maintenance, care, compatibility
How to treat semolina in fish? How to treat fish from semolina at home?
Antipar is the most effective of all existing drugs.
At the beginning of the life cycle, ichthyothirius colonize the skin and gills of fish. After that, on the site of their dislocation, dermoid tubercles appear. A large number of bumps are located in a chaotic manner throughout the body of the host.
Among aquarists walks not the official name of this disease “semolina”.
The most common species I. Multifiliis feeds on the body tissue of the fish. Like any organism, vital processes are accelerated in warm water, which leads to accelerated growth and reproduction.
The maximum temperature that the parasite can withstand – 32 degrees. With a high thermometer, it dies within 12 hours.
A grain size of 1 millimeter can be achieved in 3-5 days if the water temperature in the aquarium is around 24-25 degrees. When it reaches that size, it leaves the body of its owner. After that, ichthyothirius settles to the bottom and forms a cyst for reproduction.
There the cells begin to actively divide. From one grain can get up to 2000 living organisms. The process of the appearance of daughter cells occurs very quickly (6 hours at 25 degrees).
Within two days they try to find a host, if the body does not have time to find a donor, then it dies. Thus, the life cycle of ichthyothirius I. Multifiliis is about 4 days.
In cases of tropical representatives, grains appear on the body of the fish, arranged in groups. They are ways to leave and immediately return to the body of the fish.
Tropical ichthyofiriuses are able to reproduce regardless of the presence of the host, which leads to a rapid increase in the number of the parasite. It is important to quickly identify the disease and immediately begin treatment until the parasites have completely captured the body.
If the owner of the aquarium will be able to quickly recognize the disease and begin treatment until there are not many dermoid tubercles on the body of the fish, then the fish can be saved. In the event that there are tens of thousands on the body, this is much more difficult.
Even getting rid of parasites is not enough, as bacteria and fungi easily penetrate into the remaining wounds.
- The greatest danger of contracting ichthyophthyriosis in fish that eat live food. If the food is taken from the local water body, then these parasites will not be difficult to withdraw. It’s another thing if ichthyofiruses got into the aquarium together with plants brought from the tropics.
- A “newcomer” in an aquarium can also carry parasites on his body. Despite a careful inspection when buying them can not be noticed. Several individuals of ichtiftirus can hide under the epithelium, in the oral and gill cavities. They are awakened and shown out as a result of falling into a favorable environment or because of the stress suffered by the donor fish.
It is important to closely monitor the behavior of the fish after the new neighbor is hooked up. It is possible to suspect the presence of ichthyphyrus on the body of fish, if:
- Presses fins;
- Itch about the ground;
- Decreased appetite;
- Become shy.
In order to make sure that there are no parasites, feed a fish from your aquarium into the quarantine aquarium. If after a few days everything is in order, then you can release a newbie to the rest.
True, this method may not seem humane.
Until recently, it was believed that ichthyophthyriosis is easily cured. Now it is not so: the parasites have adapted to the methods of dealing with them, and therefore it becomes more and more difficult to get rid of the illness.
It is important to begin treatment as soon as possible: when the first symptoms of the disease appear. In the absence of the necessary procedures, ichthyophthiriosis can kill the affected fish in one week.
To get rid of the disease, it is necessary to completely withdraw the parasites.
The treatment of fish can be made both in the same aquarium, and in a separate container. In the environment from which its inhabitants were removed, the parasites do not survive. They die within 2-3 days.
Therefore, after a successful therapy, you can safely return the pets to their former place: nothing threatens their health.
There are several proven ways to combat the disease:
- Treatment by increasing the temperature
Parasites that cause ichthyophthyriosis, are able to normally exist and multiply at a temperature of from 25 to 27 degrees. If you heat the water to 34 degrees, they will die within the next five hours. When choosing this method of therapy, consider the temperature preferences of aquarium fish and plants.
- Salt treatment
Set the aeration to maximum capacity, heat the water in the aquarium to 30 degrees and add the usual table salt at the rate of a tablespoon for every 30 liters of liquid. The essence of the method lies in the fact that there is less oxygen left in the water that parasites need for normal life, and the high temperature prevents their reproduction. The duration of such therapy is about two weeks. Then during the month, it is necessary to replace weekly 30% of the water in the aquarium.
- Use furatsilina
This effective antimicrobial agent can be purchased at any pharmacy at an affordable price. For the treatment of disease in fish, you will need a 0.02 g tablet. Take one tablet and soak it in warm water to dissolve it. This composition is enough for 40 liters of fluid.
The next day, substitute 20% of the water and add to the artificial pond half of the dissolved tablet. Repeat this procedure for 4-6 days. Such a period is quite enough for the full recovery of aquarium fish.
- Use of hydrogen peroxide
Buy a 3% peroxide solution at a pharmacy and add it to the water to calculate 1 ml per 10 liters of liquid. Repeat this procedure twice a day. Means saturates an artificial reservoir with oxygen, and fish have an opportunity to breathe more freely. It is important not to overdo it with dosages: a large amount of the drug in one sitting will burn your pets fins.
- Antipara application
Add the agent to the aquarium at a dosage of 1 ml per 50 liters of fluid. Change daily water by 30% for the next 5-7 days. For a week of this therapy, you will be able to defeat the disease.
It is quite possible to cure ichthyophthiriasis if therapy is started promptly. Carefully monitor the health of pets, keep the aquarium clean, treat all items placed in it with antiseptics, and then your pets will not be afraid of ailments.
The most common disease of aquarium fish is semolina, so it is easier for his slang to call this disease aquarists. In fact, in scientific language, this disease is called ichthyophthyriosis.
It manifests itself by the appearance of small white bumps the size of a semolina. These white bumps are nothing more than equal-celled single-celled parasites.
Their body resembles an egg the size of 0.5 -1 mm and is covered with cilia.
In general, semolina (fish disease) enters the aquarium with food, algae, soil, which was taken from water bodies and did not undergo the disinfection process. Also, this disease can come along with plants or fish from the aquarium where the ichthyophthirius infusorium has already appeared.
To see this disease in fish at an early stage is very difficult. Best of all, white dots are noticeable on the forehead of fish, where the infusoria likes to spread the most.
Once in the aquarium, the ciliate looks for a fish, sticks to it and begins to feed on its epithelium. After 4 days it grows up, leaves the fish and divides itself into two thousand similar ones. These infusorian babies, in turn, are also beginning to look for fish to survive on it.
So the fish is covered with decoys.
FISH IS PAIN AND BAD
first symptoms of the disease, description of fish diseases
The first symptoms of the disease in aquarium fish should not be ignored!
Diseases of aquarium fish – an emergency for an aquarium. Even experienced, knowledgeable gurus of the aquarium world can have a state of emergency of illness of pets.
However, in such cases, do not despair. Many diseases, especially in the initial stage, are treatable.
The first and most important step in the treatment of fish disease is diagnosis. With the help of several signs – symptoms, you can understand exactly what your fish is sick and how dangerous it is.
Ichthyopathology – the science of fish diseases, divides them into: infectious infectious and invasive, as well as non-infectious. The causative agents of infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Invasive diseases arise as a result of invasions – attacks on the fish organism of parasites of animal origin – disease-causing ciliates, intestinal cavities and worms. Some small crustaceans can also parasitize the body of the fish.
The occurrence of non-communicable diseases in most cases is associated with a violation of the optimal conditions of fish in the aquarium or improper handling.
The main sign that the fish hurt and bad – it is when they hang for a long time in one place or lie on the bottom, hiding under the roots or decorative elements of an aquarium.
When there is a lot of nitrates and nitrites in the water – organic matter that ferments, rot and pollutes the aquarium due to an excess of food and waste products of its inhabitants, the fish is wrapping gill cover (on the body of the fish, there are gill covers on the sides of the head, which cover the gills, and under them is a layer of skin that can “crawl out” behind these covers). A plus, if the fish is very active breathing, This is also a sign of an increased amount of nitrates, nitrites, since oxygen is very poorly soluble in such waters.
In such cases, it is necessary to immediately replace the aquarium water.
Due to the increased amount of organic matter, fish poisoning occurs. Poisoning can also occur due to the use of poor-quality live food caught in water-polluted waters when feeding dry daphnia and bloodworms, with frequent feeding of artificially diluted potworms – such food is difficult to digest and causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of fish.
Symptoms of poisoning are as follows: the fish willingly eat food, but remain sluggish, the color of the skin dims. They can lose orientation in space, with severe poisoning, convulsive movements are observed. In inflammation of the stomach, the belly of the fish slightly increases (should be distinguished from other diseases or from the maturation of the genital products), there may be redness of the anus.
Fecal masses have a large amount of bloody mucus and filamentous form.
In such cases, it is sometimes sufficient to transfer the sick fish to a diverse and comprehensive feeding with live hydrobionts and clean the aquarium, carry out the process of removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and volatile oils from the water. It is not recommended to collect live food in ponds with wastewater.
Also, when installing a new aquarium and various equipment, everything must be thoroughly rinsed – after all, toxic substances from putty used in their manufacture can get into the water.
If your colorful fish change color, reasons for excitement are few. Such a process often takes place as a result of maturation, mainly in young individuals.
Carp, for example, is born just gray, and after a while it can enhance the color, which is incorporated genetically.
If the fish spend the night in the dark, and in the morning they turn on the light – they can dull slightly. And if this happens during the day – this may be, again, the effect of nitrates and nitrites.
Of course, it is impossible to keep the aquarium on the windowsills – under the influence of direct sunlight the fish grow dull and can get sick.
Faded fins are often the result of injury. (aggressive neighbors, injury to stones and foreign objects, improper transportation, etc.) can lead to the formation of fin rot. In this case, it is better to isolate the fish until its fins heal.
If on them bunches that look like cotton flakes or white spots will appear, then the fish must be treated with antibacterial drugs.
Sometimes, on the fins of a fish, which ideally should be transparent, red strings appear – this is a hemorrhage in the fins, meaning a dramatic change in the parameters of water – hardness, acidity, temperature, increased content of organic matter. Of course, a simple water change and tracking and adjustment of its parameters will help here.
But pressed to the body fins – spinal, anal, lateral – can mean both elevated levels of nitrates and nitrites, and fungal disease, which is not difficult to destroy.
Everything, that on fish looks like a foreign body is bad and should attract the attention of the owner. In an infectious fungal disease (ringworm), the inhabitants of the aquarium covered with white thread, growing into a vat-like formation.
Sick fish become slow-moving, stop feeding, and in the absence of timely treatment they die from ulcers that affect the gills. In most cases, rheumatic fever suffers fish are in tight containers with dirty and cold water – below 20 ° C. At the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and can be cured – you just need to create optimal conditions for the fish, dissolve salt or copper sulfate in water.
In the local form of fungal growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rhinovanol.
If the fish white dots appeared of the same shape and size, this means that her ichthyophthiriosis or “semolina” is the simplest (ciliates) that settle on aquarium fish and parasitize, propagating by division outside the host’s body. The fish quickly dies from this invasive disease, but it is easy to cure it – dilute malachite green or corny salt, pour it into the aquarium, increase aeration, raise the temperature by 5 ° С for 10 days. If a white dots of different sizes, but round – this is most likely a bacterial infection.
It can also be killed with special medicines, for example, baktopur, antibacterial. It may be that points are not the same and have irregular shape – it will also be a fungus, it is easy to destroy it with malachite (malochite green), salt.
Sometimes on the fish may form an abscess, like a purulent pimple – these are microsporidia or cnidosporidia (protozoa that form a colony in the muscles of the fish). Destroy them almost impossible. The only thing that can be done at home is to put an ultraviolet lamp through which water flows, as a result of which all bacteria and microorganisms are destroyed.
That is, when these sporidii break through the scales and begin to look for another fish, then they pass through the water with the water passing through the lamp. But the best option would be to fish this fish with “cones”.
Aquarists call lepidorthosis the worst disease (Rus. scattering).
Symptoms – when the scales start to stand on end (if you look at the fish from above, the scales look like needles), under it are visicules – bubbles, in which there are pathogens. Lepidorthosis is almost not treated – such a fish must be very carefully pulled out with a net so that the bubbles will NOT crack and the pathogens will not get into the water.
Sad and painful, but the fish itself must be disposed of, and the net boiled, or washed with alcohol or formalin. It is also worth to disinfect the aquarium, soil, plants and equipment.
Ways to treat fish:
In general, the treatment of sick fish is carried out mainly in three ways: in the general aquarium, in a separate vessel and individually (with medical lotions). Common and effective treatment is in a separate vessel.
With its short course, a therapeutic solution of high concentration is detrimental to the causative agent.
Resuscitation of sick fish in the general aquarium does not always provide a 100% recovery. Low concentrations of therapeutic solutions do not completely kill the pathogens, especially those that are under the skin or in the muscles. In addition, increasing the concentration of therapeutic solutions destroys aquatic vegetation.
With this method of treatment, a number of pathogens remain in the soil and water for a long time, so symptoms are often attenuated: a fish with a previously pronounced disease clinic becomes outwardly healthy, and after a while the symptoms recur.
If in the aquarium there are single specimens of fish affected by parasites that can cause mass disease and death, it is necessary to treat all the inhabitants of the aquarium. Often the treatment of several diseases is the same. For example, if pathogens are ectoparasites.
Such treatment can be carried out both in a separate dish and in the general aquarium.
Prevention of aquarium fish diseases:
Prevention of fish diseases is very important for the prevention of diseases that often arise as a result of violations of the rules of keeping or the introduction of infections from the outside.
To fish was not bad, we recommend to observe the following rules:
– regularly and regularly conduct weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/4 of the volume of water, to prevent overcrowding of the aquarium;
– do not place objects (decor) in the aquarium, which can cause poisoning or injury to aquarium fish;
– acquire only high-quality food for fish and ensure its proper storage;
– Be sure to follow the feeding regime (1-2 times a day), do not leave the fish hungry and prevent them from overfeeding;
– maintain an optimum and constant temperature in an aquarium recommended for specific species of fish, exclude the possibility of sudden drops and overcooling;
– ensure reliable transportation of fish;
– in winter, be sure to use the thermostat;
– put quarantined fishes at a time, placing them in a designated brewhouse filled with water from an active aquarium;
– Aquarium equipment (nets, siphons, etc.) that the patients were served with must be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
– When treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.
We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.
To read and / or download “Navigator”
click on the picture below
If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.
Iodinol (potassium iodide) is a human antiseptic drug. Iodinol in aquarium use, as an auxiliary tool.
The recommended dosage of introducing iodinol into the aquarium is 1 ml per 10 liters of water weekly (when changing water).
Polyvinyl alcohol contained in iodinol is not an obstacle to adding the drug to the aquarium, if you do not exceed the dosage.
Benefits of adding iodinol:
– Fills iodine deficiency in water;
-Stimulates the immunity of fish;
– It has a slight antiseptic effect, and therefore is used as an aid in the treatment of ichthyophthyriosis (semolina);
– Improves the condition of the plants due to the potassium contained in the preparation;
– When iodinol is added to a spawning aquarium, more fry survive and caviar are less susceptible to fungal infection;
– The molt of crustaceans is relieved. iodine (being a coenzyme) is necessary for the synthesis of chitin;
Iodinol can be bought at a human pharmacy. It has a therapeutic and tonic effect on fish.
Dosage (1 ml per 10 liters of water) is safe for most fish. Very well tolerated by iodinol cichlids and viviparous, which for therapeutic purposes iodinol You can add daily after a partial water change to 50 ml per 100 liters of water.
Iodinol can be applied for three or four days in a row, then no more than once every three days. ATTENTION: The introduction of iodinol in a dosage of more than 1 ml per 10 liters requires increased attention. High dosages need to be made carefully – gradually: it is best to pour iodinol in two or three stages, with an interval of more than one hour.
At hand should always be water for changing and removing the concentration of the drug.
Iodinol is noticeable enhances therapeutic effect preparations for the fight against ichthyophthyriosis – decoys of fish, suppresses bacterial and fungal infections, strengthens the immune system of fish.
For preventive purposes, iodinol is not recommended daily. It is enough to use the drug once a week.
The cost of iodinol 5 cu / 100ml.