maintenance, care, compatibility
(This is a VERY big article that came out of a search on the world wide Internet, taken from various sources, at the very end (after all the pictures, some of them are written by Sayana Polska)) there is a step-by-step instruction on how to launch a nano-cube and recommended fish to run in a nano-aquarium)
The prefix “nano”, which has recently become fashionable to add to the most different objects and technologies, has reached the aquarium. So now it is possible to talk about how nano-aquarists in nano-aquariums contain nano-fish.
Jokes, jokes, but nano-aquariums have become a phenomenon that can not be overlooked, now it is a well-established and running term, which hides the whole concept.
So, what is a nano-aquarium? First of all, this is a small-sized tank, its volume does not exceed thirty liters, and much more often, it is two to three times smaller. In terms of their proportions, most popular models of nano-aquariums approach the cube (although, of course, a variety of options are possible) and have straight walls.
Already in this parameter, nano-aquariums are fundamentally different from any glass balls, glasses and other unimaginable products that are commercially available, which by mistake are sometimes considered an aquarium. Those in which it is difficult to see something and in which it is impossible to create normal living conditions for the fish. By the way, this requirement is the third fundamental difference of a nano-pond – this is a completely full-fledged aquarium, in which you can install and disguise any necessary equipment and create a sustainable and comfortable environment for plants, fish and other animals.
A nano-aquarium is a sustainable biosystem that can exist for a long time without cardinal intervention and reorganization.
The last feature of a nano-aquarium is largely determined by its owner, but still, in most cases, nano-aquariums are beautiful.
The small weight, size and enviable compactness of nano-aquariums greatly facilitate the choice of place for their installation. Bedside table, desk, kitchen shelf – there are many options for decorating living space, without restrictions imposed by traditional aquariums.
Is that requires proximity to the outlet, because the nano-pond is almost always dependent on various electrical equipment.
Nano-aquarium is not conceivable without live plants, therefore the most important part of the equipment is lighting. There are industrial models with traditional luminaires built into the lid.
But the majority of nano-aquariums are illuminated with household and office lamps on clothespins or flexible legs. Best of all, if they are designed for the use of compact fluorescent or energy-saving lamps.
Heaters for nano-aquariums are also varied. Many manufacturers of aquarium equipment in the model range there are automatic heaters of the traditional type with a capacity of 10-25 watts.
Sometimes nano-aquariums are installed on thermo-mat. There are also more exotic ways of maintaining the temperature, and in some warm rooms, a heater is not needed for keeping unpretentious fish at all.
Filtration methods in nano-tanks are even more diverse. The most minimalistic approach implies a complete rejection of any filters.
At the same time, it is absolutely rightly considered that the best filter is living plants, therefore such a body of water contains a large number of fast-growing water “herbs”. This approach requires regular and frequent “weeding”, and of course, aquarium experience.
It is better for beginner nano aquarists to use some kind of filter. Choose from what.
The range of devices of this kind, specifically designed for nano-aquariums, is large enough. The most inexpensive and affordable solution is an air-lift filter powered by an air compressor.
This is a very good and effective solution, but, unfortunately, such filters are not noiseless. For an aquarium installed, for example, in the bedroom, such a filter will not fit perfectly.
But the internal nano-filtriki, made on the classical model, are absolutely quiet.
Especially if it is not Chinese crafts, but good things from Europe, such as the Italian EDEN Cleanlet-304, which does not exceed the volume of a cigarette pack and which can be set and masked even in an aquarium of 5-8 liters.
In addition to the usual internal, in the course of a variety of designs of suspension filters. And recently even miniature external canister models appeared, quite like real ones, but only very small ones.
The effectiveness of such a solution is beyond praise. And to disguise this filter is easier than others – after all, he himself is outside, and inside the aquarium only water intake and discharge.
But, unfortunately, it is not always possible to find a place near the aquarium to install such a filter.
There is also any other equipment for nano-aquarium husbandry – CO2 supply systems, miniature flotation plants (yes! The nano-aquariums are even satisfied with the sea), various accessories such as nets, tweezers, tiny scrapers and siphons, etc.
The offer of various decorative elements for a nano-aquarium is even greater. These are soils of a certain fraction in small packages, flat and voluminous backdrops, natural and artificial snags, stones, etc. etc.
So you can choose the design of a nano-aquarium, for every taste, focusing on a variety of criteria.
Who lives in a nano aquarium? For many years most of the proposals of this kind came down to the content in the micro-capacity of the rooster.
But it turned out that if the right approach to the issue and make a small aquarium full, i.e. with soil, plants, normal lighting and other equipment, then the choice of fish becomes simply enormous.
The most diverse labyrinth fish – liliusi, gourami and rare species of macropods, many small haracin fish from Amanda to red neon, a variety of small carps – cardinals, microassemblies, small barbs, etc. The choice of viviparous fish is also huge. As for the toothfish, the nano-aquarium is simply their original body of water.
There are even small irises and atherines suitable for a nano-aquarium, and there are suitable cichlids. There are also catfish species that are appropriate in such an aquarium, although there are not very many of them, as well as various other fish.
And of course, today’s nano-aquaria is not conceivable without various dwarf freshwater shrimps (and some craftsmen manage to contain marine species).
The choice of living aquatic plants is equally large and varied. One listing of suitable types may take more than one page.
Additionally, the potential choice is increased due to the fact that plants grow better in nano-aquariums than in normal ones.
The shallow depth of the reservoir and the ability to provide a very strong light in the aquarium without much effort and effort leads to the fact that many plant species, considered whimsical and difficult in traditional aquarism, grow in nano-aquariums without problems.
And the last argument in favor of nano-aquarium husbandry: just look at the photos of decorated nano-aquariums.
Run a nano aquarium
A. Choosing an installation location
– Dark place inaccessible to direct solar paths
– Rinse the aquarium with warm tap water without chemical additives.
– Stick decorative film on the back wall of the aquarium
– Place the mat on a flat surface and place a nano aquarium on it.
C. Aquatic plants
– At least 3 days before planting in an aquarium, it is recommended to place the plants in a tank with water, in which you need to start adding Dennerle additives
Dennerle: Launch a nano aquarium according to 7 rules.
Step 1: Creating the DeponitMix Nutrient Medium
– Place a DeponitMix layer about 2 cm high — this is the bottom nutrient layer.
This first layer of soil DeponitMix gives the plant roots nutrients.
Step 2: Rinse and add shrimps gravel
– Fill the soil in such a way that the total layer of DeponitMix and Shrimps soil is 3 cm.
Dennerle Shrimps soil (Dennerle Shrimps Gravel Bed) prevents the decomposition of food debris and the livelihoods of living organisms between the soil granules and thus prevents excessive contamination of the aquarium.
Step 3: Installation of decorative elements
– Stones, roots or other decorative elements should not change the water parameters
For shrimps, crabs and crustaceans, it is necessary to equip places where they can hide.
Step 4: Fill the aquarium with water at 2/3 volume
– Fill the aquarium with tap water at a temperature of about 20 degrees for 2/3 volume, pouring water on a flat plate installed at the bottom. Before this, add conditioner to the water (2 drops per liter of water).
Step 5: Plant the plants in the aquarium
– Place prepared plants in the aquarium.
Approximately 80% of the soil surface should be planted with plants.
(use fast growing stem plants).
Step 6: Install the filter and topping up the water
– Place the corner filter in the free corner. Now add water.
Step 7: Install the lamp and protective glass
– Secure the included nano lamp
Secure the protective glass with the special mounts supplied.
Now you need some patience!
After 3 days: Replace 50% of the water. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
After 6 days: Replace 50% of the water. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
After 7 days: Replace 50% of the water again. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
Run the first shrimp.
Tip: we recommend running 5 shrimp per 10 liters of water.
Nano-tubes recommended for nano-aquariums
Pygmy Corridor, Corydoras pygmaeus
Russian name: Koridoras-pygmy, Somik-pygmy, dwarf catfish
Latin name: Corydoras pygmaeus
Family: Tigerfish, Calligthy (Callichthyidae)
Genus: Coridhoras (Corydoras)
Habitat: They inhabit the stagnant, slow-flowing, silted waters of the Madeira River and its tributaries (Brazil)
Description: Small, elegantly colored pygmy catfish reach a size of 3 cm – females and 2.5 cm – males. It is enough to simply distinguish the female from the male, due to its completeness and larger size, the males are slimmer and smaller than the females. The color of the fish is grayish, along the body from the mouth, bordered on the top and bottom by two pairs of antennae, and to the base of the caudal fin a black stripe runs, ending at the tail with a small dark spot.
Black stripes are edged with white stripes above and below it. From the anal to the ventral fin there is a small black stripe. The back is gray, much darker than the abdomen, which is green.
Fins are transparent ..
Aquarium parameters: For keeping Corydoras pygmaeus, an aquarium of 10 liters is suitable, into which you can run a flock of 4-5 fish. However, the most comfortable pygmies feel in a species aquarium in the amount of 10-15 individuals.
Soil is better to use loose, loose, dark tones. It is also necessary to have shelters in the aquarium, which are good for snags, coconut shells, shards, etc.
Plants are better to plant around the perimeter of the tank so that there is a place for swimming. The aquarium should be equipped with a filter and a compressor as the corridors like to rummage in the ground, lifting dirt from the bottom.
It is necessary to replace weekly 30% of water.
Water parameters: pH 7.0-7.2, DH up to 20
Water temperature: 20-26 ° C
Food: Fish is picky, eat both dry and various live and frozen food. Food is mainly taken from the bottom, as well as from the leaves of plants, but can rise and swallow it from the surface.
When feeding should be borne in mind that the pygmy corridor has a small mouth, so the size of the food should be small.
Content: Dwarf catfish are very interesting in their behavior, in contrast to other members of the Koridoras genus, they can often be seen floating in a thick flock of water, they also like to relax on the wide, horizontal leaves of plants and stones. Thanks to their activity and schooling lifestyle, Corydoras pygmaeus deserved the love of aquarists.
A flock of these wonderful catfish will decorate any aquarium, but because of their small size, you should keep them only with small peaceful fish (for example, some types of small tetras, iris, etc.). When arranging an aquarium, it is necessary to take into account that, like all corridors, catfish have intestinal respiration, therefore, there must be access to the surface of the water to trap air. It is not recommended to plant an aquarium with them with plants with finely dissected leaves, as catfish during the search for food rummage in the ground raising sludge, which is deposited on the foliage of the plants.
Breeding: Fish become mature and ready for spawning at 4–8 months, as a rule, males mature earlier than females. The female lays from 30 to 50 eggs, sticking them one by one on the walls of the aquarium and the leaves of plants. To stimulate spawning, you can add fresh water.
There are several ways to breed pygmy corridors.
The first way is to keep a small flock of catfish (12 and more) in a species aquarium densely planted with plants where they will be successfully bred under good conditions, without much intervention from the outside, because the pygmies do not eat their eggs and fry. Aquarist can only feed the young juveniles as they develop and grow, without removing the producers from the aquarium.
Another way is to spawn one female and 3-5 males in a spawning aquarium (from 10 l), although pair spawning is also possible. To stimulate spawning for 15 days in the evening, 15-50% of water is replaced with a simultaneous decrease in its temperature by 1-3 ° C.
Spawning process can last a whole day. After spawning, the producers are immediately deposited and the temperature in the spawning area is increased by 1-3 ° C.
Corydoras pygmaeus females, as a rule, choose well-lit objects for gluing eggs, so you can use glass leaning against a well-lit wall of the aquarium and the other glasses darken as a substrate. Fishes will choose illuminated glass for spawning, which, together with the delayed caviar after spawning, is transferred from the spawning to the incubator.
To avoid caviar rotting in water, add a solution of methylene blue to a pale blue color.
Growing fry: Larvae hatch after 4 days, 3 days after hatching, they can be started to feed by infusoria, and as they grow they can be transferred to nauplia of artemia. Juveniles of dwarf catfish pygmy of three weeks of age begins to develop much slower.
The color of the fry differs from the color of mature individuals.
Popondetta furcata, Pseudomugil furcatus
Russian name: Popondetta furkata, Fork-tailed blue-eyed
Latin name: Pseudomugil furcatus (Popondetta furcata). Synonyms – Forktail Rainbowfish, Forktail Blue-Eye Rainbow Family: Melanoteny or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: They live in small, clean, fairly fast streams of fresh water streams with abundant aquatic vegetation, flowing into the rivers of tropical forests in the east of Papua New Guinea.
Description: The maximum length of the fish is 6 cm, in the aquarium it usually does not exceed 5 cm. The main body color is yellow-green.
The double dorsal fin is divided by a small gap, the first one is much smaller than the second one. Males of Popondetta furcata are quite easy to distinguish from females, they are brighter and with an elongated dorsal fin.
The dorsal and anal fins in males are transparent with narrow yellow margins. Anal and pectoral fins often with a red tinge.
The blades of the caudal fin have yellowish stripes with a black border at the top and bottom border. In females, the tail fin lobes are yellowish in color, while the pectoral and anal fins are transparent.
Pseudomugil furcatus differ from most other forms of Pseudomugil from Australia and New Guinea by a more deeply forked tail fin, for which they received the name – Fork-tailed Blue-eyed.
Aquarium parameters: An aquarium with a volume of at least 40 liters is suitable for keeping popondetta. A large number of plants should be planted in the aquarium, which should be better positioned along the side and rear walls to allow free space for swimming. It is also desirable to have floating plants, as these fish like to be closer to the surface.
You must have a filter that creates a current. It should be regularly, at least once a week, replace the water.
Water parameters: pH 6.0-8.0, DH 5 – 12
Water temperature: 24-28 ° C
Food: You can feed any dry quality food, but especially love frozen and live food. When feeding, you should consider the size of the feed, as these fish have a small mouth.
For better health and health should be fed varied. Eat mainly in the upper layers of water.
Content: Moving, very colorful, schooling fish with a peaceful nature, swimming in the upper and middle layers. It is better to keep a flock of at least 6 individuals (preferably an equal number of males and females) with other peace-loving species of fish, such as tetras, danios, rasbora and medium-sized bottom fish.
Males can sometimes be aggressive to females, if kept in pairs, keeping in a group with a predominance of females will help reduce aggression. In any case, there should be enough plants in the aquarium so that the females can hide. Popondetta furcata is susceptible to velvet disease (oodinium), which is provoked by “old” water and with a large accumulation of nitrite in water.
Regular water changes, washing the filter and a varied diet will help preserve the health and beauty of these wonderful fish.
Breeding: Breeding is quite simple. Spawning is planted in a small aquarium in the ratio of 2-3 males to 8-10 females, which contributes to a greater number of deferred caviar and gives females a break from vigorous grooming males.
The variant of spawning by a pair is possible, but in this case one should monitor the behavior of the male, who may not like the female. He can be very aggressive towards her and she will suffer.
In this case, replace the female. Males during spawning behave very interestingly, swim with vertically set anal and dorsal fins and compete with each other.
As a spawning substat, Javanese moss is excellent, on which the eggs stick well. Marriage games begin in the morning, one female sweeps 5-10 eggs at a time, once a day. Eggs of Popondetta furcata, despite the small size of the fish, are rather large.
Substrate with caviar after spawning should be transferred to the nursery aquarium with water from the spawn, as producers can eat caviar and fry, and in its place put a new one. As a rule, fertilized eggs produce no more than 75%, this percentage decreases if the producers are poorly fed. Unfertilized eggs should be removed, and methylene blue should be added to water.
In spawning and nursery aquarium weak filtration is desirable. Larvae hatch will occur in about 10-15 days. The water level in the rearing aquarium should be low.
It should be increased with the growth of fry.
Cultivation of fry: The initial fodder for small fry Popondetta furcata is the ciliate of the infusorium. About a week later, when the fry grow up, you can give them nauplii Artemia. As you grow into the diet of fry, you can enter small dry and frozen food.
Unlike most other iris, these fish grow at a very fast pace. They become sexually mature at the age of 3-4 months.
Note: The fish is listed on the IUCN Red List, a list of rare and endangered animals, in the section on minimum risk of extinction.
Iriaterina Werner, Iriatherina Werneri
Russian name: Iriaterina Werner, Iriaterina verneri
Latin name: Iriatherina werneri, Threadfin rainbowfish
Family: Melanotene or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: The habitat is the clear, slow-flowing waters of the rivers of New Guinea and Australia.
Description: In nature, they grow up to 7 cm, but in a tank they reach a smaller size: males – 5 cm, females – 4 cm. Graceful fish, with an elongated, spindle-shaped body, flattened from the sides and unusual fins. An interesting double dorsal fin, the first part of which is pink-orange and has a rounded shape, and the second with 2-3 long black outgrowths that are duplicated on the anal fin.
Tail lyre-shaped, underlined in red or orange.
Two color variations of Iriaterin are distinguished – a new Guinean one, which is usually brighter, with an olive-brown body color and an Australian one with a silvery body background. On the main background of the body of the fish is golden metallic plaque, the most noticeable on the back. Depending on the lighting and conditions of detention, the color also varies, pink, green and blue shades can appear, as well as vertical black stripes on the body.
The eyes are bright, clear and bright.
Sex differences are fairly well pronounced. Males are larger, brighter, have elongated rays on the anal, second dorsal and caudal fins.
Females are slimmer and smaller, paler colored and with shorter fins without rays.
Parameters of the aquarium: Iriaterina Werner is a mobile fish that requires free space for swimming, therefore the aquarium should be 60 cm long. Thickets of plants are needed that should be positioned on the sides and along the back wall of the aquarium for greater comfort of the fish. front wall for free swimming fish.
The presence of floating plants is welcomed. Dark soil is desirable.
For decoration, you can use snags and stones. Mandatory aeration and filtration of water up to 2-3 volumes per hour, as well as its regular replacement at least once a week for 15% – 30%.
Water parameters: pH about 6.0 to 8.5; dН 2-16 ° if the rigidity is maintained at 15 dH ° and higher, then the fish become more resistant to diseases.
Water temperature: 22-30 ° C
Food: Due to the particular structure of the mouth, Iriatherina werneri takes food in the middle layers of the water, as well as settled on the leaves of the plants and the walls of the aquarium, less often from the surface of the water. The mouth is small and directed upwards, the lower lip is longer than the upper.
In its habitats it feeds on phytoplankton, small insects and diatom algae. They are omnivorous, food may be small crustaceans, nauplii Artemia, small mosquito larvae, as well as frozen and dry food.
It is very important when feeding to monitor the size of the feed, since even adults have a small mouth.
Content: Peaceful schooling fish with very interesting behavior. It should be kept by a flock of at least 5 individuals, in the absence of congeners it is nailed to fish of similar size and behavior, as in the flock it feels better and more confident. Very mobile, moving rapidly, sometimes hovering in a shady corner in the midst of plants.
When frightened hiding in the thickets of plants, where they become almost invisible. They love to play in the stream coming out of the filter water. Males iriaterin constantly find out the relationship between themselves, showing each other their beautiful stretched fins, but it does not come to fight.
In the course of these confrontations, interesting hierarchical relationships are established between males.
Werner’s iriaterines float in the upper and middle layers of water. They can be kept in a common aquarium with any small, peaceful fish, but should not be kept together with active fish such as barbs and tetras, which can bite off the ends of long rays of male fins.
Ideal for their habitat is considered a species aquarium of 60-80 liters, in which you can inhabit 12-15 fish. Also a good solution would be to live together with other iris iris, which will allow you to create a small world of fish from one corner of the world.
Breeding: Pre-spawning games and the spawning process itself are very interesting and give great pleasure to the observer. It was at this time that the Iriaterines vernier appear in all their glory.
The male takes place not far from the small-leaved plant he likes and jealously guards him from the encroachments of other males. Fishes swirl in dance, showing straightened fins at the same time making them quick flies, making them look like fluttering moths.
The female, ready to spawn, swims up to the male and they swim side by side in the thickets of small-leaved plants, where spawning occurs. Spawning takes place daily.
Eggs are deposited in floating and ground plants. Javanese moss is well suited as a spawning substat.
Larvae hatch on the 5-7th day, they are very small, but immediately begin to feed.
If Iriatherina werneri are contained in a separate species aquarium, then if there are a sufficient number of plants, their population will gradually increase, the adult fish practically do not eat their eggs and fry. This is the easiest way to reproduce these wonderful fish, it does not require much effort from the aquarist, but there will be few animals grown in this way.
For mass breeding, one should equip a spawning farm and plant fish at the rate of 3 females per male. Spawning should be at least 30 liters and contain a large number of plants and bundles of moss, in which the fish will spawn.
The moss should be replaced every 5 days from the moment of the first spawning to a new one, and the moss with already deferred caviar moves to specially prepared containers, where the larvae hatch and the fry will develop. Parameters of water in spawning: dH = 15-17 °, pH = 7.0-7.5, temperature 24-28 ° C
Growing fry: Feeding up the fry is complicated by their small size and low mobility. Infusoria and saltwater rotifers serve as starter feed, which should be very much in the aquarium, as in the first days of life the fry do not hunt, but wait for the feed to get into his mouth. This stage is the most difficult, further feeding the fry, usually at the age of 10-14 days, which can already take Artemia nauplii and larger feeds are not difficult.
It should also be borne in mind that, due to the peculiarity of spawning, the fry most often are of different ages and when feeding you should continue to give starting feed while the older and larger fry Iriaterin Werner already feed on artemia.
With good feeding grow quickly enough, up to 1 cm per month. The first sexual differences begin to appear at the age of 6 weeks, and sexual maturity reaches 4-6 months of life.
Microassembly Galaxy (Microrasbora sp. Galaxy)
Russian name: Margaritata, Micro-collection galaxy, Rasbora stellar
Latin name: Danio margaritatus (formerly Celestichthys margaritatus, Microrasbora sp. Galaxy)
Family: Carp (Cyprinidae)
Habitat: Inhabits small, shallow (depth from 30 cm to 1 m), densely overgrown with vegetation lakes of Myanmar.
Description: Fish are very small, the maximum size is 3 cm, but usually does not exceed 2 cm. Margaritates are very bright, unusual fish.
The main color of the body is gray-black with numerous bright spots and a yellowish belly. Males are distinguished by bright black fins with bright red stripes and patterns.
Females are paler and smaller than males, with more convex tummies, pelvic fins practically not painted.
Lifespan: about two years.
Aquarium parameters: Microdistribution of galaxies is contained in aquariums of any size, from small species 4–20 liters to total aquariums of 300 and more liters. In the aquarium desirable lush vegetation and floating plants.
They do not like strong movement of water, but filtration and aeration are desirable.
Water parameters: pH 6.5-7.8, electrical conductivity – 200-300 μS. Fish unpretentious, easily adapted to any water parameters.
Water temperature: 22-28 ° C
Food: They prefer any small live food (nematodes, daphnias, grindal) although they can eat large bloodworms. You can also feed dry quality food.
They feed in all layers of water.
Content: Most effectively, these small schooling fish look in a densely planted aquarium. Because of its small size, it looks good only in flocks, but it must be borne in mind that in currently popular nano aquariums of 4-20 liters, a flock of 10 fish will be simply invisible.
For such a volume it is recommended to plant 20-30 microassembly. In large aquariums, flocks of these tiny fish can reach up to hundreds of units.
Galaxies are very peaceful fish, they can be kept both in the species and in the general aquarium with any medium-sized non-aggressive fish species. It is noticed that living in a small species aquarium, the galaxies adhere to the middle and bottom layers of the water, and also behave extremely timidly, all the time hiding in the thickets of plants.
In the general aquarium, especially with the bottom layer of water densely populated with bottom fish (for example, corridors), the fish feel more comfortable, do not hide, swim mostly in the middle and upper levels of the aquarium and lead a more active lifestyle.
It should be noted that in consequence of such a small size, the full beauty of margaritat can only be assessed by close examination. From afar, their wonderful colors are not visible and the fish appear to be plain and gray. Danio margaritatus behavior is very interesting.
Between the dominant males, differing in the brightest color, there is a rivalry, but it never comes to real fights. They also chase females and other males, but everything goes without injury.
Cultivation: Simple enough, can spawn in the general aquarium in a bundle of moss or in the roots of floating plants. Spawning fish begin with three months of age.
To spawn, you can settle a pair or a small group. If desired, males and females can be seated for a week before spawning.
Spawning can be small in size with a thick bundle of small-leaf plants or moss in which spawning occurs. The temperature of the water in spawning 24-25 ° C, pH 6.5-7.5. You can keep the producers directly in spawning, occasionally catching fry from it, as the adult fish Celestichthys margaritatus eat fry.
With a sufficient number of small-leaf and floating plants, as well as in the presence of live food in the spawning farm, eating fry can be minimized. Also in the spawning should not be any snails that eagerly eat caviar microselect.
The eggs will be washed out in portions 2-3 times a week, at a time the female can produce up to 20 eggs, but if the producers kept spawning separately, this figure could increase to 50 pieces.
Caviar small, 0.7-0.9 mm in diameter. Three days after spawning, the larvae hatch from it, after another two days the fry are already actively swimming and feeding.
Growing fry: When hatching fry Microrasbora sp. Galaxy very small – 3-4 mm. During the day they swim in the upper and middle layers of the aquarium, and at night they attach themselves to the glass panes and plants in the lower part of the aquarium and hang like that until the morning.
Starter feed is ciliates or rotifers, a little later – Artemia. With normal growth, fry in one and a half months reach a size of 1-1.2 centimeters, in three months their size is already 1.5-2.0 cm.
Coloring starts at 2 months, and the full color of the fish reaches 5-6 months.
Note: The fish Danio margaritatus is listed in the Red Book of Myanmar.
Telmaterina ladigeza (Marosatherina ladigesi)
Russian name: Telmaterina ladigeza (sunbeam)
Latin name: Marosatherina ladigesi
Family: Melanotene or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: inhabits the mountain rivers of the island of Celebes in which the hard clear water flows
Description: In nature, telmarines grow to 7.5 cm, in the aquarium they usually do not exceed 5 cm. The body of the fish is elongated, the belly and back are yellow, the sides are yellowish with a green-blue luster with a longitudinal blue stripe running from the tail to the middle of the body of the fish.
Males are larger than females, brighter colored, on anal and dorsal fin they have long outgrowths of yellow color.
Aquarium parameters: Aquarium at least 60l. In order to maintain a general aquarium, it is necessary to have plants in it and free space for swimming.
Water parameters: dGH 10-30 °, pH 7-8, the addition of salt 3% is recommended, water changes up to 25% per week, active filtration and aeration are necessary.
Water temperature: 22-25 ° С
Food: Marosatherina ladigesi are omnivorous. It is recommended to give live and high-quality fortified dry food.
Content: Small, spectacularly colored, schooling, mobile fish. It draws attention with its coloring and unusual structure of the fins of the males, for which it received the name “sunbeam”. Due to its peaceful temper it can be contained with any non-aggressive fish species.
Swims in the upper and middle layers of water. Feels best in a moderately planted aquarium with dark ground and ample swimming space.
Poorly tolerates contaminated old water, so it is recommended to replace it as often as possible.
Dilution: In good conditions, Telmaterin Ladigez can spawn almost every day, using thickets of small-leaved plants for spawning. Spawning aquarium is desirable 40-50l, without soil, with small-leaved plants floating in the water and Riccia. The water level is 15-20 cm.
Parameters of water in spawning: 25-28 ° C, dН 11-20 °, pH 7.2-8.
You can determine the readiness for spawning by the rounded abdomen of females and the pugnaciousness of males. It is recommended to spawn males and females for a week before spawning. Spawning is planted in groups, 2-3 males per male, spawning occurs daily for several weeks.
During spawning, fish are fed live food 1-2 times a day. After 9-10 days the group is deposited in another aquarium, as the fry of the first spawning begin to hatch and gather near the surface of the water.
Growing fry: Starter feed for sunbeams are rotifers, ciliates, nauplii Artemia. The fry are rather large, willingly eat artemia, but grow rather slowly.
Sexual maturity reaches 7-8 months.
Eleotris carpet, Tateurndina ocellicauda
Russian name: Carpet eleotris
Latin name: Tateurndina ocellicauda
Family: Panhead (Eleotridae)
Habitat: inhabits shallow slowly flowing or standing water bodies of the southeast of New Guinea Island
Description: In nature, males grow up to 7 cm, females up to 5 cm, in the aquarium usually do not reach such sizes. It is quite simple to distinguish the male and female Eleotris: the males are longer and slightly brighter than the females, they are distinguished by a larger head and a high forehead.
Females have a more sloping forehead and a sharp muzzle.
Aquarium parameters: A pair of eleotrisses feels comfortable in a 10 liter aquarium. For a larger number of individuals requires a vessel of 60 liters, preferably with a variety of shelters.
Water parameters: dGH 4-18 ° is better not more than 12 °, pH is about 7. For the most comfortable living, Eleotrice requires filtration and water change at least once a week. Water temperature: 22-26 ° С
Food: Eat any live or frozen food, very fond of artemia. Dry food is disdained, but can be eaten if there is no live food.
Content: Carpet eleotris is a very peaceful fish that does not pose a threat to its neighbors regardless of their size. Perfect for keeping in a common aquarium. Having an excellent color, distinguished by unpretentiousness and endurance of Eleotris, is perfect for both beginner and experienced aquarist.
The behavior of the fish is calm, slow, swim in all levels of the aquarium, but prefer the middle and bottom layers, like shelters. Due to its sluggishness, especially if there are a large number of other fish in the aquarium can be left without food, this should be considered when feeding.
Males, especially in the absence of a sufficient number of shelters, show rivalry, but it can only be done by intimidating an opponent with frightening poses without injury.
Cultivation: Cultivation of an eleotris rather simple, but interesting. The readiness of the female for spawning can be determined by the pronounced fullness and yellowness of the abdomen. A couple is deposited in a spawning aquarium of at least 10 liters with a lot of shelters (eleotrissa spawn in the general aquarium, but to observe this interesting process most likely will not succeed).
The temperature in the spawning ground can be raised 1-2 degrees above the temperature in the general aquarium. Before spawning there is an interesting ritual of courtship. Externally, the producers practically do not change, with mating games, the abdominal fins instantly colored, turning black in females and dark brown in the male.
After the games, which can last a very long time, the couple chooses a shelter (usually the narrowest) and carefully prepares it. Up to 200 transparent eggs, about 1 mm in size, are deposited on the prepared substrate. After spawning, the female should be transplanted, the male remains to care for the roe, but there are cases of eating by the hard-working father of the roe, so it is advisable to do it too.
Install the sprayer next to the brickwork and add methylene blue to pale blue water. Larvae appear depending on the temperature in the aquarium, at 27-28 ° C after about 6 days, with a lower one 1-2 days later.
The pair is ready to re-spawn in two weeks.
Cultivation of fry: Infusoria, rotifers, Artemia naupliuses, which should be fed for a sufficiently long time, sometimes up to a month, can serve as a starting feed for the eleotris species. The fry of the carpet eleotrix are very lazy, so the concentration of food in the aquarium should be very high, which requires more careful monitoring of water quality. Fry grows with abundant feeding and good conditions about 1 cm per month.
After a month, a dark spot appears at the base of the caudal fin, full color is acquired only 4 months after the larvae hatch.
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photo: Sergey (kokon2208) (with gratitude from the site).
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Author photo: Sayana Polska (Sayana Polska)
(with respect and gratitude from the site).
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