maintenance, care, compatibility
Fish is perfect for both beginners and pros. Among the birds, everyone will find an interesting fish for themselves.
The body of the fish looks like a rhombus: high, elongated and slightly compressed from the sides, with a small head, on which are large eyes and an upturned mouth, and rounded fins. Males are 5.5 cm long, females are slightly longer – up to 7 cm. In addition, males are slightly slimmer and have gonopodies (this is an anal fin, as if wrapped in a tubule), but they lack a sword on the tail fin.
Life expectancy with good care can reach three years.
As for coloring, it is very diverse and has more than 130 color options.
Despite the fact that the patcilia is very hardy and unpretentious to the quality, temperature and other characteristics of water, the following conditions will be ideal for them:
- The capacity may be small in volume, but deep, as these fish live in the middle layers of the water. Each individual should account for about 1.5-2.0 liters of water. They contain platies in 10-liter jars, but more preferably, aquariums are about 50 liters. There you can not only place with the comfort of fish, but also plant the necessary plants, and there will still be a place for games. Glass or lid with holes are required, as when playing, pets can accidentally jump out.
- Ideal for water: pH 7.5-8; dH 8-25 ′, temperature 22-26 ° C. Here are the extreme ranges, but it is clear that it is better to stick to the golden mean in order to avoid disease and reduce life expectancy.
- With regard to petillas and other viviparous, the issue of salinization of water is very acute. Despite the recent craze for them, it is not worth practicing all the time. Salt is still a medicine that is used in quarantine and in the treatment of sick and weakened individuals. Otherwise, the fish will become tender, will lose immunity and endurance. In addition, novice aquarists simply can not maintain salinity at the right level.
- Aeration and filter are optional, but anyone can install them, it will not be worse. Every week it is necessary to substitute a quarter of the water for fresh.
- To illuminate a small aquarium, you can use sunlight, avoiding direct rays, or install a lamp of low power.
- The soil is better to take the dark. Must be present living unpretentious plants and shelters, as the fish love to hide. To create a thicket behind and on the sides of the aquarium, you can take a cryptocoryne, an echinodorus, an elodea, a rodentofolia and others. Top well fit Riccia. The space in front is desirable to leave empty.
Percylia: maintenance and care, sexual dimorphism, species, photo-video review
All about aquarium fish
Petilia is one of the most popular and beautiful aquarium fish!
The simplicity of the content, variability of color, ease of breeding made them so popular.
Despite the fact that these fish are easy to maintain, you need to know the basic recommendations and tips for the care of the pests, so that they live and decorate your tank for as long as possible.
Latin name: Xiphophorus maculatus;
Comfortable water temperature: 24-27 degrees;
PH Acidity: 7.5-8;
Aggressiveness: Not aggressive;
The complexity of the content: Easy;
Compatibility of quills: Very wide range, all viviparous, angelfish, small “peaceful” cichlids, for example, Ramirezi apistogram, tetras, gourami, danios, all somics etc.
Not compatible: large aggressive cichlids and large predators like them. See also article compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: In good conditions can live up to four years. Find out how much other fish live IN THIS ARTICLE!
Petilia size reaches 4-5 cm. in females, males are somewhat smaller. The body is rhomboid, with a rather wide tail fin and a relatively small head.
Habitat: North and Central America. Also common in Florida, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Louisiana, Texas and Nevada.
Petsilii are considered very undemanding fish. They, as in other and all other small fishes, need clean water – ammonia concentration = 0, nitrite = 0 and nitrate is acceptable 20. Therefore, a good filtration system of water is necessary!
Just need to water heater, to maintain a comfortable temperature. And of course, need aeration, it is not even discussed. Water changes are advisable once a week.
1/4 – 1/3 of water from the total volume.
Petsilii are very active – they like to swim very quickly. Therefore, despite the small size of the fish, the aquarium should be a volume of 70 liters, and better all 100 liters.
It is desirable that the aquarium was wide and deep enough, these fish love to put them there, preferring the middle and upper layers of water.
With the content of platies, one should know and remember that these are “alkaline fish” – they prefer dH and pH above 7. It is not advisable to acidify the water with snags, tea or other physiotherapy. It is also advisable to select “alkaline” neighbors, for example, scalarians, and gourams get along well with the pecilias, but still they are not the best neighbors, since they like soft and mildly acidic water (dH pH below 7).
Pitsilia willingly eat any dry food, do not disdain and any live food, for example, bloodworm. In nature, the celites feed on insects and algae.
Therefore, their diet should include plant foods. It is necessary for normal digestion.
However, balanced feed from the company Tetra perfectly cope with the task.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arawan, discus, etc.
Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
It should immediately say that Xiphophorus maculatus – this is the view, “Pecilia spotty.” There is also Xiphophorus variatus – “Pecilia tricolor”.
Both of them have many breeds of breeds, most of which are even hybrids between these species, with the attraction of the original form of the Green Swordsman species, Xiphophorus helleri. For example, the breed “black petilia” and “black swordtail” – the selection result of hybridization of all 3 species.
Wild – the original forms of the species “spotted petilia” and “tricolor petilia” in the aquariums almost never occur.
Thanks to breeding work, more than 130 species of placium are now common in aquariums. There are red, yellow, orange, golden, and even white!
It’s just impossible to list everything. There are two interesting morphological forms of the platius.
The first is the “balloon”.
In the nature does not meet, it is removed artificially. It looks very unusual because of the curved spine. When breeding were selected fish with a shortened curved spine.
Pecilia balloon looks like a shortened, bloated version of the usual partilii. Due to the curvature and displaced internal organs, this morph often has problems with reproduction.
The second – petilia radish.
In nature, also not found, bred by breeders. Named so because of the original shape of the caudal fin, almost always having a black color.
Recently, various variations of this popular aquarium fish with a modified – shortened body, as well as with fins of various shapes, have appeared.
On the photo, sex differences
Males and females of the patchillia are simply distinguished; in males, the anal fins are folded into a tube – gonopodia. Live-bearing varieties like guppies, swordtails and mollies, i.e. females bear eggs and fry inside the body.
Pezily breeding is simple, as a rule, it occurs without any involvement of an aquarist. In an aquarium, plants are needed in which the fry will take shelter until they grow up, otherwise other fish, and even the parents themselves will perceive the offspring as live food. Pregnant placilia looks very characteristic, you will not confuse with anything.
Pregnancy can be determined by the rounded abdomen and the dark spot near the anal fin. Usually, the female pecilia gives birth every 28 days, the number of fry is about 20-40 pieces.
Fry appear quite independent and relatively easy to feed – living dust, pounded in the dust with branded feed or special feed for fry.
Interestingly, females patzilia, like all viviparids at some point, change sex and become a male. Such behavior of viviparous fish is explained by the evolutionary struggle for survival.
Pecilia (lat. Xiphophorus maculatus) is a small freshwater fish of the Pecilliaceae family. The natural habitat of the species is North and Central America.
It is found in the waters of the states of California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Nevada, Hawaii. Nowadays, aquarium petsilievyh are bred on fish farms or in aquariums.
All species of platies are characterized by small body size, females are larger than males one and a half times. The body length of females is 5 cm, males – 3-3.5 cm. How long do these fish live?
If you provide them with proper care, they will be able to live in captivity from 3 to 5 years. The appearance of the chili can be varied – aquarium pets are mostly painted in bright or motley colors, and wild species are not on sale.
Interesting morphological characteristics has a diskius, in which the body is rounded, the spine is curved. Its other name is pecilia balloon.
As for the behavior, the Petsilia Disk is more capricious and whimsical in content, unlike other breeds.
Sex differences are noticeable – in addition to the difference in body size, the females of these fish are distinguished by a rounded and wide anal fin. In males, the anal fin is long, pointed, forming the so-called “gonopodia”. Females have a full and rounded abdomen, the color of their scales is faded.
Males are brighter, their body symmetry is angular.
Petsyli content in the aquarium is quite simple, so even a beginner lover of fish can provide them with proper care. All varieties of platies are viviparous fishes, full-fledged, life-ready fry appear from the womb of females. Pecilia is a lively and unpretentious fish (except for the Discillium breed), one adult fish needs a reservoir with a capacity of 50 liters.
It is advisable to settle on one male two females. These fish do not show aggressiveness towards their congeners, but there should be more females in the aquarium.
Fish easily adapts to the domestic water body, the parameters of the content are also important: the water temperature is 22-26 ° C, the acidity of the medium is 7.0-8.0 pH, hardness 15-20 °. Once a week make water changes to clean, infused and fresh.
Install an internal filter and compressor in the aquarium so that the water is constantly cleaned of dirt and saturated with oxygen.
Watch the video about the content and care of the red petsilia.
In the common aquarium, aquarius varieties of patchillia get along well with viviparous fish: guppies, swordtails, mollies. They can breed with these species, sometimes bringing beautiful and healthy offspring. In nature, they do not interbreed with each other.
Percylievye have a peace-loving disposition, so they can become victims of large and predatory neighbors. Do not settle them with cichlids, eels, large catfish, carp, goldfish, barbs.
Wild species of species eat detritus, algae, aquatic plants, and insects. Pets can eat what the host gives, but the diet should be varied. Fish like food with spirulina, scalded lettuce and dandelion leaves, spinach, boiled cereals without salt (millet, oatmeal), sliced zucchini and cucumbers.
From live food they prefer Artemia, Daphnia, Tubber, Bloodworm, Coretic. You can give branded food in the form of flakes and tablets. Thanks to the upper mouth, capture food from the surface of the water.
Feeding – 2 times a day in small portions, which can be eaten in 5 minutes.
Species diversity of aquarium Xiphophorus maculatus
Red Petilia is a very beautiful aquarium fish with a rich color of scales. The ventral fins shimmer with a bluish tinge. Body size – 10-12 cm, to achieve a saturated color, you need to give live food.
Very fast, active pets. Red platilia is often used as a material for breeding new breeds of placium and swordtail, in aquarium conditions, it can independently cross with “swords”, bringing fish that resemble in appearance tricolor swordtails.
Pecilia balloon – fish of unusual appearance, which may have different color scales. Because of the deformed spine, their life is not very simple.
Then how much do they live in captivity? Providing them with quality care, they will live from 2 to 4 years. The length of the body is 15 cm, height 8-10 cm.
Males are 1.5 times smaller than females.
The black black flower is characterized by a peaceful nature, it is distinguished by its active behavior and fast swimming style. Black platilla interbreed with other Pecilia, brings hybrid offspring. The resulting fry will grow with a deep black body color that will emit a bluish tint.
Body size 10 cm, life expectancy 3-4 years.
Yellow platilla – small fish (8-10 cm), in males front tail part and tail of red shade. The body of females paternal is slightly larger, rounded, yellow in color, fins are transparent.
Along the body of the males, there is a barely noticeable horizontal strip of silver.
Remember the aquarium of your childhood. The one that was the first embodiment of the dream of living fish.
There lived guppies, barbs and, of course, petsyli.
“Of course” – because the aquarium fish petsiliya is unpretentious and inexpensive, its maintenance does not cause great difficulties. Therefore, she gained popularity with aquarists around the world.
Pecilya necessarily included in the “live set” of the first children’s aquarium.
Pezily genus includes more than 30 species. Their homeland is Guatemala and Southern Mexico, where they live in the mouths of the rivers of the Atlantic basin.
Petsilia was introduced to Europe for the first time in 1907. Separate species of placias are distributed from the southeastern coast of North America to Venezuela.
It is a small fish (4-5 cm in length) with a short dense body and a powerful tail fin. In nature, the cestilia is colored, as a rule, in yellow-brown tones with two dark spots near the tail. Your aquarium pets, of course, much more beautiful.
A variety of colors was achieved thanks to many years of selection.
The petsilia seems to be rather passive, but in fact, it is a quick fish that needs free space for swimming. This must be taken into account when keeping the placium.
“A wonderful neighbor has settled in our house” – exactly about the piece. It is non-aggressive, gets on well with other species of fish, can coexist with snails and non-predatory shrimps.
Aggression is manifested only in relation to their own most brightly colored fry. In this way, the Pecilya conducts breeding aimed at combating the bright colors of the species.
Ahead of the fish in breeding work – this is the task of an aquarist.
Pecilia – viviparous fish. The male has a fertilizing organ – gonopodium.
Caviar is fertilized in the body of the female. Fry are born fully formed.
If breeding occurs in the general aquarium, take care that there are overgrowth of small-leaved plants in which the fry can hide. A sufficient amount of natural feed is also required.
This will save the kids from the “fish farming” of their parents.
It is better, after all, to “take delivery” in a separate aquarium. Their approximation is determined by the color of the spot at the anal fin and the rectangular shape of the abdomen of the fish.
The female partia can eat the offspring, so immediately after the birth it is advisable to move it to the general aquarium.
Why are the most characteristic representatives of this genus interesting?
Red platilla – gorgeous fishes of rich red color, their lower fins gleam with bluish shine. For such a color, the poultry needs to be given live food. Moving in layers of water, they immediately attract attention.
This is a kind of “Ferrari” of your aquarium. Aquarists often use them in breeding as breeding material to obtain color when breeding petilium of other species.
Disk platilla – An example of a selection of aquarium fish with a variety of color options. The most common red. In disc plausae, the body shape is completely uncharacteristic for viviparous fish.
Its length is almost equal to the height. This species is distinguished by the fact that the male disc partilla is significantly smaller than the female (approximately one and a half times).
Tricolor – one of the most beautiful representatives of the genus. In nature, it is greenish-yellow with a blue tint.
As a result of the selection work, the range of colors was significantly expanded. Appeared orange-yellow and black tones. A large beautiful dorsal fin tricolor is also an achievement of breeders.
This species can interbreed with the swordtails.
Black petilia – has a mysterious and predatory species, however, like the rest of her relatives, peaceful. Valuable in breeding work makes her the ability to interbreed with the Sword.
The offspring of such a cross is obtained with a beautiful bluish or greenish tint.
Of interest is any of the species of these fish. Choose according to your taste, and the partilias will surely revive your aquarium.
PETSILIA-CONTENT BREEDING DESCRIPTION PHOTO FEEDING.
Pitsilii belong to warm-water fish. The color of aquarium species, thanks to many years of breeding and comfortable conditions of keeping, differs in brightness, richness and a wide variety of colors than in the ancestors of fish of this genus.
Their relatives, living in natural conditions, have a brownish-yellow color, with two prominent dark spots in front of the tail fin.
The fish of the genus Paecilia is small in size: the length of the body of the males is shorter than that of the females – from 3 to 4 cm and from 4 to 6 cm, respectively. The body is rather dense, strong, wide and strong tail fin, although as a result of selection experiments individuals with various forms of the body and fins were bred.
For adult males, in addition to size and more slender body, a characteristic omen is the aggregate organ (gonopodia) – anal fin rolled into a tube.
Problems with the content of placium usually does not occur. If the acquired small fish is sick, then the fish’s withdrawal may be 100% already in the first week after the acquisition.
Usually this is found with imported fish. If the fish is healthy and all the conditions are met, then it will not cause much trouble.
Whitefish can always be distributed to friends or give away (albeit free of charge) to a bird or to stores.
Summing up, we can say that the Petsilia is a very unpretentious, bright fish that is perfect for a novice aquarist. Observe the cleanliness in the aquarium, the mode and rate of feeding and the fish will delight your eyes for more than one year.
The genus consists of 33 species, the most common among lovers are the following types of species:
• Pecilia Xiphophorus maculatus
• Pecilia Xiphophorus variatus
• Pecilia amazonica
• Amazonian mollies (Poecilia formosa)
• Wide mollies (Poecilia latipinna)
• Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
• sailing mollies (Poecilia velifera) Compatibility conditions with other inhabitants of the aquarium Another plus of them is that they get along superbly in the general aquarium, they don’t touch any other fish at all. But keep in mind that for predators themselves they can become easy prey.
That is why it is best to place platies with other viviparous, for example, with mollies or swordtails.
A number of species of fish that belong to the family kartozuboobraznyh are called the partilias. Aquarists all over the world favor petsilians, however, in most cases they are called “mollies”.
At the very beginning, this term applied only to melanistic forms of the individuals., but later, the whole range of species of placium became known as this image.
Pecilia: reproduction and care at home. Petilia aquarium fish: description, content
Pezilya fish, the reproduction of which, as a rule, occurs without unnecessary trouble, is considered to be a fairly frequent inhabitant of modern living corners. It is often found not only in huge office aquariums, but also in ordinary home, medium or even very modest sizes.
In general, it should be noted that the pesilia is a fish, the content of which will not become problematic even for beginners in the world of aquarism.
This article will tell about it in sufficient detail. The reader will get acquainted with all the necessary information related to the habitats, feeding characteristics and the appearance of such an interesting inhabitant of the underwater world, such as Petsilia.
Reproduction and breeding at home will also be covered in separate sections. After reviewing all the facts provided, anyone who wishes can, without further fear, get such a fish as a pet.
Section 1. General information and habitat conditions in nature
Petilia breeding is easy, as no special conditions are required for this. By the way, many aquarists even laugh, saying that it is much more difficult to stop the reproduction of these fish than to start it.
And it really is.
So do you have a Petsilia? The reproduction of these inhabitants of the underwater world is not long in coming. In order for females to become pregnant normally and regularly, one male is enough for 3 females.
Such an amount is optimal, as it significantly reduces the competition of males and at the same time gives females the opportunity to take a break from them.
Pekyliya are viviparous fishes, i.e., they bear eggs inside the body and a formed fry, able to swim, is born immediately. It is easy to determine the pregnancy of the female by the rounded abdomen, as well as by the dark spot near the anal fin.
The female can easily give birth every 28 days, while the average number of fry is 20-40.
As a rule, the genera are easy. Although it is still advisable to plant a pregnant female in a separate aquarium and add more plants there.
At this time, the expectant mother does not need to be disturbed once more, therefore it is recommended to close the front glass with paper.
Section 8. Conditions for compatibility with other inhabitants of the aquarium
Maintenance and care is carried out without any problems, regardless of their type. In general, there are 33 species of placium.
In addition to the “real” there is a fish, which is mistakenly attributed to the genus Poecilia. It is called plyatipetsiliey, but in fact it belongs to the sword bearers.
Among the most popular species of these fish is sailing mollies, which is not related to the selection obtained and has kept its captivity in captivity the same as its “wild” brothers living on the Yucatan Peninsula. There are also many who want to settle in their aquarium guppy – freshwater fish of the genus Poecilia, which is naturally found on the islands of Barbados and Trinidad, in northern Brazil, in Venezuela and in Guiana.
There are several types of these fish:
- Pechiliya spotty. Small fish. Females rarely grow more than 6 cm, and males – 4 cm. The body is slightly elongated, rather wide tail fin. The color of the fish can be different: gray-blue, red, olive, blue. To date, breeders managed to bring a few dozen colored varieties of this species of fish. The fish is very unpretentious, even a three-liter bottle is suitable for its content.
- Necil Pecilia. Very peaceful and colorful fish. Perfect for a novice aquarist, as completely unpretentious. For a small aquarium it is better to buy several individuals at once, at least 7 pieces. Fish swim in flocks, while their scales shimmer in blue-blue.
- Pecilia is black. The fish has a black color, iridescent with a greenish or bluish tint. The fins of the fish are colorless, even transparent. Fry acquire black color at the age of about two months. To date, bring a matte smooth color and failed.
Breeding pelicia greatly simplifies the work due to the fact that nothing threatens the offspring. This type of fish is not fertile. For one breeding period, you can get up to five litters of 50 fry in each.
If the female is small, her litter will be even smaller. Pregnant petilia bears offspring for about a month. As soon as the spot near the anal fin darkens, and the abdomen swells noticeably, it is time to replant the female to the spawner.
The label lasts for several days. The female sweeps out one fry at intervals.
After giving birth, the female is again deposited in the general aquarium.
Caentium fry have a wide body that differs in body shape from other viviparous fish species. It is better to feed pelice fry with live food, placing it in a sufficiently large and spacious aquarium twice a day. In such conditions, the fish grow quickly and after 4 months you get a new generation of producers.
If there are only peelities in the aquarium, the fry are not in danger, they live peacefully with the adults. To improve the breed, select the best representatives of the species. Then apply separately education of males and females for 8 months.
To determine the sex, consider the male’s anal fin.
Pelicia can tolerate contagious or non-contagious diseases. Contagious infectious diseases appear in the presence of pathogens of plant origin: viruses, fungi or bacteria.
Animal parasites cause a non-infectious occurrence.
Pelicia can get sick in violation of the rules of the content, cold or infection, which came with food. Externally, the disease can be determined by the following features:
- fluffy formations appeared on the body of the fish;
- you have discovered bubble points;
Often this type of fish has melanosis, which is most often found in black and black-speckled species. With the disease you will find excessive pigmentation, over time it develops into a tumor.
For prophylaxis, strictly follow all rules of keeping fish, carefully monitor the temperature in the aquarium, carefully select food and diet, do not forget about the breeding.