maintenance, care, compatibility
Mollies content feeding compatibility spawning care description
Here are the most popular types of mollies: black mollies (lira-molly), Velifer mollies, sailing mollies, sailing mollies. Silver mollies (also called snowflake mollies) is a selection form of sailing mollies.
Keep them better in groups or in pairs.
This fish lives mainly in the upper and middle layer of water, loves the water space and light.
The light day of mollies should be at least 12-13 hours. It is useful for fish, if at least a couple of hours a day lighting is natural, but if there is no possibility, then you can do without it.
Of course, she also needs natural shelters: thickets of plants, snags, decorative ornaments that can serve as a refuge.
Mollies feed on all types of dry and live food.
The only condition that helps to maintain the activity and health of these fish is that they definitely need plant fiber.
Therefore, along with others, use vegetarian feed, plant in the aquarium plants with soft leaves, which the fish can eat. You can also feed them in small portions of chopped boiled vegetables.
Another important point in the content of mollies: at home, they live where the river water mixes with the sea water, and therefore they like hard water. If you only have mollies and placilia in your indoor pond, you can even add some salt to the water on purpose.
If other fish also live with them, then of course you should not do this. But in the case of illness or quarantine, the fish can be deposited in an aquarium with salted water – so it will come back to normal faster.
Mollies are viviparous fish that become sexually mature between the ages of five and twelve months. When the female collects her calf in her belly, the male inserts her gonopodia into her anus and releases the sperm.
The process of spawn fertilization takes place inside the female. The frequency of sweeping is from twenty-eight to fifty days, and the gestation period is from ten to sixty days. The number of fry born depends on the age of the female specimen.
Mollies fry develop very quickly, as they are born in fairly large individuals that need to be provided with good nutrition.
At one time, the female gives offspring to 50-60 rather large fry. You should know that molly fry are very vulnerable to water pollution, therefore in the aquarium with fry it is recommended to replace part of the water more often than usual. To enhance the immune properties of fry, you can add some salt water.
Primary food: Artemia and Cyclops naupliuses, “live dust”, crushed high-quality artificial food.
The name “molliesia” originated from the genus name – Mollienesia. The natural range of these fish is fresh and slightly saline waters of Central America. Wide mop mollies live mainly in reservoirs with standing waters or small currents in southeastern North America.
The natural color of these fish is very colorful, mostly dominated by yellow-gray and spotted species.
For the first time these fish appeared in Europe more than 150 years ago, it was the spotted mollies that became the favorites of aquarists. Then, the popularity of the hybrid form, which acquired the name black mollies, gained popularity.
Black mollies were obtained as a result of breeding in the United States, and in the early forties of the last century they were bred in the territory of the Soviet Union.
In the sixties, it became fashionable to keep other mollies – the lira mollies. Which, in turn, were also bred by selection, as well as fish with a short disk-like body.
At first glance, domesticated mollies resemble swordtails. But mollies have wider tail fins and more dorsal fins.
The females of these fish are slightly larger than the males. With good care and favorable conditions, females grow up to 8 cm, and males up to 6 cm. Wild representatives of this species are one and a half times larger.
In addition, the fish living in the wild have a somewhat oblong and more rounded body, they are somewhat reminiscent of the placium.
Even an inexperienced eye can distinguish females and males; the males have a long process at the anal fin – gonopodiums.
Mollies are viviparous fishes, they are loved for a magnificent and bright color. For example, in sailing fish of this species of extraordinary beauty, a gray body with an olive sheen, on which, like a brush, transverse stripes and nacre specks form dark points.
Aquarium species of mollies are the result of the cultivation of North American species, or their selection. Despite a number of differences, all the fish have common qualities.
- Females of all types of mollies are an order of magnitude larger than males: for example, Velifer’s mollies reach 18 cm in length, female Latipeny 12 cm, sphenops 8 cm. Sexual dimorphism is expressed: except for the difference in body size, the anal fin of a male cone-shaped (genopod) in females it is fan-like. All the mollies females are viviparous fishes that bear fry, bringing them to the light ready for full-fledged life activity.
- Pet shops sell different sphenops and latexes, how many of them are actually bred – only experienced ichthyologists know. Black mollies are common. Sometimes among their brood there are other forms — spotty, with light scales, or blue-green skin. New species – fork mollies, which has a “carved” tail fin, elongated in the upper and lower parts; scarf molly, in which the dorsal fin is long and elongated.
Mollies are considered one of the most beautiful fish, so they are welcome pets for many aquarists. They get along well with the swordtails.
Though the mechs differ in their rather restless nature, they drive very rarely in the plazus.
Only now, if there are no females of the Swordtail in the flock, the “guys” will try to molest Molly, but, as you understand, to no avail. Also note that in close quarters “battles for territory” can begin, so the fish should have a lot of space.
Compatibilitys Mollies with guppies are almost perfect. Both species belong to viviparous, live in warm brackish water, like sunlight and dense vegetation.
If breeding is also included in your plans, then before giving birth to the fish, you should be separated from each other, and after the appearance of the offspring, you should also remove females, as they sometimes are not averse to eat their own fry.
In general, mollies can be contained along with:
- All kinds of petsilium and catfish,
Mollies: content, types, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
Habitat mollies is very wide. In addition, the natural habitats of various types of mollies consist of fresh water, brackish water bays, and even sea coasts. Velifer molliesia populates only lakes and rivers of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.
Latipina mollies inhabit the brackish waters of Virginia, Florida, Carolina and Texas. Sphinops mollies live in a variety of reservoirs in the territory from Mexico to Colombia.
Latin name: Poecilia.
Comfortable water temperature: it is below 25 degrees, better than 27. Mollies are thermophilic, the temperature drop is poorly tolerated.
PH Acidity: 7-8, which is typical of many viviparous fish – they love a weakly alkaline environment.
Aggressiveness: Peaceful, but nimble – shebby fishes.
How many live: up to 4 years.
The complexity of the content: lekaya
Compatible mollies: viviparous fish – platies, swordtails; labyrinth – gourami, lyalius; non-aggressive and small dwarf cichlids“, angelfish, even cockerels (It is worth noting that scalar and cockerel are soft water fish, which is not very similar to the parameters of water for mollies).
In the aquarium, it is desirable to create a stable biological balance environment. All types of mollies are quite thermophilic and prefer water with a temperature of 25–27 ° C, they do not tolerate temperature fluctuations.
Like all fish, mollies love fresh water, so systematic is desirable – once a week, replacement of aquarium water in a volume of 1/4. This manipulation will ensure the absence of high concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in the aquarium – ammonia, nitrite and nitrate.
When making water changes, you need to strictly monitor the temperature regime. Filtration and aeration of water is required.
Most of the time the fish are in the upper and middle layers of the aquarium. Optimally light day for these fish should last at least 12 hours, so you need to equip the aquarium open, well-lit areas.
No less important is the presence of stones, koryag, thickets of plants, etc. for shelter.
Mollies is an active fish, moderately friendly. Keep it better in a group with a predominance of females. It can live both in the general aquarium and in a separate one.
It gets along well with diverse neighbors. In general, the fish “neighbors” should be about the same size.
Between themselves, mollies get along well – intraspecific aggression is poorly pronounced, but at the same time in the close aquarium males can chase each other. Therefore, it is better to provide a spacious aquarium so that at least 10 liters of water are needed per individual.
Reproduction and sex differences of male and female mollies
Aquarium fish mollies balloon: description, photo, content, reproduction
This beautiful aquarium fish was artificially bred during a careful selection of representatives from the mollies species of latypin. Mollies balloon has a very unusual constitution – it resembles a balloon filled with air.
The body is shortened, which does not contribute to the normal functioning of the internal organs, so the fish needs close attention from the person.
Despite this, mollies balloon – this is one of the most popular aquarium inhabitants, which is bred by many fans of the underwater world.
This species also has a shortened body, with a noticeable curvature of the ridge. Fish mollies balloon does not grow more than six centimeters. Its feature is a large abdomen.
It is the result of a modification of the species. The internal organs are tight and small.
Body color is somewhat reminiscent of the latex mollines. But today individuals of other shades are widespread: orange, red, black, silver, gray.
These fish are very much decorate the aquarium, so for many lovers it is important that in their underwater kingdom lived a mollies balloon. How to distinguish the female from the male?
Quite simply, males have a genopodia (anal fin) conical, with females it is round.
Mollies – viviparous fish: the offspring are born completely adapted to life in water. The life span of this species is from 3 to 5 years.
Mollies easily breed in an aquarium, and the offspring very quickly reaches puberty. Depending on the size of the fish and the age of the female gives birth to a hundred young fish.
In addition, a feature of viviparous fish is that male sperm is stored in the female’s body for a long time. This allows you to give birth to fry several times, even if the male is removed from the aquarium.
For breeding, you only need to purchase individuals of both sexes, and these fish will overpopulate the aquarium in a short time.
We mentioned the stamina that distinguishes the mollies balloon. Fry, unlike adults, are very sensitive to water parameters, especially for harmful impurities.
Frequent water renewal is recommended. To make the offspring adapt more easily and not be afraid to eat (fry are afraid to take it in the first days of life), place Javanese moss in a container.
The very first food for young fish is ground food, small ciliates.
If you have nowhere to move fry, use a five-liter jars with separated running water. Banks better put in a bright place, but direct sunlight should not fall on them.
Mollies are active, but at the same time peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium, they are very sociable, they love to live in the vicinity of their species or with other viviparous fishes. Males sometimes quarrel, but do not cause each other serious injuries.
Only a few fish exhibit a character that can manifest itself in aggressive behavior. You can keep mollies with any fish that has a similar temperament and has the same requirements for the chemical composition of water.
Avoid proximity to fish that can damage the fins of their peaceful neighbors. This primarily refers to the barb of Sumatran. Bottom catfish corridors, platies, other viviparous, some types of rainbow fish will become their best neighbors.
Not bad coexist with mollies tetra, carp, other haratsinovye that can live in such parameters of water.
Conditions of keeping and breeding fry
Males and females of different types of mollies may be neighbors and not in conflict, therefore, living in an aquarium with a company of other fish is only a joy for them. They prefer to swim in the upper middle layer of the tank.
During the day, they move alone or in small schools (flocks), and at night they form one joint, swimming in the upper ball of the reservoir.
In order for different types of mollies to live comfortably in an aquarium, 10-20 liters of water are required for 1 individual. For fish of one species, an aquarium of 80 liters, for different species – 110-120 liters. At least 3 females should be settled on one male.
Fish can breed in the general aquarium (on the condition of a small population) or in a prepared breeding ground. To breed the fry, producers need to be fed for 2 weeks with vegetable food.
Look at the spawning of mollies.
Comfortable conditions of maintenance guarantee spawning in a month or two after settling in a new “house”. The cone-shaped organ of the male genopodia is used for fertilization of the female: seminal fluid is transmitted through it, it also allows you to hold onto the female during breeding, and the ability to become pregnant increases. In fact, pregnancy does not come so easily.
Only 1 in 10 copulations ends successfully. Males become sexually mature at 8-12 months, females at 5-6 months.
Breeding of all types of mollies is not difficult for the responsible aquarist. However, the fry of this fish are sensitive to water parameters, in particular, to its pollution, so you will have to change the water frequently.
With successful copulation, the male fertilizes at once many eggs, in which the fry begin to develop. Some mature and are born, others remain inside the female until the next generation.
In the absence of a male in the aquarium, the female can give birth to another 35-50 days at intervals.
- The fish are examined and the anal fin is found. You should look at the belly of the individual and find the anus. It is located near the tail unpaired fin. If the individual is feminine, then it has a triangular fin, if masculine, then the shape of the fin resembles a tubule. With this fin, the individual produces internal fertilization, as the viviparous fish. This sign is used to determine the sex of any viviparous fish.
- There are individuals of mollies, which are distinguished by size. The size of the male is smaller than the female. The activity of males is higher. She talks about the ability of individuals to produce healthy offspring. Sailing mollies look different than usual.
- The adult male Mollienesia velifera has a huge dorsal fin in the form of a sail, so this fish is called Sailing: photo
The female has an ordinary, not large dorsal fin.
Going to the store or the market for fish, you need to be able to distinguish a girl from a boy, because the seller’s task is to sell his goods quickly and he may not understand such matters. You can get a beautiful fish in the aquarium, only it should have the ability to breed.
Of course, who would not want to get luxurious mollies with paired fins in the form of large brushes. Only in this case it is difficult to distinguish the male individual from the female individual, because the pair fin will also end in a large brush.
The same with the anal fin. This occurs because this fish was created from two species of individuals and is called guppinesia.
Having stumbled into a similar fish in a store, it is worth knowing that it is sterile and not suitable for breeding.
There are several types of Molines. All of them live in different ranges. In the waters of Mexico and Colombia live sphenopses.
In the waters of Virginia, Carolina, Texas and Florida live latipinny. Velifara inhabits waters near the Yucatan Peninsula.
Molliesia is one of the most popular fish that they buy for an aquarium. Fondly thinking that these fish are easy to maintain, people often acquire them.
Unfortunately, many mollies die in the first days precisely because of the wrong content. For the price of this fish is very affordable, so people are often negligent towards their silent pets.
Breeders have done a great job, and there are so many varieties of these fish, which differ in size and color. Nowadays, mainly artificially derived black types of mollies are on sale.
Optimal living conditions
Before we learn how to mollies, it is necessary to characterize this species. In the content of fish capricious. Ten individuals can be placed in an aquarium of 100 liters.
So it will be easier to maintain the stability of the environment. For aquarium need clean and fresh water.
It should be hard and maybe even alkaline, and for this you need to put some marble in the water. Water a little bit to add salt.
To do this, it is better to use sea salt or regular cooking, but coarse ground. One liter needs about 2-3 grams of salt.
Fish should be added to food by adding herbal supplements in the form of lettuce leaves, or they are recommended to choose a special balanced feed. These fish are very sensitive to light, so daylight should be at least 13 hours.
Another aspect that is recommended to pay attention to is the water temperature. It should be stable, without sudden drops.
These fish are thermophilic, which means that the water in the aquarium should be in the range of 25-30 degrees.
Reproduction of mollies is possible when the age of the female reaches six months. And, of course, if there is a male in this aquarium.
In mollies, the difference between the female and the male is not very visible. Gender can only be determined by the shape of the anal fin.
In all species of mollies, the male is slightly smaller than the female.
It should be noted that the dilution of mollies is simple. There is one peculiarity – the fry of this fish are very sensitive to pollution, therefore, in the aquarium where they live, the water must be changed often. Pregnant mollies brings 50-60 fry.
Often lovers wonder how to determine the pregnancy mollies. According to their impressive square belly, it can be concluded that the female will soon have offspring.
If you are convinced of pregnancy mollies, fish should be deposited in a separate aquarium. The water in it should be warm.
Preferably, in the aquarium were thick algae. However, it should be remembered that it is necessary to replant very carefully, in order not to start a premature spawning of mollies.
The female is deposited a few days before the intended childbirth. It is not necessary to specially prepare the breeding ground, as the female may be subjected to undue stress.
The fact that approaching childbirth, you will tell the behavior of the fish itself. She will definitely look for a place where she could be alone.
How to give birth to mollies, you can see firsthand. If the fish does not hide in the greens, you can watch the babies appear.
It can be concluded that reproduction occurs in mollies, as in all viviparous fish, but before you get these beautiful fish in you, you need to read a lot of literature on how to care for them and how to breed. If you do not be lazy and find the necessary information, then the fish will live a long time in your aquarium and please the eye.