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Rogozub: description of lungfish and peculiarities of their life

There are many incredible animals in the world that amaze humanity with their external and physiological features. These include lungfish, including the cattail.

The first mentions of a unique creature appeared literally several decades ago, and ichthyologists and scientists from around the world still cannot solve some of the mysteries of this fish.

Rogozub is considered a very ancient fish, living on the earth still 395 million ago.

The loboptera from the superorder, lungfish, are considered to be among the most mysterious creatures on the planet that have both gill and pulmonary respiratory systems. This is their main difference from other classes. Modern ichthyologists divide the subclass into two groups:

To meet such a creature in the wild, only a few succeed, since it is considered extremely rare. Nevertheless, in some waters of Africa, Australia and South America, these incredible animals occasionally appear.

In addition to the gills inherent in the rest of the aquatic inhabitants, the rogozub also has lungs (their number varies from one to two). In fact, the body is a specialized swimming bladder, through the walls of which air passes and gas exchange takes place.

The individual literally swallows a fresh stream of air, rising to the surface of the water, and then passing it through the septum in the atrium.

In turn, the blood begins to circulate from the organs and enter the left side of the heart. Particles enriched with oxygen are directed to those vessels that pass through the gills to the head and other important organs.

The rest of the consistency also passes through the gills and enters directly into the vessel that leads to the lung. As a result, different blood compounds are partially mixed in the vessels and the heart, which resembles a primitive analogue of two circles of blood circulation.

Read more: the structure of the heart of fish.

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Representatives of the group of lungfish are considered one of the most ancient animals on planet Earth. When studying their remains, scientists were able to determine that the creatures existed during the Devonian period (Paleozoic era).

For a long time, scientists could not confirm the existence of such animals, since all the available information was stored only in fossil remains. However, in 1835 one global discovery occurred: then it was possible to confirm that the prototter inhabiting the reservoirs of Africa belongs to the lungfish.

The subclass includes six types:

  1. Australian cattail – belongs to the one-pulmonary order.
  2. American shlyuchatnik – detachment two-pulmonary.
  3. Four species of two-pulmonary Protopterus.

The most important find for ichthyologists was the lungfish Australian cattail. In the wild, it was possible to determine it in the limited waters of the Mary and Burnett River Basin, which are located in the northeastern part of the Australian continent.

The size of the fish often reaches 175 centimeters, and the weight exceeds 10 kilograms.

In the side of the gullet slightly flattened and covered with large scales. The large paired fins resemble flippers, and the body color is represented by red-brown and bluish-gray shades.

At the same time the belly remains light.

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When searching for places of residence, rogozub prefers slow water with an abundance of surface and underwater vegetation. When the air in the lungs of a fish runs out, it rapidly rises to the surface of the water and restores lost reserves.

Such a process is accompanied by intense noise and a burst. In addition, there is a specific sound., reminding, not that moan, not that grunt. You can hear this sound from a distance.

As soon as the animal replenishes its natural need, it will sink back to the bottom and continue to destroy the algae.

Having figured out which subclass of fish the cattail belongs to, one can begin to study its life cycle, its diet and its habitat in more detail. Fish spend a significant part of their lives in the bottom layers of water, settling on the belly or flipper-like fins.

To find a source of food, the creature begins to crawl slowly. By the way, the speed of movement is quite low, although if the fish are scared away, it can begin to aggressively swing the tail, trying to accelerate and avoid danger.

When the dry season comes, and the water level in the rivers drops to minimum levels, representatives of the lungfish begin to arrange shelters in the pits with the remaining water. If the water temperature is too high, and oxygen penetration is suspended, most of the fish will begin to perish en masse, and in places where their remains remain, an unbearable smell appears.

Only the most hardy individuals can survive in this environment, including the Australian cattail, which is able to breathe light. However, if the water is completely evaporated, even these creatures will undergo death.

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Period spawning falls on the first days of the rainy season, when the rivers are filled with fresh water and all sorts of food. Representatives of the species begin to lay large eggs on algae, and within two weeks of them the first larvae will appear. Prior to the resorption of the yolk sac, they are at the bottom, occasionally overcoming certain distances.

Scientists believe that already at the 14th day of life the fry appear and the lung begins to function.

As for the commercial value of fish, it is caused by the most delicious and tender meat with minimal fat content. It is precisely due to this that the advantages of Rogozubs began to be massively caught, and this led to a significant decrease in their numbers. Today, the fish is reliably protected by special services.

Also, attempts are being made to relocate individuals to other bodies of water in Australia.

Rogozub – lazy and slow fish, lives mainly on the bottom of the fish.

In addition to Australian lungfish, there are African species in nature. These include the Protopters, which have filamentary fins and are represented by four varieties.

The largest is the large Protopter, whose length often reaches 1.5 meters. The average dimensions are 30 cm.

At the time of swimming fish behave like eels, wriggling body. But moving along the bottom, individuals begin to use filiform fins.

By the way, the skin of the latter is covered with a variety of receptors that allow fish to find food faster.

From time to time the prototor floats to the surface, replenishing stocks of consumed air. In the wild, fish could be found in swampy rivers and lakes in Africa, where the water level rises to high levels during the rainy season and then falls during droughts.

When he reaches the mark of 5-10 centimeters, the protopters begin to break through various pits.

With their powerful mouth, the representatives of the ancient species eat the soil, grinding it and throwing it out with the help of the gills. Formed holes resemble small cameras with vertical stroke.

In such shelters, individuals are bent in half and only expose the head.

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Until the water is completely dry, the fish occasionally appears on the surface in search of enriched oxygen. However, soon liquid sludge will fill the passage and block the exit, as a result of which the protopter will be trapped and will no longer be able to escape to freedom.

In such conditions, the fish begins to poke its face into the silt plug, slightly lifting it. This allows you to pierce a small hole through which oxygen will be supplied, allowing the fish to survive until the next precipitation.

Over time, the water in a lake or river acquires a viscous consistency, which is explained by the release of mucus from the body of the protoptera. Then the soil dries even more and the water level decreases.

In the end, the vertical stroke is filled with fresh air, and the fish is bent in half and protects itself with a cocoon of mucus. In this state, she manages to live another 6−9 months before the next rainy season.

Rogozub has only 4 fins located on the chest.

The behavior of lungfish in the dry season has always surprised scientists and ichthyologists. Through long studies and laboratory experiments, it was possible to determine that the Protopters are able to hibernate for about four years, after which they freely wake up and return to normal life. Drought behavior is as follows:

  1. During a drought, the natural metabolic processes in the body of creatures are suspended. Already in half a year, an adult individual loses about 20 percent of its mass, and the breakdown of muscle tissue becomes a source of energy. However, due to a similar process, ammonia enters the fish’s body, which does not go out, as during an active life cycle, but is converted into toxic urea with an enormous concentration. However, this does not lead to poisoning of the body, which is not yet a scientific explanation.
  2. With the arrival of rainy weather, the soil gradually becomes soaked, and the water returns to the hole. As a result, the protopter begins to tear the mucous cocoon and periodically appears to the surface. After filling the channel with water, the protopter finally gets out of its cover and proceeds to reproduction. At such a time, the male pulls out a large hole among water thickets, and then begins to attract a female there.

The latter is able to bring up to 5 thousand eggs, which in a week will turn into larvae, and in a month the newborn fry will be able to find their own food, and generally leave the mink. For some time they continue to swim around the mink, hiding there in any potentially dangerous situation.

At the same time, adult males still keep near the shelter, protecting the young growth from enemies.

The body of the cattail is very similar to eel, only much larger and with scales.

When studying the lifestyle and biological description of lungfish, one should pay attention to one unique species – the dark protoptera. It is encountered in the basins of large African rivers of the Congo and Ogov among wetlands, which retain an underground water level even during a severe drought.

As soon as the level of reservoirs begins to fall to its lowest point, the fish digs into the bottom silt until it reaches the bottom of the groundwater. It is in this natural reservoir that the Protopter transfers the dry period without resorting to the creation of a cocoon.

From time to time it floats to the surface, trying to inhale a fresh portion of air.

As for the mink of this fish, it is a small inclined course with a camera at the end. Anglers claim that such an asylum can serve one owner for 5–10 years.

It is in the burrow that seasonal spawning takes place, for which the males prepare much earlier. Before the start of spawning, they build up a mud hill around the hole, up to one meter high.

Rogozub loves ponds with stagnant water, emerges to inhale about once every half hour.

Representatives of the supraclass of lungfish have always surprised scientists with their unique properties, unusual behavior and appearance. In addition, they became interesting for the creators of sleeping pills, which put a lot of effort to get from the body of the fish those substances that help it without much difficulty to endure a long hibernation.

As a result of long studies, biochemists managed to extract an extract from the brain of fish, and then inject it into the blood of a laboratory rat, which led to a sharp decrease in its body temperature. The transition to sleep was carried out almost instantly, and the duration of sleep reached 18 hours.

Then the rats calmly woke up, and any consequences of artificial sleep were completely absent.

Such amazing results caused a real delight among researchers, so they began to study in detail the life cycle of fish and to develop the creation of preparations based on substances from its body. However, due to the rapid decline in the number of species, the experiments had to be stopped, and unique fish brought in under the protection of environmental authorities and global organizations.

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