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Som tarakatum: how to distinguish the female from the male, maintenance and care

Among amateurs of aquarium fish som tarakatum is in great demand. To distinguish the female from the male is not difficult even for beginners.

This sturdy and peaceful creation with an attractive appearance does not require much effort and knowledge of care and maintenance.

Som tarakatum – durable and peaceful creation with an attractive appearance does not require much effort in the content

According to the name, which, in translation from Latin, sounds like “shell”, it refers to shell fish. The catfish has a rounded shape.

On both sides are vertical bone plates converging in the center of the body. The head is large, in the region of the oral opening there are two pairs of antennae, one of which is directed downwards and the other upward.

The body is light brown with black specks, with age the specks get more saturated color. The pattern covers not only the body, but also the fins. The abdomen is flat, white with a cream shade.

Horn platinum covering the body of the Tarakatum reliably protects it from the attacks of predatory fish.

The male is different from the female more modest size. Before spawning, the abdomen of males acquires a blue color with a violet tinge, females do not change color.

In addition, the male catfish on the breast is a long fin in the form of a toothed beam. In the mating season, it becomes bright orange.

The fins of the female individual are round and short.

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In the wild, aquarium fish som tarakatum is found in South America. The main habitat of the Amazon basin and its numerous tributaries, as well as reservoirs to the north of it.

Representatives of this family are found in the North American state of Florida and on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Experts believe that the fish appeared there thanks to careless lovers.

According to the observations of ichthyologists, catfish can even live in polluted water. This ability is due to the high adaptive ability of the Tarakatum.

Until recently, it was believed that in nature there is a single type of hopllopterum. However, studies have shown that somics have the following subspecies:

  1. Tarakatum beige. The color of the body is light brown, specks are pale. Often the color has a greenish tide. The catfish has brown fins with pronounced hooks on the tips. The largest specimens can reach a length of 20 centimeters.
  2. Somik Magdalena is very similar to its closest relative. Differs in translucent fins and yellowish color of pectoral rays. Named so by habitat in the eponymous Colombian river.
  3. Dinema long-haired. The color varies from beige to light red. The spots are dark, there are more of them in the back area. The fins are pale yellow.
  4. Baggy appearance. It is interesting because, because of its anatomical features, it can produce a sound similar to the croaking of a frog.

Tarakatum can even live in polluted water.

When purchasing a catfish tarakatum, the maintenance and care of which are not time consuming, the aquarist must adhere to several rules. First of all it should be remembered that catfish are large fish.

For this reason, a home pond should be between fifty and one hundred liters. Keeping several individuals requires maximum aquarium volume. Ignoring this recommendation threatens to occur:

In catfish intestinal respiration, so they periodically need to float to the surface to get a portion of air. During the jump, the fish may be out of the reservoir and die.

To avoid this, the aquarium should be equipped with a lid.

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These unpretentious creatures live in water of any hardness and acidity. They are suitable reservoirs with both fresh and brackish water of average degree of pollution.

But it is in the wild. At home, it is desirable to keep the pet in the most comfortable conditions. In order for a fish to develop properly, it is imperative to observe the following parameters:

  • water temperature should be at least 22−28 degrees Celsius;
  • pH acidity level – from 5.8 to 8;
  • for purifying water, preference should be given to a powerful external filter;
  • half the volume of fluid is replaced every week.

Additional light sources are optional, fairly natural daylight. For decoration you can install weak lamps. The fact is that catfish are inhabitants of the bottom surface.

In order for the pet to feel safe, you need to place various objects at the bottom of the tank, where he could hide.

For Tarakatum additional light sources are optional, natural daylight is enough

Stones, shells, decorative shards of dishes, grottoes made of ceramics are suitable as shelters. The number of items must match the number of inhabitants or exceed it in order not to deprive them.

The soil is chosen soft, consisting of fine gravel or coarse sand. Tarakatums can spend hours swarming around in it, looking for a treat.

The presence of vegetation not only decorates the home water, but is a prerequisite for the existence of pets. Large-leaved plants such as Anubias, Echinodorus and Vallisneria will work well.

Tarakatum in food is not capricious, but the diet should be varied and consist of plant and animal food. The menu includes:

  • seaweed;
  • tubers;
  • cyclops;
  • earthworms and bloodworms.

Live food should be given only after thorough washing to avoid the occurrence of infectious diseases. Feeding is carried out in the evening, at the time of increased activity of the fish.

After the meal, leftover food is removed from the aquarium.

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Feed for catfish are the smallest algae, which grows decorative objects. They need a fish for the brightness of the color and improve the digestive system.

When buying, it is important to give preference to branded feed. Purchasing products from open and expired is unacceptable.

To prevent the development of pathogenic flora, food should be stored in a tightly closed container.

Tarakatum different peaceful and sociable disposition. But there are several recommendations for the selection of roommates for the breed of catfish tarakatum, compatibility with which is very important for their peaceful stay.

Neighbors in the reservoir should not be too small. Otherwise, a catfish, hungry, can eat small animals, but this happens in exceptional cases.

Incompatible for catfish are aggressive and predatory underwater inhabitants. Tarakatum can not be kept in the same tank:

  1. With cichlids. This large and predatory creature can attack a calm catfish. Conflicts between them lead to injury to both fish.
  2. With fish labo. Despite the small size, they are very cocky. The result of living together is the constant struggle for territory.

Somiks get along well with tetras, barbs and danios. Thanks to the nocturnal lifestyle, tarakatums in the daytime are sleepy and do not cause inconvenience to other species of fish.

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Sexual maturity occurs eight to fifteen months after birth. During the marriage period, steam is formed, which is desirable to move into a separate tank with a volume of one hundred liters.

To stimulate spawning, the water temperature increases by several degrees.

Water plants or pieces of foam should float on the surface of the reservoir. This is necessary so that the male could make a nest for the future offspring. Equipping the nest, a caring parent constantly wears sprigs and stalks of seaweed from the bottom.

To fasten parts, he uses a special mucus, blowing it along with air bubbles.

Tarakatum puberty comes in eight to fifteen months after birth

After the construction is completed, the process of caring for the female begins. Readiness for procreation is demonstrated by turning the body upside down and throwing caviar.

The male fertilizes them immediately. Each egg is attached to the surface of the nest. Spawning can be repeated several times.

The number of eggs varies from five hundred to one and a half thousand pieces.

After the end of the process, the female must be separated from the male. Protecting the clutch, the male becomes aggressive and attacks all moving objects.

For several days he was busy only guarding the nest and did not need food.

After five days, the fry hatch. As soon as this happens, the male must be returned to the general aquarium. Breeding tarakatumov is not difficult.

Babies enough feeding special food five times a day. The development lasts two months, after which care for them is carried out according to the same rules as for adult individuals.

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Natural endurance does not save the Tarakatum from diseases that may be the result of feeding problems, sanitary conditions and non-compliance with quarantine when placed in the reservoir of other fish. The ailments that catfish suffer from are:

  1. Furunculosis pathology. It is transferred from infected individuals. The incubation period is one week, after which there is a redness of the abdomen, necrosis of the fins, the appearance of boils and spots on the scales. Treat for six days with Sulfamerazine and Furazolidone.
  2. Infectious disease of the gill plates occurs from poor-quality food and sick fish. The initial stage is due to the appearance of red and gray stripes on the gills. Subsequently, there is a refusal to eat, there is no reaction to stimuli and activity. For the treatment of pathology applied drug Acrimet in a ratio of five milliliters of funds per twenty liters of water. Before therapy, all inhabitants are placed in another aquarium, and the water in the general reservoir is changed to fresh.

Violation of health standards can lead to catfish disease

  • Inflammatory processes in the swim bladder are caused by feeding frozen food and overfeeding. Symptoms are manifested in the constant adoption of the position on the side. To get rid of the disease appointed Furazolidone for two weeks.
  • Mycobacteriosis is manifested in the form of flaking of scales and the appearance of stains on them. Lost appetite and darkened iris. The cause of infection is infected food, soil and plants. The remedy Kanamycin helps only if you have a minimum appetite. It is diluted in a proportion of 50 milligrams of the drug to 1 liter of water. The solution is added to the aquarium. If the fish refuses to eat completely, the treatment does not give a positive result.
  • Responsible approach to the maintenance of the pet will help to avoid diseases and his death. Som aquarium tarakatum – a very cute creature. It is believed that he has the unique ability to recognize his owner, having lived with him for several years.

    For those who are just going to get an aquarium, This unpretentious pet will help gain experience in breeding fish.

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