Tetra von Rio (Hyphessobrycon flammeus) Myers (1924)
Fire Tetra / Fiery Tetra is a type of tropical freshwater aquarium fish.
The success of this aquarium fish is associated with the ease with which it adapts to various conditions and relative disease resistance. It is often recommended for beginners.
Since its first appearance, the species is present in aquariums around the world and is one of the most common in the aquarium trade. Currently, most are grown in Southeast Asia.
Unfortunately, H.flammeus is endangered as the natural habitat of the Fire Tetra regresses.
Hyphessobrycon: from ancient Greek hyphesson, which means “small size”, in this case is used as a prefix plus the common name Brycon.
Flammeus: from Latin, which means “fiery color (red-yellow or orange)”, applied to this type of “predominantly reddish color”.
Family: Haracin (Characidae).
Originally in 1920, these fish were identified as Yellow Tetra (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus), but in 1924 the American ichthyologist George Myers established that they turned out to be a species previously unknown to science and described them as Hyphessobrycon flammeus. The samples used for the initial description were treated with zinc.
Only 20 years later, Myers found this species while on an expedition and found that it is found only in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro.
South America, Brazil.
The range is limited to the neighboring states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, although its current distribution is somewhat uncertain.
In Rio de Janeiro, they are found only in coastal areas, including rivers and streams, flowing into the Gulf of Guanabara, Rio Paraíbu do Sul and Rio Guanda. In São Paulo, recorded in the upper reaches of the Tieté River, which flows into the upper basin of the Rio Paraná, the population is concentrated east and west of the city of São Paulo, between the cities of Susana and Salopolis, in the area of Ibericeria da Serra, respectively.
The upper reaches of the Tiete and Paraíba do Sul rivers in the state of São Paulo are located close to each other, and they may once have been a single whole originating from the Serra do Mar mountains. Although they have several common species of fish, H. fluammeus does not occur in the upper part of Paraíba do Sul, this means that there is a gap of several hundred kilometers between the populations of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Carvalho et al. (2014) suggest that the species was actually introduced (intentionally or accidentally inhabited) in the area of the city of Sao Paulo by aquarists or commercial breeders, since it was not registered in the area until 1977, the city is the center of decorative trade, and apparently limited to partially degraded habitats within the metropolitan zone, absent in nearby intact natural areas. Molecular analysis is required to eliminate this confusion.
The rivers where this fish lives flow through one of Brazil’s most densely populated and industrialized areas and heavily affected by the construction of dams, drainage systems, pollution, alien species (including more than 40 exotic freshwater fish only in Rio Paraíba do Sul) and other forms of anthropogenic degradation. The latest scientific data from the region around Rio de Janeiro is dated 1992, since this species is no longer recorded in this area, but this does not mean that it has already become extinct.
As a result, since 2004, H. flammeus is included in the Brazilian list of endangered fish species.
It prefers small and shallow (depth less than 50 cm) slow-flowing tributaries and streams overgrown with aquatic vegetation, although they were caught in the peripheral areas in the upper Rio Tiete. Its habitats, as a rule, contain pure, clear or brownish water and a sandy substrate.
The other inhabitants of these places, though not necessarily endemic species of fish in this region: Tetra yellow (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus), H. luetkeni, Astyanax parahybae, Brycon insignis, Corydoras nattereri, Pogonopoma parahybae, Hypostomus auroguttatus, Steypryys, Pastonopoma parahybae, Hypomusus auroguttatus, Steypryri, pponopoma parahybae, Hypomusus auroguttatus, Steypryri, Pogonopoma parahybae, Hypostomus auroguttatus, Steypryrius Geophagus brasiliensis).
The typical form for tetra, is similar to all other members of the genus. The body is thickened in the middle and compressed from the sides.
It has a magnificent fiery color, which gives the name “flammeus”. The body color, as a rule, is silvery in front, turning into an orange-red on the back, it becomes especially bright at the base of the fins and completely covers the anal fin. The back of the body is bright red, the fins, except for the pectorals, are brick-red.
Dorsal fin at the top of black with a white mark. Behind the gills are two separate transverse black stripes that taper towards the bottom.
Maximum standard length about 4 cm.
These are peaceful fish, making them ideal inhabitants for a well-chosen aquarium community.
It is best to keep along with small fish of similar sizes, haracin, clinoforms, lebiasin, small kallichtovy or loricarial catfish and non-predatory small and medium-sized cichlids.
Try to get a heterosexual group of these fish at least 8-10 individuals, because this species forms temporary hierarchies in which males compete for the attention of females, while keeping them in flocks show more interesting behavior and more vivid coloration.
An aquarium with basic dimensions of 60 * 30 cm or equivalent should be the smallest.
The choice of decor is not particularly important, although they demonstrate the most attractive color when kept in a well-equipped aquarium with live plants and a dark substrate.
A natural looking design may consist of a soft sandy substrate with natural snags, roots and branches, arranged in such a way as to create many shaded places.
The addition of dried leaves further emphasizes the feeling of a biotope type, and with it the growth of beneficial bacterial colonies as they decompose. They can provide a valuable secondary source of food for fry, while tannins and other substances contained in the leaves will help in imitating the natural conditions.
Leaves can be left in the aquarium until full decomposition or removed and replaced every few weeks.
This species is best suited for content in relatively low light, floating plants will also appreciate.
Like many fish that live in nature in an intact, pristine environment, they are intolerant to the accumulation of organic matter and need clean water, this means that weekly water changes should be considered routine and should never be planted in a biologically immature aquarium.
Temperature: 22-28 ° C;
Stiffness: 5 – 25 ° / 3 – 15 ° DH.
Omnivores, in nature, feeding on small invertebrates, crustaceans, filamentous algae, organic detritus and the like.
The aquarium can survive on a diet of dry food, but, like most aquarium fish, it is best to offer a varied menu, which should contain live and frozen bloodworm, pipe builder, daphnia, moina, etc.
It should be fed several times a day, in small portions.
Adult males, usually less tall, slightly smaller in size and more intensely colored than females.
Males have bone hooks on the anal and ventral fins, which are absent in females, and the lower part of the anal fin in males is more likely to be straight and more curved in females.
Fish are caviar which falls freely, and they leave it unattended.
When adult fish are in good condition and in a prosperous aquarium, they often spawn, it is possible that a small number of fry may appear without intervention, but if you want to maximize the progeny, you will need a more controlled approach.
Use an aquarium filled with prepared water. The lighting should be very weak, the low light level stimulates spawning and it should be borne in mind that the eggs are sensitive to light. At the bottom of a spawning aquarium, a grid is installed with a cell size large enough to allow eggs to fall through it, but small enough so that manufacturers cannot reach them.
A widespread plastic “grass” coating can also be used and it works well. Alternatively, you can fill most of the spawning aquarium with small-leaf plants, such as Java moss or a scourer made from artificial fibers, can also bring a good result.
Water should be slightly acidic to a neutral pH of 5.5 – 6.5, with a temperature in the upper range of 27 ° C and a hardness of 3 – 5 ° dGH. To saturate the water with oxygen and its movement, it is necessary to install an air filter made of a sponge or just an air stone (spray).
When producers are well prepared, one pair or group of fish consisting of one or two males and several females can be transplanted into a spawning tank and left in it until eggs are found (usually the next morning).
The female sweeps up to 300 eggs. Once spawning is completed, remove growers. The larvae appear after 24 – 36 hours and begin to swim after 3 – 4 days.
Early-stage offspring is sensitive to light and requires that it be as dark as possible.
The starting feed is the Infusoria slipper or high-quality dry micro-food with a sufficiently small (5-50 µm) fraction, give them the Nauplii Artemia, micro-worms (nematodes) as soon as the fry are large enough to take them.
Life expectancy is about 4-5 years.
This species is a popular aquarium fish and is commercially bred in several countries, so wild fish are no longer caught. Selection, decorative forms, including “Orange”, “Golden”, “Almaz” and “Albinosnaya” were bred.
After redescription of the form from Carvalho et al. (2014), H. flammeus can be distinguished from all relatives using a combination of the following characteristics: a bright reddish color; the presence of two vertically elongated, equally well-defined spots in the region of the shoulder girdle; no stains on the tail stem; caudal fin colorless; the absence of a dark longitudinal strip on the body; 5-8 maxillary teeth.
He was also placed in an artificially created group of species, characterized by the presence of two vertically elongated shoulder spots in accordance with Gehry (1977). This community also included Hyphessobrycon tortuguerae, H. bifasciatus, H. savagei, H. griemi and H. balbus, from which H. flammeus differed in possessing 5-8 maxillary teeth, 5 rows of scales above the lateral line, as well as a prominent hind shoulder spot.
Hifessobrikons were identified as a subgenus Hemigrammus, Marion Lee Durbin and Aigenman (1908), differing from the latter in the absence of scales on the caudal fin.
The grouping was revised by Aigengen (1918, 1921), while Gehry (1977) created artificial species groups based on color patterns, and these definitions are still widely used today, for example, the H. agulha group, the H. heterohabdus group, and t However, they cannot be considered as monophyletic (descent from one common ancestor) group, and this concept continues to be revised.