Salmonids are fishes that easily adapt to changing environmental conditions. At the same time they can change the main color.
Fish salmon belongs to the class of ray-finned fish. Some members of the family live in rivers, others prefer the sea.
They are considered to be delicacies, as they have excellent taste.
Salmonids include both anadromous and freshwater fish species.
Adults have a body length of up to 2 m, their maximum weight ranges from 68 to 70 kg. According to the structure of the body, they resemble representatives of the selde-like.
It is noteworthy that it was to this detachment that all salmonids were once counted, but later they were singled out as an independent detachment. Salmon is as follows:
- long body, compressed from the sides;
- round-shaped comb;
- ventral fins in several rays, localized in the central part of the belly;
- dorsal fins (real and anal).
According to the description of the detachment, the presence of the so-called fat fin of miniature size is characteristic of salmon-like. The dorsal fin may consist of 10-16 rays. For comparison, grayling have an average of 20 rays.
The swim bladder is usually connected to the esophagus through a special channel.
The oral cavity is protected by four bones. In females during the breeding season, the roe easily moves from the ovary to the body cavity.
The intestine has an impressive number of pyloric branches. Most of the family members have transparent eyelids.
The skeletal part of many species is not completely ossified.
Most salmon are valuable commercial fish due to red meat and red caviar.
Salmon include a large number of different fish, united by individual characteristics and having differences. The family is represented by 3 subspecies:
- Sigovy. Includes 3 genera.
- Actually salmon. Combines 7 genera.
- Charius. Includes 1 genus.
In size, all members of the family have a large or medium body. Many are predators, but at the same time representatives with a mixed type of food are also found. List of names of main salmon species:
The Sigov family is different from the salmon proper by the structure of the skull, larger scales and a small mouth. Grayling have high dorsal fin with impressive length.
It can be brightly colored and resemble the plume in appearance. Grayling are freshwater.
Far Eastern salmon, salmon and ishkhan are considered the most valuable species.
Pink salmon is the smallest and most common representative of the salmon genus.
To understand what kind of fish salmon – river or sea, helps to monitor its lifestyle. It can be present in rivers only during spawning and some time after it.
The main habitat is the sea.
Salmon are typical migratory fish, preferring to live on a permanent basis in lakes or sea water. They are sent to the rivers only to spawn.
Different breeds of red fish have similar types of activity, but differ in basic characteristics.
Upon reaching the age of five, salmon moves into the water with a rapid flow. It can enter river waters at various times. Prior to spawning fish choose special parking.
They can be found in places with not very fast flow, shallow depth, stony or sandy soil. Such areas can be found around spawning grounds, rapids and shallows.
In sea water salmon can develop impressive speed. Individual individuals are able to overcome up to 100 km per day.
When hit in the river, these figures are significantly reduced. While staying at such sites, the salmon loses its bright colors, and on its jaw a peculiar hook forms, which is especially pronounced in males. The fillet of fish during this period is more pale.
Reduced and the percentage of fatty tissues. This is due to a lack of nutrition.
Almost all migratory salmon spawn once in their lives and die after spawning.
Salmon live no more than a dozen years, although some representatives may be as young as 25 years old. Taimy are considered a kind of record holders in body size. The fishermen managed to fix an individual whose weight was 105 kg with a body length of 2.5 m.
Salmon lives in northern latitudes. Ishkhan, considered a delicacy of high-value fish, swims in Lake Sevan. A resident of the Pacific Ket waters is found not only in Russia, but also in the United States.
Kumzha lives in European rivers, the Aral and Black Seas, Mazu – in the Asian part of the Pacific Ocean. Taimen, characterized by large size, lives in Siberian rivers.
The basis of the diet of salmon is small fish and their young, mollusks, crustaceans, worms. Separate individuals do not refuse jellyfish and ctenophores. Salmon loves insect larvae.
Pestrianka can feed on petrifuchs, barrows. Depending on the season, the diet may vary.
The lake form of salmon in Russia lives in the lakes of the Kola Peninsula and Karelia.
In northern latitudes, the fish spawn in the second half of September. Such a phenomenon is observed at temperature marks not lower than zero.
Salmon spawn in the southern regions from October to January. The water temperature is in the range of 3-13 degrees Celsius. Caviar is deposited in special grooves at the bottom of the reservoir, which the fish settles on its own.
After that, the female sprinkles them with a mixture of sand and pebbles.
The behavior of salmon during spawning changes: they become more active, they can jump out of the water to an impressive height. But directly to the beginning of spawning, this behavior is rarely observed.
As soon as it ends, the fish quickly lose weight. Not all individuals survive.
They go deep into lakes or sea waters, but can stay until spring in the river.
Salmon do not go too far from the site, where they laid caviar. In spring, young individuals appear that resemble trout in their appearance.
In the river, young animals can spend from 1 year to 5 years. During this period, the length of their body reaches 18 cm. At this point, the characteristic spots disappear, and the color becomes a beautiful silver shade.
Enhanced nutrition with active weight gain in salmon occurs in lakes and seas.
Before spawning, the organism of migratory salmon undergoes multiple metamorphoses.
There are several key factors that have a negative impact on the number of species. Disruption of spawning is observed due to the activities of poachers, who can thus destroy entire populations.
Poaching affects the reproduction of salmon and even their genetics. Other important factors that could lead to adverse outcomes include:
- lack of nutrition;
- enhanced fishing;
- pollution of the river mouth.
Industrial and agricultural waste often destroys the populations of these individuals. Currently, several representatives of salmon have been identified, which for this reason were listed in the Red Book.
As for the natural conditions, the adults of the fish are burbot and pike. They hunt for young and delayed caviar. Gulls and other birds eating fish can attack young individuals.
The sea hare, sockeye and cod are natural enemies of the salmon in the sea.
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