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Order fish fishes: characteristics and representatives

The title of the representatives of the most extensive detachment of fish is rightly carried by the perch-like inhabitants of the underwater kingdom. This detachment, belonging to the ray-ray class, comprises approximately forty percent of the species of bony fish.

In the area of ​​distribution of individuals representing a detachment, absolutely all sea water bodies and most fresh water are included, which means they can be found in all climatic zones of the planet without exception.

Perciformes – the largest detachment of ray-finned fish inhabiting all the reservoirs of our planet

The Latin name of the squad – Persiformes. His representatives are mostly predators.

According to the color options, perch-shaped belong to one of the most diverse orders. The color of a particular individual is directly related to its habitat, or rather, to the climatic region in which it lives. Tropical fish have a brighter color than others.

In individuals swimming in the waters of northern latitudes, the color is rather pale and even faded, inconspicuous, mostly in gray-brown tones.

Perciformes are varied in color, but most of them have a sharp fin on the head or back.

Like many fish that exist in the modern world, they have a bone spine. It usually connects to the skull via a mobile attachment to the maxillary device.

The head of the perch-shaped specimen is, as a rule, “decorated” with thorns. The mouth of the individuals representing the detachment is formed by the jaws, the functioning of which is carried out according to the so-called grasping method. The fish makes a weak movement forward, freezes for some time, after which it rushes at the chosen prey with the maximum possible speed.

This style of attack does not leave prey no chance for salvation.

Most perciformes have bristle-type teeth, rather small in size. But some species have large canines. The skin of these fish covers the scales – most often of the ctenoid type.

Like all bony fish, the representatives of this order have gill covers.

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The swimming bladder is in no way associated with the intestines, and in some species it is completely absent. The anal opening is separated from the urogenital.

One of the main features of perciformes is fins. Usually they are equipped with peculiar spines – some fin rays have the form of unseparated sharp spines.

Most individuals have two dorsal fins.

Adipose fin completely absent. Belly if there is, then consist of no more than six rays.

They are located mainly under the chest and occasionally in front of them – on the throat. The pectoral fins are located either obliquely or perpendicular to the long axis of the body.

Fins are equipped with spines and adorn the head, back and chest of fish.

In their dimensions, perch-shaped fish of different species are very different from each other. The smallest representatives are the chindrius brevipus bullheads living near the Australian eastern shore.

The inhabitants of the underwater world of this species – one of the smallest fish on the planet. Their weight is only one milligram, and trunk length reaches:

  • in males – 7.7 mm;
  • females – 8.4 mm.

The largest perch-like individuals are blue marlin (Atlantic and Indo-Pacific). They can grow up to five meters in length and weigh at the same time almost a ton. Also The most prominent representatives include:

  • swordfish;
  • black marlin;
  • tuna ordinary.

These individuals are able to reach a length of 4.5 meters.

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But nevertheless, according to the traditional understanding of the detachment, individuals of small sizes prevail among perciformes. Over a third of all the varieties included in this squad have a body length within ten centimeters.

Large perch-like representatives, whose size is equal to or larger than one meter, account for less than three percent of the total number of species.

Most of the representatives of this species are small

The representatives of the vast detachment include more than a hundred and fifty families, classified into two dozen sub-orders. Thus, the number of varieties of perciformes in total exceeds ten thousand.

Many of these fish are considered commercial and important.

Perch-shaped individuals are able to fully exist in natural objects with both salt water and fresh water, therefore this unit includes both sea fish and freshwater ones. Among the representatives of the perch-like order The most common are:

  • bullies;
  • ruffs;
  • perch;
  • mackerel;
  • scads;
  • zander;
  • tuna fish

The known tuna fish is a variety of perch fishes.

Of these fish, zander can serve as the most striking example of the widespread habitat of perciformes.

Several varieties of zander live in the Caspian and Black Seas, some species live in rivers, and there are also so-called semi-passage individuals moving from river bodies to the seas. Therefore, the debate on the classification of pike perch lasts to this day – some consider it as a sea fish of the perch-like order, others as the freshwater representative of the order.

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