Blue-eyed spotted Gertrude (Pseudomugil gertrudae) WEBER 1911
Detachment: Atheriform (Atheriniformes).
Family: Iris (Melanotaeniidae).
Genus: Pseudomugil (Pseudomugilidae).
Habitat: fresh waters of Northern Australia, in the Maluku province of Eastern Indonesia (they are part of the Australian continent in a geological sense) and Papua New Guinea.
Wild animals are not uncommon in the collections of aquarists, although for commercial purposes there is an adjustable fish.
Pseudomugil It prefers small, heavily overgrown areas with slow-moving or standing water – small streams, lakes and swamps, often found among flooded fallen branches and tree roots or fallen leaves.
In some places, the water is dark brown with tannins and has a very low pH, while in others it may be clear and slightly alkaline. In both cases, the most favorable habitat with floating on the surface of vegetation or densely growing from the soil.
Tappin (2010) gives the following ranges of parameters based on samples taken from different habitats:
temperature 12 – 34 C, pH 3.68 – 9.4, conductivity 12 – 646 µS / cm, hardness 0-320 ppm, alkalinity 2-180 ppm.
The size Pseudomugil gertrudae 30 to 38 mm.
The minimum size of the aquarium with a base of 45 x 30 cm or equivalent, the volume of 40-50 liters.
It is better to keep in an aquarium with a tight-fitting lid. In addition, long-stem and floating plants should be located in the aquarium in order to scatter the incident light, the presence of different types of moss, branches and snag will recreate the natural conditions of the habitats in which the fish will feel most comfortable.
If you want to raise offspring together with adult fish in a species aquarium, the presence of mosses is sure, in their dense thickets the fry will find shelter and food for themselves.
Water should be well saturated with oxygen and have a small flow. Do not run these fish in a biologically immature aquarium, with unstable water parameters.
Optimum water parameters:
Temperature: 21 – 28 C
pH: 6.0 – 7.5
Total hardness: 9 – 12
Note: Recommended ranges are given for those raised in captivity. Wildlife species may require special conditions, especially fish living in oligotrophic (blackwater) environments.
In nature, it feeds mainly on invertebrates floating in the water – zoo and phytoplankton; suitable size feed should be offered in the aquarium. Ideally, the diet should consist of live food such as daphnia, moin, Artemia nauplii, micro-worms, etc., although frozen and small / crushed dry food is also eaten.
Behavior and Compatibility
Peaceful fish, but not quite suitable for a common aquarium, as it does not stand up to the competition of larger and more aggressive species of fish and becomes shy. But all the charm of color and natural behavior in a species aquarium or when kept together with fish of comparable sizes, with similar housing conditions such as Iriatherina werneri, Еrythromicron, Galaxy, Microdevario and freshwater shrimps of the genus Caridina and Neocaridina, is best manifested.
Pseudomogil Gertrude – small species and should be in a flock of at least 8-10 copies, ideally more. Maintaining them in such a quantity will not only make the fish less fearful, but also more spectacular, natural.
Males will also show their best colors and interesting behavior when they compete with each other for the attention of the females.
Males have higher and brighter fins than females.
Sexual maturity occurs at the age of 8 months.
This species disperses the eggs, leaving without parental care. Spawning occurs at a temperature closer to the upper limit of the range indicated above, females are able to lay several eggs daily, for several days. Caviar is tossed on small-leaved plants or on an artificial substitute, the eggs are glued to the spawning substrate.
Males can also mate with several females in one day, and spawning usually continues throughout the day.
In nature, the reproductive cycle index is seasonal, coincides with the beginning of the rainy season, approximately in October-December, when conditions are most favorable for the development of caviar and there is an adequate food base for future offspring.
Spawning occurs throughout the daylight, with a peak of activity at noon, at a water temperature of 24-28 degrees C, and in an aquarium, breeding can occur all year round if the water temperature is in the upper limits of the recommended temperatures for keeping fish.
There are two main methods. The first includes isolation (deposition) of a small group of 6-8 fish or one male and two or three females in spawning with airlift filter and spawning substrate in the form of nylon filaments (scourers) or various mosses.
The substrate is checked daily for the presence of eggs and removed in a separate container for incubation and breeding fry.
The alternative is to maintain a well-designed colony of adult fish (small-leaved, long-stemmed, floating plants and of course mosses are required) aquarium species, here the fry will have good chances for survival. Since they usually spend their entire time close to the water surface at the early stage of life, the presence of water mosses of the genus Taxiphylum attached to high scenery (branched clumps) in the water column gives the most favorable results, and floating plants with thick roots increase the chances of survival of the young fry .
The latter option is usually less productive, but simple and more reliable, as in a biologically mature aquarium all parameters are more stable and there is always a microfauna in the water, which is a valuable initial source of food for fry.
The incubation period is from 10 to 20 days, depending on the temperature, the fry are immediately able to take Artemia nauplii, micro-worms, as well as other food of similar size. The diet can also be diversified using specialized dry fodder for high quality fry.
Small portions of feed should be offered at least two to three times a day. Do not allow the accumulation of food residues and other wastes. This leads to abrupt changes in water parameters, which leads to high mortality of fry; water quality should be monitored at least once a day, and in addition, a partial water change should be carried out daily or every other day.
At the same time it is necessary to use water corresponding to the former water in terms of chemical composition and temperature.
Pseudomugil can not be called long-livers, in nature the desire to survive during only one breeding season. Although in well-equipped aquariums, life expectancy tends to increase to 2.5–3 years, as a rule, when they reach the age of 12–18 months, they become less fertile.