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Keeping fish in aquarium for beginners

maintenance, care, compatibility

Before acquiring a tank for fish, it is necessary to carefully consider its design and shape so that it fits into the interior of the room as naturally as possible, does not interfere with its basic purpose and is located in a place convenient for viewing.

By design, aquariums are on a stand, on legs, suspended, angled, frame and frameless. In form, they are represented by more than a wide choice, the main of which are:

  • spherical (round);
  • cubic (square);
  • parallelepipedal (rectangular);
  • parallelepipedal with convex viewing glass (panoramic);
  • prismoidal (with a regular polygon of the bottom, as a rule, high, for a floor installation);
  • pyromidoidal (triangular, for closed-type aquariums).

The main parameters for choosing a tank for keeping fish in a novice aquarist are the following factors:

  • correct installation, which should allow various manipulations during operation (removal or installation of the cover and backlight, feeding fish, planting plants, cleaning the filter, bottom siphon, etc.);
  • the exclusion of direct sunlight on its surface;
  • the number and size of the aquarium population (the required volume of the aquarium depends on this. If there is no certainty for specific fish, then take at least 1 liter of water per 1 cm of adult fish, i.e. if you want to contain 10 fish 8 cm long, you need an aquarium more than 80 liters, it will avoid overcrowding and allow it to develop well and feel comfortable for its inhabitants).

Together with the aquarium offer covers with integrated lighting and cabinets for them. If there is no specific place to install the aquarium, then you can use this offer.

A lid for a backlit aquarium will prevent many species of fish from jumping out, reduce evaporation of water into the atmosphere of the room, and also provide artificial lighting for the plant and allow you to control the length of the day in a pond. The cabinet is suitable for storing all sorts of accessories (a net, tubes, suckers, feeders, literature, etc.), feed and other things related to the aquarium.

There is a standard set of equipment for aquariums:

  • Illumination (the choice of lamp power and the duration of illumination during the day depends on the inhabitants and plants);
  • water heater (it is better to choose with automatic temperature control);
  • Aerator and water filter can be both combined and separate (power depends on the volume of the aquarium).

The selection of soil and scenery depends on the inhabitants, but small fractional rounded gravel without sharp edges is considered universal. The thickness of the soil at the bottom should be from 5 to 7 cm, this will allow plants to root well and grow.

You can use locks, sunken ships, etc. to decorate and create a unique interior.

Before releasing beautiful fish in the aquarium, it takes about two weeks. One day can be done:

  • laying soil, planting plants, installation of lighting decorations, heating, filter aerator;
  • filling the aquarium with tap water;
  • turning on the heater and filter aerator.

After that, you need to wait a week for chlorine to evaporate from the water during this time. It is allowed to add various normalizers to the water, which improve the water parameters.

Before using them, you should consult with competent aquarists or sellers who know the parameters of tap water in your area.

After a week, you can run the first, most enduring inhabitants – snails ampoules, tritons, frogs or shrimp. Often the first are ampulyarii. They have a positive effect on the formation of an ecosystem in an aquarium.

Water in a room pond is gaining stability in the order of a month and may become cloudy. Over time, it will clear and be transparent.

And only depending on the state of water and the state of health of the ampoule, after about a week you can run inexpensive fish. More information about the first launch of the aquarium can be found here.

Deciding what kind of fish to start first in your tank can be sudden, and can be thought out. Unfortunately, novice aquarists are often guided by the very first impulse, completely without understanding the fish. And then, instead of joy and pleasure, they get a headache and problems.

You need to choose the fish wisely, because their life and your comfort depend on your choice. Before you go to the store or to the market, study all the available information about the fish that you liked.

What kind of fish is not worth buying for beginners, we have considered here. And the top 10 unusual fish here.

And in order to make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of the best aquarium fish for beginners and briefly described them. All of them are distinguished by unpretentiousness, tolerance to conditions in an aquarium, peaceful nature, livableness and modest size.

We hope that it will help make your choice easier!

Tips for beginners to care for aquarium and fish

Breeding and caring for fish and an aquarium at home is of great interest to both amateurs and professionals. The army of aquarium fans is constantly replenishing its ranks: beginners are attracted by the aesthetic satisfaction of contemplating the picture of the water world.

Creating your own underwater garden in miniature seems to be an easy and fun process, because the specifics and fish care for beginners is often a secret behind seven seals. In order not to suffer a fiasco, it is worth exploring some tips. Then the creation and maintenance of beauty, care for aquarium fish will be a favorite hobby that brings pleasure with minimal financial and time costs.

The equipment necessary for operation includes the already known heater, as well as a device for measuring temperature, a filter and an aerator. Filters are chosen in accordance with the volumes of the home “pool”. Filters require care, so once every three weeks they are washed outside with water and they pull out the sponge of the internal filter and clean it of dirt.

There are coal (it is replaced every month), or primary cleaning (white material is replaced every two weeks).

Lighting is usually mounted in a protective top cover. If it was not sold along with the aquarium, be sure to pick up the lid so that the water does not evaporate and the particularly frisky fish will not jump out.

The lamp should be chosen in proportion to the size of the tank, at the rate of 0.5W per liter. Usually the lights are turned off at night, although there are some types of fish that need additional lighting at this time of day.

Soil plays an important role in the formation of the aquarium ecosystem – all biochemical processes occur. You can buy ready-made options in the pet store, you can use sand, pebbles, glass beads.

In the second case, thorough disinfection and boiling are required, and in the first case, abundant washing is sufficient. Get a siphon to handle the soil in your “pond”.

See how to clean the aquarium yourself.

The water must be separated: the required amount is poured into a clean tank, left for a couple of days, and then it is filled with an aquarium. For water, parameters such as hardness, acidity, temperature are important, which are determined for each species separately and are constantly maintained either by heating devices or special products that can be purchased along with fish.

Caring for aquarium fish requires constant water changes. Do it either manually or with a special pump.

Fish for beginners better to choose from unpretentious species. Perfectly suitable small schooling species (scalarii, guppies, barbs, danios), catfish. The choice depends on compatibility (it is impossible to settle even one predatory specimen together with peace-loving, for example, gourami).

The inhabitants of the aquarium should also combine the same preferences in acidity and water hardness.


In feeding, they follow a strict regimen: once a day, just as much as they can eat in 5-10 minutes. Fish do not feel the measures in food, therefore they are prone to overeating, which means – to the pollution of the aquatic environment.

Caring for aquarium fish involves monitoring their condition. If they become lethargic, change their color, then they are probably sick.

These basic tips for beginners in the maintenance of an aquarium will help you to equip it with love, so that it becomes an ornament of your apartment, a picture from which it is impossible to look away!

Basic rules for the selection and arrangement of aquarium for beginners

Where to begin? Of course, it is important to determine the aquarium. And here you cannot just say: “I want this one”.

The choice must be conscious. Often the rule about the connection of the aquarium and fish for beginners becomes fundamental. And this rule consists in the following: one centimeter of fish length should account for one liter of water.

At first glance it seems that the rule is quite simple. But an experienced aquarist knows that this rule is not bad for calculating the optimal size of the aquarium, but without reservation it cannot be applied.

What are these reservations?

First, the length of an aquarium fish is an indicator by which it is impossible to assess and determine the effect of a fish on a closed aquarium system. For example, some have a round body and, consequently, a greater mass, while having the same length as others, smaller in mass.

So it turns out that a home aquarium can comply with the stated principle, but in fact be overpopulated.

Secondly, the rule does not take into account such a characteristic as the surface area of ​​the water in the aquarium. But it is the square that is the real deterrent.

Aquarium residents need oxygen, they emit carbon dioxide while breathing. The amount of oxygen dissolved in water largely determines how many fish can live in it, fully developing.

Oxygen comes from the air, carbon dioxide, on the contrary, goes into the air. From this we can conclude: the larger the surface area of ​​the aquarium, the more intense the replacement of carbon dioxide with oxygen.

Thus, to choose the size of the aquarium, you need to pay attention not only to the length of the body of the fish, but also their weight, the surface area of ​​the aquarium. The following rule is taken into account: one centimeter of the body of a fish, not taking into account the tail, must have at least 12 square centimeters of area.

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Once we have indicated that the most important thing to start with is an aquarium, then we will determine its shape in order to make the choice easier. What are the forms? So:

  • usual sizes – used for various small fishes;
  • elongated in height – designed to observe the inhabitants of the aquarium. They have a large height, which provides a fairly large area of ​​the front glass. At the same time, such aquariums have a small width.
  • elongated – perfect for small schooling fish.

In turn, elongated aquariums or elongated in length can be, for example, hexagonal or even octagonal. If you are going to choose an aquarium of a specific shape, you need to remember that a hexagonal aquarium has a smaller surface area than a regular one.

In general, you should not stop the choice on too wide or narrow aquariums. This ratio does not fit any fish for a comfortable stay.

The choice between beauty and convenience for fish, of course, is yours.

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So, you figure it out with the aquarium. What is missing?

Of course, the fish. Objectively speaking, it seems to many beginners that everything is as simple as possible with regard to the fish: I chose the ones I liked, and that’s all.

However, in reality everything is different. The fact is that fish have an impact on many factors: on the amount of money spent, on decorating, on the arrangement of the habitat, and so on.

In addition, the choice of fish today is so great that it is simply difficult to determine the cutest ones.

Tips for beginners about the fish are as follows: strive to acquire representatives of the same group living in the same habitat. This will greatly facilitate care, and at first, this approach will only benefit.

Who can I choose? Beautiful and quite unpretentious are cichlids – perch-shaped fish. They can also share the somobraznyh that will facilitate your maintenance of the aquarium.

The fact is that representatives of catfish clean glasses and stones, pick at the ground, eat up the remnants. And while they are absolutely harmless, and care for him is quite simple.

In short, do not rush to stop the choice on the rarest species of fish. It is better to start with simple varieties.

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Preliminary preparation before the acquisition of small fish

If you have never had an aquarium and no experience of keeping fish, then it is best to start fish that need minimal care and are not very demanding to the conditions of existence. This will avoid the death of your fish, as well as gain experience and knowledge in the content of the aquarium.

Many tropical fish require the maintenance of a certain water quality (hardness, acidity, temperature, etc.), the presence or absence of plants, a certain brightness of the light or its absence.

For unpretentious fish, the range of comfortable conditions is much wider, which allows them to be kept in a lower quality environment. They are also less susceptible to negative factors (improper feeding, delayed water changes, etc.).

There are several determining factors when choosing a fish:

  • aquarium size;
  • selection and compatibility of different types of fish;
  • the size and temperament of the fish.

If you already have an aquarium, you need to determine what and how many fish you can fit into it. This will avoid overpopulation, which leads to unnecessary fights, oxygen starvation, eating predators of peace-loving fish.

If you have enough space and money to install an aquarium of any acceptable size, as well as the necessary equipment to ensure the life of the fish, you can proceed to the next heading of this article.

If you are cramped in something, then you need to define your desires, given that small aquariums are much more difficult to maintain than large ones, but the latter require more time for maintenance. For example, a 100-liter aquarium will suit a novice aquarist better than a 50-liter aquarium.

A large aquarium is simpler and better kept for several reasons:

1. Water temperature and quality are more stable.

2. The impact of adverse factors on the fish takes longer, which gives the novice aquarist the opportunity to influence them in a timely manner. For example, in winter time, the water heater broke, the cooling process is slower and you can manage to get off and buy a new one before the fish get cold. Or ampularia died from old age in the thickets of a small aquarium, the water became dull, the smell appeared, fish began to die.

In a large aquarium, this process will occur many times slower and you can remove the dead snail from the can without harming the fish.

3. In small aquariums there is little space for free swimming, and, accordingly, not every favorite decor can be placed in it.

4. Ample opportunities for design and decoration.

5. A large aquarium can hold a lot of large fish or a large number of small ones, it allows you to contain various types of fish.

With all the advantages of large aquariums, it is sometimes not possible to install it. Small aquariums are great for apartments, country houses or hostels, as well as for the second floors of private houses.

Large aquariums weigh a lot, they are difficult to transport, take up more space, and in unforeseen circumstances cause more damage.

The biggest advantage of a small aquarium is a financial issue. Aquarium, equipment, scenery, soil, plants, the cost of electricity, the treatment of fish cost much less.

Before acquiring you need to properly assess the benefits of both large and small aquariums. Answer yourself to the question: “What volume of aquarium would you like and is there an opportunity to contain such a volume?” If finances are not important and you do not often move, then the choice is obvious.

And if you do not want or can not afford a large aquarium, then a small aquarium is what you need for you. In any case, the main thing – comfortable conditions for the maintenance of fish.

Unpretentious aquarium fish for beginners: where to start?

The main guidelines for beginners should be the following indicators: care features, water parameters, temperature, lighting, feeding and reproduction features of aquarium fish. A feature of unpretentious fish is that they can live in a small aquarium with a small amount of vegetation. Unpretentious aquarium fish do not need special care and additional lighting.

They can calmly be content with daylight. Feeding such inhabitants will not be difficult, as they feed on various forage.

In order to choose suitable fish, it is necessary to consider their features and, of course, focus on external data, size, color and other important parameters for you.

The speckled catfish is one of the most popular species among novice aquarists. It is able to survive in situations and conditions that are critical for other fish.

Its ability to survive temperature fluctuations from 2–35 ° C simply amazes many fish connoisseurs. Somiki can live in polluted and muddy water.

He is very hardy and when creating elementary conditions for life will delight you for a very long time.

Somik tarakatum is one of the largest species of fish and is considered very hardy. He is the orderly of the underwater kingdom.

One of the important conditions for its maintenance is the presence of vegetation in the aquarium, where he could hide. Dimensions are not essential for their life.

Get along well with almost all types of fish and are excellent neighbors.

Viviparous species: swordtails, mollies, guppies, patsilii are excellent for all types of aquariums and very easy to maintain. They are also the orderlies of the water world and the friends of plants.

Labyrinth fish is very unpretentious for an aquarium of any size and configuration. This species includes: macropod, cockerels, gourami, lyalius. Gourami have a gill labyrinth, due to which they can breathe air and do not need aeration.

Other types also do not need special care, the compressor and the presence of other equipment. It is necessary to take into account one minute – they are very mobile and males often fight among themselves.

Tetras are quite mobile, curious and crowded fish. They are hardy enough, but not enough to contain them without a filter, aerator and heater.

But it is worth noting that this is the most necessary equipment that should be purchased along with the aquarium.

Danio pink and rerio are unpretentious and beautiful aquarium fish that usually swim in flocks. These fish need a large aquarium (from 40 liters) so that they can swim freely.

It is necessary to cover it with a lid so that they do not jump out onto the floor. It is necessary to have an aerator, filter and heater available.

Barbus are also considered hardy enough fish. This is a kind of robbers, who always defend their place in the aquarium, and some species, such as the Sumatran barb, can snatch up to the fish with a beautiful big tail.

The choice and variety of unpretentious aquarium fish is very large. The main thing is not to forget that we are always responsible for our pets, and good conditions are a guarantee of their long life.

To choose the right aquarium for fish, consider the following recommendations:

  1. In a spacious tank, fish care will be easier. The products of their vital activity in a close aquarium quickly decompose, poisoning the water. In a spacious tank more water that will be mixed. Cleaning can be done less frequently.
  2. The size of the tank depends on the type of fish and their size. Before buying an aquarium, you should know which pets will be settled there. Large and gregarious fish require a large amount of swimming space. At 5-centimeter fish need 10 liters of water.
  3. Attention should be paid to aquascape. This shelter in the form of caves, moles, clay pots, pipes, rocks, snags and plants. Fish with bulging eyes do not need a lot of scenery due to the threat of injury.

  • The shape of the tank should be rectangular. This aquarium is easier to clean at home.
  • Ground, plants, snags, rocks and stones must be selected correctly. They can provide the similarity of a natural biotope, but the main condition is its use. Stone sculptures, soil should not be toxic, or change the parameters of the aquatic environment (acidity, hardness). In addition, everything that will be placed in the tank must be treated with boiling water, special solutions. It is desirable to boil the soil, or chop in a furnace at a temperature of 200-300 ° C. Plants should be thoroughly rinsed under running water. The compact arrangement of the decorations in the aquarium will facilitate the care of them.
  • Lay the soil in several layers, plant it in it. Place snags, rocks. Install a water heating system, filter, compressor, water thermometer, lighting. Be careful when working with the equipment. The light should not heat the water too much so that the plants are not damaged and the fish do not become worse. To visually recreate the underwater world, a decorative film can be glued to the back wall of the aquarium.
  • See how to lay the soil in the aquarium.

    Guppy – the most common type of aquarium inhabitants. These colorful fish with large iridescent tail.

    Often, talking about his hobby, experienced aquarists say that let them begin with her purchase. In addition, guppies are ideal test subjects for studying genetic mutations. Males of this species are much larger and more beautiful than females.

    Their tails are much larger than those of females, and differ in their original, unusual coloring. The small size of the fish – from 1.5 to 3 cm allows you to make them the center of the aquarium world.

    Females are much larger – about 6 cm, but have not such a beautiful color. Today, with the help of selection, beautiful individuals of females have been obtained, but their cost is much higher.

    You can see the possible fish options in the photo, which is full of internet.

    Aquarium guppies are ideal for beginner breeders. It is so easy to care for them that a child can cope with it. For their breeding, an aquarium of 15 – 35 liters for 6-8 pieces is enough.

    This aquarium has a very small size, so is ideal for small children’s rooms. In addition, you can save space due to the fact that you do not need to provide the fish with additional filtration of water – they have enough fresh plants, but be prepared that you will have to clean the water and the soil more often.

    Do not ignore the additional lighting. But due to the fact that the aquarium is small, it will be enough for a table lamp in the evening. In food, fish is picky.

    For its feeding, you can use industrial feed from a jar bought in the nearest store. Dry feeds are also enjoyed by them.

    This type of aquarium dwellers attracts those who are forced to constantly leave home. Guppies easily tolerate weekly breaks, so no need to ask friends to constantly come and feed your inhabitants.

    Constant overfeeding, on the contrary, can kill young stock. Overeating fish begin to die.

    From the above, we can conclude that the breeding of aquarium guppies are not troublesome and not expensive.

    In addition, the aquarium – it is very beautiful. If you place a different decor on the bottom, you can create real masterpieces, capture them in the photo and show off to friends and companions

    The most common types of caudal fins are:

    As mentioned above, guppies are completely unpretentious to the conditions of existence, but some rules should still be followed. The composition of food and water for ordinary fish does not matter, but if you decide to breed elite breed, you will have to create comfortable conditions:

    • Water temperature should not be lower than 18 and not higher than 20 degrees;
    • The optimum water hardness is 6 – 10 degrees;
    • Three times a day;
    • Use only distilled water;
    • At least 1 liter of water per male and 2 per female.

    It is good to add 1 teaspoon of table salt to 10 liters of water in water. For elite rocks, it is necessary to provide filtration and aeration devices.

    It is necessary to be very attentive to the number of males and females in the same aquarium. The fact is that in the struggle for leadership, males can hurt each other.

    But usually severe injuries do not happen. If you decide to make a mixed aquarium, then you need to carefully pick roommates for guppies.

    These fish are very harmless and can not harm anyone, so they are easy prey for others. Most often beautiful tails of males suffer from the attacks of neighbors.

    However, given the huge number of varieties of guppes, and a single-species aquarium can be made a real work of art, capturing on a photo that you can easily win at competitions held in associations of interests.

    The color of the males is greatly influenced by sufficient light, so watch the additional lighting carefully and place the aquarium so that sunlight does not aggressively fall on the guppy.

    With feeding, they also have no problems. They are ready to eat anything.

    For them, the type of food does not matter. But if you want to grow very beautiful guppies, then it is advisable to alternate types of feed, not forgetting the live feed that you can buy at pet stores. The life cycle of these fish is about 2 years.

    However, this figure may vary depending on the conditions of detention. For example, water temperature is very important.

    The higher its degree, the faster they develop and the duration of life is reduced. Increase vitality, aquarium guppies can due to the large number of green plants.

    The abundance of algae will help females to hide from males, and fry from large individuals.

    Guppies are one of the most easily bred breeds, so their population is growing so fast. In order to do their breeding you do not have to make a lot of effort.

    Enough to provide them with comfortable conditions. It is surprising that fish can breed without a male. This is due to the first fertilization.

    That is, the female can breed several times during one “meeting” with the male. Therefore, to start breeding, you can buy only one female and you will receive about 8 litters.

    Viviparous guppies, so they do not need a place for throwing caviar. Fry appear completely independent. They are already swimming and ready to take full adult food.

    Photo fry can often be found on the Internet – they differ from their parents only in size, otherwise it is a full-fledged fish.

    After you have noticed that the female is “in position”, set her off from the others. Although the pregnancy lasts about 30 days, in a separate dwelling it will be much more comfortable. After the fry are swept up, it needs to be deposited.

    Hungry guppies can eat their own offspring, so for the first time, it is better for young animals to live separately in an aquarium with small-leaved plants, and when they get stronger, return them back.

    In aquarist communities, all thickets began to appear messages about aggressive behavior. Sometimes relationships in a flock can lead to a deplorable outcome for the weakest.

    If you notice something wrong in your aquarium, then reconsider the conditions of their maintenance, it is quite possible that they just closely.

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