Som Clarias (Clari in the 60s of the XX century was “exported” to the United States. Area – Florida.
In suitable conditions it grows up to 100 cm. Lung cancer. The gills absorb oxygen dissolved in water, and the nadzhabernoe similarity of the lungs – atmospheric.
Survives in adverse conditions, but in critical cases, creeps into another pond.
The skin is covered with mucus that protects against scratches on land. In humans, the mucus causes a painful or allergic reaction.
Cases of “crossings” of 4–5 kilometers have been recorded. For this, he received the nickname “walking catfish.”
Torso elongated, eel-like. The dorsal fin runs along the torso and the caudal stem; it is necessary for vertical stabilization and defense against other predators; they include 60–75 feathers with poisonous secretions.
Anal fin also extended, oblong, 40–60 feathers. As well as poisoning pectoral fins with powerful thorns, upon contact, cause an unpleasant injury to a person, comparable to wasp bite.
Small motile caudal fin. Feature – lush mustache-tentacles.
Four on the upper and lower lip. Used to entice food and orientation in opaque water. Eyes are round, small, but do not suffer from color blindness.
The skin is thick, smooth, devoid of scales, usually brown in color with a gray tint. Biologists have bred spotted aquarium hybrids.
Periodically caught red-eyed individuals albinos.
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The method of hunting is to draw water into the mouth with nutrient contents or to attack the victim from an ambush.
Clarium catfish in the aquarium grows to 0.2–0.6 m.
Inexperienced aquarists are confused with bag-tailed catfish. The difference lies in the length of the fin: in the bag-fiber it is much shorter.
Constantly hungry and uneasy. With other species enters into violent clashes. It is better to contain separately.
If this is not possible, neighbors are chosen at a comparable size and aggressive.
With the selected female forms a stable pair. Two couples can not be placed in the same tank, because they will fight.
Spends the day in the shelter. Active at night.
Loosens the soil: suffers inventory and plants.
Depending on the species live 8-20 years.
The genus of clarines unites 61 species. Clarias types differ in size and color.
Methods of hunting, habits are the same.
It is marble (African, Clarias gariepinus) distributed in Africa, Asia Minor and South Asia. In nature, they reach a length of 1.7 m and a weight of 60 kg.
The main color gets the color of water. With black specks.
It produces and receives electrical signals that warn relatives in case of violation of the hunting “boundaries”. It carries brackish water. Lives up to 8-10 years.
In Europe and Russia is divorced in nurseries. Marble catfish in the aquarium grows to 1 m.
As well as the spotted Clarius (Karmuth, Sharmouth, Clarias angolensis) from Africa migrated to South Asia. In natural conditions, the content of up to 0.5 m. In captivity – up to 0.35 m. The belly and the main tone are white or cream.
With purple, brown or black spots.
Or commercial catfish (Clarias batrachus). Distributed in the South Asian region, although it has African roots.
The size and weight (1–1.3 kg) is similar to Angolan. Light belly, olive sides and black back.
The recommendations are the same for all kinds.
For young members of the family is suitable capacity of 0.1 cubic meters. A specimen matured and grown to half a meter will need a capacity of two hundred or three hundred liters.
A fixed lid is required. Otherwise, jump out and hide.
Somik is thermophilic. A water temperature of +26 ° C is considered satisfactory.
For the content of catfish the chemical composition of the water is not important. But if you plan to breed Clarius, you need to bring the figures to values: pH 6–8, hardness – up to 8 °.
At least once a week from a third of water is replaced in advance prepared.
The roots must be strong, otherwise the catfish will dig up the plant. Rough leaves are necessary, otherwise nibble.
Grow in securely fixed pots.
There are such individuals that do not help anything. In this case, with the planted greens have to say goodbye.
Suitable plants floating in the water column, inedible because of the strength.
Rid of problems with digger pebbles. Do not use sand. Som will arrange a lot of turbidity.
Cleaning devices will not help: insufficient performance and quickly clogged. If the noise of a moving pebble is annoying, the ground is not needed.
Som Clarias loves getaways to rest. Use previously prepared snags.
Suitable grotto, massive stones. A playful pet will try to move and pick up items.
Clarias refers to lungfish and near-bottom fish. Therefore, access to the surface and a clean, oxygen-rich environment is needed.
Aeration and filtration are required. The wild temper of the inhabitants makes it difficult to use an internal filter.
Siphon for cleaning waste is required.
Should not be too bright and is intended more for plants. Standard is also suitable (0.5 W per 1 liter of water).
Eats everything you can swallow. Predator needs protein foods.
- Small live fish or pieces of lean fillet.
- Any seafood.
- Live food (larvae).
- Dry feed (tableted or sinking for bottom).
- Vegetables, cereals, beans.
Meat of all land animals can not be fed. Poorly absorbed, causes disorders in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.
The exception is beef liver.
With other species, even larger, suits violent battles or eats. Close contact allows only with the female. A couple is deposited due to the increasing aggressiveness.
Neighborhood is only possible with large fish that can resist. Other somobraznye, pacu, arovan, cichlids, astronotus.
Breeding Clarius requires roomy containers.
It is possible to distinguish the floor after maturation in 2–3.5 years, depending on the species. The males are wide-headed, with bright colors.
The females have a slightly abdomen.
First, a wayward adult catfish Clarias chooses a female for mating. To do this, several individuals are grown in a common aquarium with a volume of water of 70–100 liters per individual.
Prospective parents stay close and often touch their whiskers, aggression increases.
The pair is isolated in a previously prepared container with algae and grotto.
After spawning, the female lays caviar. If there is no grotto, then the clarias will dig a hole in the ground or find another suitable place.
Before the appearance of larvae, the male protects the clutch.
After a couple of days, the offspring appears. A week later, begin to swim and eat themselves.
Parents are removed because of the threat of eating fry.
Overeating threatens the death of fry Klarias. For this reason, the fry are fed 4–5 times a day.
Fed with special formulations, chopped, and then whole live food. Grow intensively.
Larger juveniles are placed separately.
- Skin damage from fights and hooligan behavior cause mycoses. Manifested as light threads on the ground. Self-treatment is fraught with the death of fish. The help of the ichthyopathologist is necessary.
- Ulcers. And also from scratches. Helps solution of potassium permanganate. 0.2 g of crystalline substance per 10 liters of water in the aquarium with a full replacement for 10–12 hours. It is more efficient to place a preparation of 0.5 g of the preparation per 10 liters of soft water (up to 4 ° C) for 15–20 minutes in a prepared solution.
- Ichthyophthyriosis. Called infusoria brought from outside. They are derived by adding potassium permanganate and copper sulfate to the aquarium. If it does not help, Bicillin 5.
- Contents in tight containers or without aeration threaten with nitrate poisoning. Expressed lack of activity, spots on the fins, ulcers.
- It is impossible to feed your fill.
- The amount of food does not matter, it will be eaten by aquarium mates.
- Itself equips the room. It makes noise at night.
- Poor live with plants. Shellfish even eats with the sink.
- Jumps out of the aquarium.
- Individual character. There are non-aggressive, suitable to the general aquarium, individuals.
- With a separate content attached to the owner. Learns. Lets stroke. Plays. He tries not to hurt. For strangers is wary.
- Omnivorous. Does not need a separate feed.
- 300–400 rubles for youngsters up to a year.
- 500–700 rubles for adults.
Som Clarias – active fish, 0.3–1 m in size. Aquarium from 150 liters. With filtration and aeration. With stony ground or without ground.
Predator. Poor live with other species. The content is unpretentious.
Omnivorous. Lives 8-20 years.