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Swordtails and Petilles (Xiphophorus) – types, content, breeding

Sword-bearers and Pecillia (Xiphophorus).

Family: Pecilia (Poeciliidae).

They inhabit the waters of Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico.
The male has gonopody.
Caviar is fertilized in the body of the female, and fully formed fry leave it, which immediately take food.
Peaceful fish, kept in the middle and upper layers of water.
You can contain in the general aquarium, sometimes overgrown and floating plants.
Water: 22-27 ° C, dH 8-25, pH 7-8.
Food: live, vegetable, substitutes (like filamentous algae).

Spawning in the general aquarium. Pregnancy up to 5 weeks.

The female before childbirth can be transferred to a separate aquarium with dense thickets and floating plants, and after the childbirth it can be transplanted (usually 30-80 fry), as they eat offspring.
Starter feed: rotifers, Nauplii Cyclops and Artemia, nematodes.
Spawning is planted after 6-8 months.
All species interbreed with each other.

Heller Sword / Green Sword / Simple Sword (Xiphophorus helleri) Heckel, 1848.

The length of a male (without a sword) is up to 8 cm, females up to 12 cm.
The body is elongated, flattened laterally.
The male’s body is slim. The lower rays of the caudal fin are strongly elongated and resemble a sword in their shape.
The body of the female is fuller, higher.
The main color is yellowish-green, in reflected light it is cast in green or blue. From the end of the snout through the eye to the caudal fin there is a zigzag dark purple or purple-red strip, bordered on both sides by narrow stripes, first green, then carmine-red. The brown border of the scales forms a mesh pattern on the body.

The fins are greenish-yellow, on the dorsal small red to brown strokes and spots.

The male sword is orange-yellow in color, but may be green and red, with black edging.
The female is painted paler.
The transformation of individual females into males is observed, especially with their content separate from the males.

Breeders have deduced various forms that differ in color and shape of fins (red sword with purple-red body and yellow sword with black edging, red-eyed red sword with purple-red body and fins, black sword with black body and shiny yellow throat and scales, etc. .).

Fish can jump out of the aquarium, which should be closed at the top. There is a hierarchy between males, with keeping 2 males, the strong will always pursue the weak.

Therefore, contain 3 or more males to disperse their attention.

Pecillia multicolor / Pecillia motley / Pecillia tricolor (Xiphophorus variatus) Meek, 1904.

Inhabit the southern part of Mexico.
The length of the male is up to 5.5 cm, the females are up to 7 cm.
The body is somewhat elongated, high, flattened laterally. The lower rays of the caudal fin may be slightly elongated.
The front of the male body is yellowish, the back is greenish to bluish.
On the side are scattered black or brown spots, sometimes formed longitudinal rows, as well as 3-6 transverse bands. At the root of the caudal fin, 2 black spots are visible.

Caudal fin yellowish to red, dorsal yellow with dark pattern and black border.
The body of the female is olive-brown or brownish-gray in color with reddish zigzag lines on its side.

Breeders have deduced many forms in which blue, yellow to red and black colors prevail.
In the presence of dense vegetation, including floating, and good nutrition almost no fry.

Spotted Pechilia / Plyatinepecia (Xiphophorus maculatus) Gunther, 1866.
Synonym: Platypoecilus maculatus.

The length of the male is up to 3.5 cm, the females are up to 6 cm.
The body is somewhat elongated, high, flattened laterally. The lower rays of the caudal fin may be slightly elongated.
The main form of the back is olive-brown to gray, the side shines with a bluish to greenish color, with black spots. On the tail stem 1-2 large black spots.
The male fins are almost colorless, the tail and anal fin with a bluish to green strip.
The female has all the fins are colorless.

Breeders have deduced many forms that differ in color and shape of fins (pulhra – black-speckled with a white background, rubra – bright red, golden and many others).

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