maintenance, care, compatibility
Tsichlazoma severum: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
For the formation of a pair of manufacturers must start a flock. During puberty, steam is formed independently.
After that, in view of the intraspecific aggression of the remaining severums, they are deposited and need to be attached somewhere (to distribute to friends, to sell, etc.). As an option, you can immediately buy a finished pair of manufacturers.
When the content of cichellosomes severum, attention should be paid to decorating the bottom of the aquarium. Scenery – stones, grottoes, rocks should, as it were, zone an aquarium, create shelters for smaller fish.
Like all tsikhlazomy, severumas are not indifferent to plants. Sometimes, it seems that they deliberately pull them out on purpose, to the master’s evil.
Therefore, under severumov better buy hard-leaved aquarium plants with a strong root system. At the same time carefully rooting them and laying stones.
You can also use fast-growing plants – cryptocoryne, vallisneria.
Cleanliness must be maintained in the aquarium. Although the fish love the “old water”, but the presence of powerful aeration and filtration is still required.
Weekly need to replace 1/5 of the aquarium water. Severum illumination characteristics are not demanding.
Feeding and diet: fish are omnivores. With a great desire to eat live food, including ice cream. Dry food, chips, substitutes will also not be ignored.
Their diet should necessarily include plant foods, which is achieved by purchasing appropriate feed or by feeding inexpensive plants – for example, Ryaska.
You can also give scalded lettuce and spinach.
Feeding aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking.
In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry.
Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, live: area – South America. Freshwater reservoirs of Brazil and Guiana, p. Amazon.
Story: In the years 1817-1835, the Australian traveler and zoologist Johann Natterer first discovered serumov in r. Amazon. The scientific description of the species was made by Johann Heckel in 1840.
Description: The size of the fish is 15 cm., A maximum of 20 cm. The body is large, flattened, the profile is rounded, the head and eyes are large.
The color of the cichloma body of severum varies from yellowish green to dark brown. The scales are covered with yellow, pink or brown specks, which create a pattern on the body.
Variations of color depend on the dominant or recessive gene.
– Producers (male and female) are able to secrete a special secret from the epithelium that feeds the young. Therefore, as a rule, problems with the cultivation of juvenile severum does not arise.
However, sometimes this may not happen due to the adaptation of fish to the aquarium life, parents simply are too lazy to feed the babies.
– Severum cychlosomes can form not only heterosexual couples, but also monogamous (two females). Caviar of such producers, accordingly, remains not fertilized.
One of the most popular fish among aquarists is severum. The bright appearance of this fish and its peculiar character will not leave anyone indifferent. Recognizing only his master, the severum may bite or strike a stranger.
In general, the nature of the fish is peaceful and calm, it is even called a philosopher for thoughtful temper. Its very name translated from Latin means “discreet.”
In addition, the owners of these unusual fish argue that the severumes are talking to each other with the help of sounds resembling tapping.
In the natural habitat of the cichlid, severum feeds mainly on plant food. Therefore, it is necessary not only to include it in the menu, but to make it the basis of the diet of the fish.
To do this, fit pieces of cucumber, zucchini, scalded spinach, cabbage and lettuce, sweet peppers, duckweed, blanched beans and peas. From dry food, sir pills with spirulina will be optimal.
In general, the fish are omnivorous and do not cause trouble in the search for special food.
Meat can be given to severum only occasionally. Such food leads to disease.
It is better to feed them with minced fish or fillets, shrimps, pipe maker, moth, gammarus, earthworms.
It is preferable to feed severums twice a day at the same time. Food should be served in small portions in order to avoid overeating and subsequent obesity.
Fish of this species fall ill from too much food.
Productive breeding of severus depends not only on temperature or frequent water changes. It is better to acquire fish from different clutches, so that they are not brothers and sisters. Otherwise, the offspring in most cases are prone to degeneration.
Couple fish chooses their own. A distinctive feature of these fish is the ability to create same-sex couples (for example, a female with a female).
In this case, the caviar will remain unfertilized. But in most cases, the fish selects a partner of the opposite sex.
Occasionally, a family can form from 3 individuals (one male and 2 females).
The semum produces a healthy offspring of the cichlid from the age of 1.5 years, but is capable of spawning even earlier. Breeding can be stimulated.
This is carried out in several stages: changing water twice a week at 10% of the total volume, lowering the water temperature by several degrees, and then gradually increasing by 5 ° C.
Before spawning, a couple often arranges a beautiful show – dancing a waltz, clinging with their mouths. Then the male and female clear the place for future fry.
To do this, the aquarium should be a large flat stone or ceramic tiles. The female spawns, and the male swims next, fertilizing the offspring. Both parents care for the eggs: the mother removes the unfertilized eggs, and the father drives away the fish swimming by.
Larvae hatch by about the 3rd day. Tsikhlida severum can independently feed the offspring at first at the expense of a special secret, isolated from the epithelium. But this does not always happen, as well as childcare.
As a result of frequent use of incubators for breeding severums, they partially lost the instinct of nurturing offspring.
At first, small severums grow very slowly. By the month the length of the fish reaches 1 cm. You can feed the young daphnia, artemia, rotifers from a week old.
And from the age of 3 months, the small tsikhlazoma severum is able to consume a chopped earthworm, a pipe worker and a bloodworm.
Aquarists consider severums their pets and pets of the whole family. This fish allows the owner to feed himself with his hands and stroke the back. Her graceful movements and aristocratic temper, along with a bright, unusual coloring, have to watch the fish for hours.
Proper maintenance and feeding will create a comfortable environment for the severum, and the fish will delight you for a long time and will pleasantly surprise you.
The cichlid severum is not as fastidious in its content as other types of cichlids. This fish is more resistant to various pathogens of diseases, and also tolerates temperature drops more easily.
It is obligatory to have a large aquarium (more than 150 liters per pair). Then these fish will feel comfortable and calm.
Having your own territory is very important for a couple. They will protect her during the appearance of offspring. Sometimes the fish will fight each other.
Having clutched their mouths, they can be measured by force for a long time. But in a spacious aquarium they will have enough space for peaceful coexistence.
An unusual feature is the dependence of the shape of the body on your chosen aquarium. If the aquarium is narrow and high, the cichlasome of the severum will grow in length, its body will be high, and it will resemble even more the discus.
In the wide and low aquarium body of this fish will grow in breadth.
The optimum water temperature for severums is from 24 to 26 ° C. But a slight decrease or increase in temperature does not entail serious consequences.
While other types of cichlids are very dependent on the level of water hardness, the cichlasoma severum can be contained for any hardness. However, the stiffness from 4-10 ° dH will be the most comfortable for it.
Acidity is best maintained at 6–6.5 pH. Lighting for these fish does not play a special role, but the most comfortable for them will be light with gray shades.
The content of these fish suggests the presence of secluded places in the aquarium. It can be algae, various plants, snags, stones. Cychlasoma severum often rips up plants and eats all the leaves.
Therefore, it is better to buy for her hard-leaved species of plants with powerful roots that need to be fixed in special containers with stones. The bottom is recommended to lay out river sand, small pebbles or granite chips, as well as fallen leaves of almond, beech or oak.
Tsikhlida severum prefers defended, “old” water. Water change should be carried out once a week in the amount of 1/5 of the total volume of the aquarium. Care must be taken to keep the water clean.
Torn plants need to be cleaned and transplanted into another aquarium for recovery. During the cleaning of the aquarium, these fish love to eat the raid removed by the scraper.
In order for the content of fish to become even more close to the natural one, it is best to create a small current using an external filter.
Since the severum cykhlasoma is a lover of jumping, the lid of the aquarium must be kept closed.
It is best to keep severumov pack of 6-10 fish. The large volume of the aquarium and the many shelters for zoning the space will create a favorable habitat for them. If you decide to combine these fish with other, more suitable neighbors will be: Astronotus, chernopolosaya tsihlozoma, tsihlozoma Meek, bee, armored catfish, voile synodontis, Hypostomus Plecostomus, meshkozhaberny catfish, meshkozhaberny catfish, Acar (except for smaller species), large barbs, mesonauta and uaru
It is categorically impossible to combine with veil fish, with smaller and slower individuals. Cichlid severum will perceive them as feed.
Cychlasoma severum – sex difference, types and content
Tsikhlazoma severum – perhaps the most popular aquarium fish, both among beginners and professionals. It is all about its relative longevity, unpretentiousness in the content and bright color.
Severums are also called false discussions because of their external similarity – the body of a tsikhlazomy is rather high and compressed at the sides. But unlike discus, these fish do not require such strict conditions of detention.
Keeping severums in an aquarium is not very troublesome. The most important thing is to choose the right container, clean the dwelling of the fish in time and give the correct feed.
For a comfortable living fish you need to choose an aquarium based on one pair of severums – 200 liters of water. If you plan to live together several species of fish, then the capacity should be not less than 300, and preferably about 500 liters, depending on the number of inhabitants.
- Temperature 23-28 C,
- Acidity (pH) 5.8-7.0,
- Stiffness (dH) 5-20 (up to 25)
Tsichlazoma is unpretentious in its content, it easily tolerates temperature drops, and is resistant to various diseases.
It is noteworthy that if the aquarium is tall and narrow, then the fish will grow long and flat. If the glass house is wide – the fish grow in breadth and become similar to the discus.
Severum by nature is a non-aggressive fish. Therefore, you can safely fish with the same size with them.
If smaller or larger – the inhabitants will not be very comfortable to coexist with each other.
But tsikhlazoma developed intraspecific aggression. Therefore, in one aquarium you need to settle an adult pair or a small group of young fish. Some types of cichlids, some akaras (if the volume permits), mesons, and astronotuses are suitable for neighbors.
You can also hook them to catfish, large species of barbs and haracin.
Categorically do not fit in the neighbors of the severum fish small in size and slow. These include all types of voilehvostov, goldfish, tetra and neons.
Even the presence of a large aquarium does not allow the content of such different fish in one tank.
In the photo aquarium with its colorful inhabitants.
Tsikhlasoma is an omnivorous fish. In the diet should certainly be included protein (live) and vegetable feed. Some aquarists suggest giving finely chopped lettuce or spinach as green food (before that they need to be scalded with boiling water).
Green peas and balanced formulations with spirulina are also suitable.
From animal feed, you can offer shrimp, bloodworm, artemia. Dry food for fish is sold in pet stores in large quantities – it also included in the diet.
It should be diverse and balanced, especially during the spawning period.
One more note – if plants grow in your aquarium with soft green shoots, be prepared for the fact that tsikhlazomy happy to have breakfast or dinner.
In pairs, the fish of the severum are broken independently. Sexual maturity comes in 1.5-2 years. But even long before that you can see the difference between the sexes.
At 6 months of age, the male can be distinguished from the female by a sharp fin on the back of the future producer. His girlfriend, he eventually grows too.
Gender differences are also observed in color. The male is bright, with pronounced specks and stripes all over his body.
The female has a pale, almost monochromatic body color.
In order to artificially stimulate spawning, you need to raise the temperature of the water in the aquarium by 2-3 °. It is also necessary to carry out a partial replacement of water twice a week.
Replace recommended 1 / 4-1 / 5 of the total.
Fish can spawn in the general pond, and in a special spawning area of at least 150 liters.
The beginning of spawning is the marriage dance in a long “kiss”. Fishes mate with their mouths and whirl around the aquarium.
After that, the female lays her calf on a flat vertical or slightly inclined surface. Its quantity can reach from 300 to 1000 pcs.
It depends on the frequency of spawning.
The incubation period depends directly on the water temperature and lasts, as a rule, a week. All this time, parents take care of their future offspring – they take away the dead eggs, ventilate the water near the clutch with their fins.
After 7 days, the larvae begin to swim independently and already need to eat. The food may be microplankton, nauplii, artemia, or a balanced artificial diet.
Young tsihlazomy grows slowly. Only a month later in the aquarium you can see a centimeter youth, which already shows its color.
By its nature, the tsikhlasoma is a peace-loving fish, it does not show aggression towards its neighbors. For an aquarium, it is better to buy a flock of fish of the same age, which, as they mature, will choose a pair for themselves.
The content of false discus requires a large aquarium, preferably at least 300 liters. Choose an aquarium with the calculation of 130 liters of water for one pair of fish.
Under favorable living conditions, they mostly swim in the middle layers of water.
For planting in the aquarium fit only large plants that have hard leaves, it is desirable to plant them in small pots. Ideal plants such as:
- spiral vallisneria;
- Canadian Elodea;
Considering the fact that the severum cychlasmas inaccurately treat plants, it is mandatory to filter water. There are no specific requirements for the choice of soil when creating housing conditions for northern seasons, but, nevertheless, it is better to give preference to granite chips or small pebbles.
At the bottom of the aquarium it is imperative to lay large stones imitating rocks.
Cichlasoma severum feels good with high water hardness, even if it is 15º dH. pH – 6.5 – 7.5, its temperature should be 22-24 ºС. When feeding a severum, there is almost never a problem, it feeds on any large food, a chopped earthworm, bloodworm, and strawberry will do well to feed the fish.
The only thing that can cause problems is an accelerated metabolism, because they eat a lot and heavily pollute the water in the aquarium.
Probably another very popular cichlid, one of the top ten most beloved aquarium fish – is the north gold cichlinoma. Many aquarists will agree that she is very beautiful, unpretentious in care (unlike, for example, from barbus demasoni) and very interesting in her behavior.
When you watch this aquarium fish, you can find a lot of positive aspects in it (besides the skin, shining as if covered with golden scales).
The rules of keeping and breeding Guyana are common to all tsihlazom. Sevyuma Guyana will look good in a large decorative aquarium, which will be located snags, stones, plants, roots, tunnels and shelters.
Water in akvas should be clean enough, from 20 to 25 degrees; pH – from 6.6 to 7.2. In addition, a filter, aerator and thermostat should be installed in the aquarium.
These fish eat organic food: worms, crustaceans, small fish. You can give the meat of large fish (such as blue whiting), squid fillet, minced meat.
Since the cichlozome is a carnivorous fish, it will be glad to such a bait.