters, color varies from silver to bright red;
- golden tetra: The fish is not colored brightly, but has a noticeable golden sheen, about 3.5-5 centimeters long. They love bright lighting and floating plants, these fish are very active, constantly in motion;
- fire tetras: the body of these fish is translucent, about 4 centimeters long, a bright red stripe runs from the head to the tail;
- mirror tetra: length is 4 centimeters, the main color is mirror-brown;
- black tetra: also known as ternetia, silver-colored fish and have a very unusual body shape in the form of a rhombus, strongly flattened laterally;
- pink tetra: pink pink fish measuring 4.5 centimeters, schooling instinct in this species of tetras is less pronounced than in other species;
- blue tetra: The size of these fish is about 4-5 centimeters, the color is yellowish with blue tint, the body is elongated and slightly compressed on the sides.
Tetra reach sexual maturity between 6 and 8 months. For breeding, the pair is placed in a spawning aquarium with a volume of at least forty liters.
It is necessary to feed the female intensively for 10 days before the intended spawning, then reduce the water hardness and raise the temperature by 2-3 ° С. Fertilized caviar is in a transparent shell, while the defective caviar grows cloudy within 12 hours.
Approximately on the fifth day, the youngsters will swim, the infusoria or artemia may become the first food for them.
Tetras are very mobile, bright, iridescent with different colors of fish, which look very impressive in an aquarium, especially the whole flock against the background of dense thickets. They will become not only pets for which it is interesting to watch, but also an original decoration of your apartment.
Representatives of the Macropod family in the aquarium reach small or medium sizes. Most often they compete with each other, so they need to be settled with other types of fish, such as: angelfish, barbs, corridors, danios, battles, mollies, petilles, plexostomy, iris, rasbor, labo, swordtails, tetra.
Incompatible with cichlids, males, goldfish, koi carps, astronotus.