maintenance, care, compatibility
It is decided that we will have an aquarium! He has already been selected and purchased, the equipment is waiting for the coolest next to him in beautiful boxes, the bottom is already filled with bright red brilliant, terribly spectacular soil, and there is a ceramic crocodile on it that will blow bubbles. Now we pour water and, while she stands up for an hour or two, let’s go to the pet shop and buy the best fish there – those with long fins, and other yellow ones with red dots (whatever they are called? However, it doesn’t matter, the main thing is beautiful) …
Stop! No matter how commendable is the desire to join the fascinating world of aquarism, this process should not be forced, otherwise the first experience may be so deplorable that one does not want to continue.
Let’s tolerate a little more and see what should happen to a glass jar full of water in order for it to become an aquarium.
Aquarium is a balanced biological system in which many living organisms coexist. These are not only fish and plants planted by the host, but also self-inhabited small invertebrates, protozoa, algae, bacteria.
And in order for the aquarium to be beautiful and comfortable for life, the whole system must be in balance. Substances entering it from the outside should be processed without deteriorating the vital indicators of water and not causing death or, on the contrary, uncontrolled outbreak of the number of any inhabitants, and then removed from the system during water changes and cleaning the aquarium.
So, we will analyze the points, how to run the aquarium correctly:
- The run starts with water pouring. Water must be poured plumbing, pre-defend it is not necessary. After pouring water turn on the filter with aeration. If the filter does not have an aerator, then the compressor must additionally work, since nitrifying bacteria require a lot of oxygen and a heater (set at 24-25 °). In this form, with the lights off, the aquarium is left for 5-7 days. All these days they spend only monitoring the operation of the equipment: check whether oxygen is supplied, measure the temperature of the water.
- After 5-7 days, unpretentious fast-growing plants are planted, after which they turn on the lighting for 4-5 hours a day.
- After 1-2 days you can start the first aquarium animals. This may be small unpretentious fish (viviparous or, for example, danios), but it is better to use snail ampoules or hymeno-viruses that are more resistant to water quality. There should be few animals. Feed them once a day in very small portions. It is necessary to constantly monitor their behavior and appetite. Ampulyaria, for example, are excellent indicators of water quality: in clean, good water, they rush around the aquarium at cruising speed, straightening antennae and looking for food. At this stage, the light is turned on for the whole day (8-12 hours), you can add special bacterial cultures to the aquarium to start (they are from different companies, for example Sera Nitrivek).
- After a week, the remaining plants are planted and begin in parts (at intervals of 1-2 days) to launch the main fish population. For each released party you need to carefully monitor, feed moderately.
That is, in fact, all science. True, nothing complicated?
Of course, the equilibrium in the aquarium is still unstable, and some time after the launch such unpleasant phenomena can occur, such as outbreaks of diatoms. But if the launch was carried out correctly, these problems are usually not catastrophic, do not lead to a massive freezing of fish and are solved in working order.
To combat these diatomies, for example, a small charming catfish otozinclus is successfully used.
Above, we wrote that for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria need nutrition and substrate. And, of course, the initial number of the bacterial colony matters.
Thus, in order to accelerate the maturation of the biofilter and, accordingly, the launch of the aquarium, you can immediately add a significant amount of bacteria to the artificial reservoir and prepare a large area substrate for them (there is enough nutrition for the bacteria in the starting aquarium).
Bacteria are introduced with the help of industrial starter culture (we also mentioned about them above) or with water, soil, filter filler from the existing, safe aquarium. To ensure a sufficient area of the substrate for bacteria, it is recommended to use filters with fillers made of porous ceramics or filters of considerable volume with other fillers, plant plants with narrow, feathery leaves, and use fine gravel of even size as the soil.
All these surfaces will inhabit nitrifying bacteria.
Startup control of the aquarium greatly facilitates the use of tests for aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite. These tests are produced by different manufacturers and are not uncommon in pet stores.
With their help, you can track the level of these toxic compounds in the water and adjust the population of fish in the running aquarium.
As you can see, the correct launch of the aquarium takes not so much time – it is quite possible to suffer two or three weeks. It does not require a colossal amount of strength and special academic knowledge.
But it helps to avoid many problems in the future, preserves the life and health of the fish, and therefore, the nerves and good mood to their owner.
How to prepare water for the aquarium at home
Freshly tap water is not suitable for animal settlement. Reptiles, fish, amphibians and snails can adapt to it, but on condition that it infuses for several days.
Fresh, domestic water from the tap will destroy animals, because chlorine compounds are toxic to the sensitive organism of small creatures. On certain days, tap water contains different amounts of volatile substances, experts recommend turning on a shower and checking the steam and the presence of chlorine to check.
If the smell is harsh, water should not be collected on this day.
Regardless of the season, weather and air temperature, domestic water will be different. Be observant if you want to settle the animals in clean water from impurities. Infused tap water is recommended for many pets and plants, it has an acceptable level of acidity: pH 7.0.
It forms an active reaction, creating an alkaline and acidic aqueous medium. The reaction is determined using litmus paper, which is sold in pet stores.
Infusing water should not be in plastic containers; it is better to use glass jars with the lid open. The main thing is that in the prepared water, while it insists, do not get dust and insects.
See how to test the water.
You can use baking soda to raise the pH to the required level. Peat is recommended to lower the pH.
Sometimes before the launch of a new aquarium in the water put samples of trees, reducing the acidity of water. The aquarium can be filled not only with tap water, but also distilled water, which is sold in pharmacies or in auto shops. It is filled with small aquariums, but with an experienced razvodchiki warned that such water is poor in the mineral components necessary for animals.
Rarely use a liquid from another aquarium, in which there is a stable biological equilibrium for normal life.
Reduce stiffness by filtering and infusing. Sometimes, infused water (time – 2 days) from the tap add distilled, thawed or rain water. Plants such as roach and elodiea, reduce stiffness.
There is another way – freezing. The collected water is frozen, and then thawed, defended and poured into the tank.
Increases the rigidity of the aquarium water by adding brine, pieces of chalk or limestone, coral chips to it. Coral crumb is recommended to boil (2 hours) to soften and prevent parasites.
Only after all the procedures it is lowered into the tank.
It is better to run the fish in a day or two, until the water has acquired the necessary parameters. The temperature of the water in which the purchased fish, animals and plants lived should be identical to the aquarium.
Again, use a thermometer, litmus paper to test. Do not neglect the recommendations that the life of pets was healthy and safe, because when kept in poor-quality aquatic environment, they may suffer.
When the aquarium is already installed, it is filled with water and fish are running into it, it is very difficult and problematic to rearrange it. Therefore, it must be properly installed from the start.
Make sure that the place and stand where you are going to put it – will hold the weight of the aquarium, do not forget, the mass can reach large values. Be sure to check the distortions using the level, even if you think that everything is smooth. Do not place the aquarium so that the edges hang from the stand.
It is fraught with the fact that it just crumbles. The aquarium should stand on a stand all the bottom surface.
Glue the background before installing the aquarium; the easiest way to do this is to put a thin layer of glycerin on the background. Glycerin is sold in a pharmacy.
Do not forget that the aquarium should be free space for maintenance and pipe filter. Finally, when the place is chosen and it is reliable, do not forget the substrate under the aquarium, which will smooth out the irregularities and help to more evenly distribute the load on the bottom of the aquarium.
As a rule, it comes complete with an aquarium, do not forget to check with the seller.
Running aquarium – a detailed video in several parts:
HOW IT IS CORRECT TO NEED TO START THE AQUARIUM FIRST TIME.
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium – not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium was convenient, and there were a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.Ground and scenery.
As a rule, the entire future ecosystem of your aquarium depends on the purity of the soil and scenery. Therefore, it is necessary to treat its processing especially carefully: rinse well with soda or sea salt, boil the soil, and ruthlessly refuse it, if the water suddenly becomes colored – this can further harm the fish. The most optimal soil size -3-5-8 mm.
- All that is smaller – caking and sour very quickly, larger – it is harder to clean and rinse. Yes, and plants on coarse soil will be a little more difficult to root. As a rule, if live plants are planned in your aquarium, it is advisable to place a nutrient composition for future vegetation under the ground, and the ground itself should be dispersed on a slope from the back wall to the front.
- This is done taking into account certain optical properties of aquarium glasses, because through the thickness of glass and water the aquarium landscape looks somewhat different. When decorating and setting up housing for your future pets, do not get carried away with sea shells and pieces of limestone – the entire chemical composition will gradually be washed out and excessively alkaline the water, which also may not well affect the health of future fish. and other decoration elements are installed,
it’s time to fill your pond with water. If an aquarium is planned to be in the form of an air wall in the aquarium, it is also worthwhile to think in advance whether it will lie on the ground or whether it should be fixed under the ground at the bottom. Water is poured in a small trickle, so as not to destroy the landscape that you conceived. For example, you can put a small tank in an aquarium into which water will flow, and it will merge gradually over the edge. Plants.
A few days later, when the water settles, it’s time to plant the plants. Of course, if you are in a hurry, water can be prepared with the help of special tools, now there is an excellent choice and variety in pet stores. But it is quite possible to do without chemistry, allowing the ecosystem to develop naturally and independently. But then it will take time. Before planting, all new plants that you have brought from the store or another aquarium should be sanitized. To do this, it is enough to hold the plants for 10-15 minutes in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature. Tall plants, densely growing, are best planted closer to the rear window of the aquarium, and in the future they will partially hide the equipment. Small plants are planted near the front glass so that they do not obscure the view. Not all plants root well. Some of them, in order not to emerge, have to be weighed down with special “weights”, or they must be fastened with fishing line on snags.
It is not necessary to load your future aqua-system with a large amount of equipment, but the main points must still be observed:
Filter pump. Its main function is the purification of water from dirt, turbidity and all that floats in water. The filter can be internal, as a very primitive, consisting of a piece of sponge, and more complex – with carbon filtration, and external – with a complex multi-stage water purification system.
The main thing is that it should be correctly selected for the volume of your aquarium, and cope with the task of cleaning.
Initially, the water is always quite turbid. This is a normal process, and if the filter is chosen correctly in terms of volume, it will cope with this within a few hours.
But soon after planting in your tank, complex biological processes will begin, and the water will again lose transparency: bacteria will begin to develop on the dying parts of the plants, ciliates will follow them … In general, as in Cosmos, Life begins to emerge in the aquarium. That is why experienced aquarists are not in a hurry to start running the fish right away – biological balance must be established in the water.
The rapid growth of microorganisms will stop, and the water will again become transparent.
Sometimes experienced aquarists are advised to take some water from old aquariums, or “squeeze” out of their filters. But even if the old aquarium fish are not sick, it does not mean that the water is free from pathogens.
Most likely in this system everything is already settled, and the fish have developed a certain stability. But in the new conditions, pathogens can start to develop very actively.
Therefore, do not do this.
Aerator, or compressor. His task is to saturate the water with oxygen.
In essence, a compressor is a pump that pumps air and delivers it to the water through the nozzles. But at the same time, it also has a decorative function. Therefore, it is decided in advance whether it will be a thin stream of bubbles, decorated additionally or a whole air curtain.
The choice of sprayers and compressors is now huge!
Lighting will depend on which direction of the aquarium you have chosen. If you plan to fish with artificial plants – the quantity and quality of light is not important, everything will depend on your taste.
If you have live plants, there is no way to do without additional lighting. Most often, aquariums are already sold with fluorescent lamps when sold, but for plants the most optimal will be lamps with a pink spectrum.
As a rule, if there is enough light, the plants quickly take root and actively start growing.
If the light is not enough, the glass and the ground are covered with brown bloom, if there is an excess of light, the water turns green.
You can put the lighting with a timer. Then you won’t have a headache – did you remember to turn the lights on or off …
Heater with thermostat. As a rule, aquarium fish, like other aquarium animals, live in nature in warm lands, and are not adapted to the climate of our (not always well heated) apartments.
The optimum temperature is mostly 22-24 degrees, and in some species and higher. Therefore, a heater with a thermostat is very convenient – just set the required temperature.
Without a heater is still not enough if the fish suddenly fall ill. With an increase in temperature in the aquarium to 28-30 degrees, treatment with drugs is faster and more efficient, and in a shorter time.
The aquarium is equipped, the plants are planted and are actively growing, the water has settled in a week and has become clear … It’s time to think about the fish.
But first check the water.
Water hardness test. Different groups of fish prefer different hardness.
Based on the test results, you can pick up fish that you will feel comfortable with, or vice versa, change the water hardness for those fish that you have chosen.
There are also other tests. All of them are important in order to find your way in time, what is the state of water in your tank, and what needs to be changed to make the fish feel good.
With the parameters of the water coped, finally you can run the first batch of fish. Initially, they should not be many: 3-5 fish, depending on the size of the aquarium. Each new portion of fish necessarily breaks the existing balance, and the aquarium, as a complete biosystem, is easier to cope with the arrival of a small number of residents than to rebuild under a big surge of guests.
But between the launch of the next portion of fish should take at least a week. So, with intervals between batches, we gradually settle the aquarium, without forgetting
before releasing the fish adapt.
How to properly adapt?
Many people advise you to put a tank with new fish “swim” into your aquarium so that the temperature and pressure level up, and gradually the water mixes with the aquarium. Yes, for fish so stress is reduced to a minimum, but then you risk on a package with beginners to bring pathogenic bacteria into your tank.
Much more correct, although it will be somewhat longer in time if you place a tank with a new fish near your aquarium. Having installed the compressor, within two hours it is necessary to add 20% of water from your aquarium into it every 10-15 minutes.
So the water will gradually be completely replaced by the desired composition. After that, it will be enough just to transplant fish with a net.
Finally, the planned number of fish settled, the balance of water restored, life enters a quiet course. Do not forget to make them fasting days, as the plants are not yet ready to fully process organic food residues.
And in the future, such discharge once a week will only benefit. It is always better to underfeed than to overfeed.
Water changes are advisable to do regularly, every week about 20% of the total.
So, if your fish is active, the color does not become paler, and the appetite does not suffer – it means you did everything right. We congratulate you!
You have created a piece of nature with your own hands and patience, which will give you a lot of pleasant moments, give beauty, comfort and peace.
Instructions for preparing an aquarium for the settlement of fish is very simple. Purebred guppy fish will feel great in an aquarium of at least 50 liters with a water acidity of at least 6.6-7 pH.
For simple guppies, you will need running tap water, which is best to insist for 24 hours and pass through an aqua filter. The water temperature is preferably at least 18 ° C, otherwise the fish will fall ill. 24-26 ° C – the optimum temperature.
At temperatures above the permissible level, the fish become smaller and do not live long.
Watch a short video on how to care for guppies.
Guppies are highly active, so it’s better to keep the aquarium closed so that they don’t jump out. Cover the bottom of the aquarium with large river sand, small stones and small bushes of plants in which fish can play and hide.
For thoroughbred guppies, special settings are needed that will filter the water, saturate it with the necessary amount of oxygen. One should not forget about the lighting – alternately combining the light of the sun and the lamp.
Full care for aquarium inhabitants is impossible without proper feeding. A large amount of guppy food will not be eaten, it can settle at the bottom of the aquarium, spoiling the water. Do not neglect the live food: you can give artemia, rotifers, mosquito larvae and daphnia.
It is better to feed once a day, dividing the portions into several chips with an interval of several hours. Modern fish food will help maintain an optimal balance of vitamins and minerals in the body.
Alternate live and dry food so that the fish do not have disorders of the digestive system.
Guppies breed easily in an aquarium. Caring for producers during the spawning period does not require special preparation. There are a few points to consider to avoid trouble.
Fish become adults at the age of 4 months. When a female has an angular belly, then she is ready for childbirth. Transfer it to a separate aquarium or a jar of water, after the appearance of the babies, the female can be transplanted back.
In order to avoid cannibalism, it is better to keep fry in spawning until puberty. The first feed – shredded daphnia and cyclops.
At 2-3 months of life, you can give live food.
Do not forget to maintain cleanliness in the aquarium. Complete care requires the removal of food residues and the replacement of 1/3 of the water weekly.
New water should be the same in temperature and acidity as the main one. To avoid disease, periodically add 1 teaspoon of salt (per 10 liters of water) to water.
Guppies are in good contact with small fish, but they can be aggressive to the fry, or become victims of large fish. For general safety, it is better to keep them in groups of several individuals in the same aquarium.
How to prepare the soil for the aquarium :: whether the water in the aquarium from the sea pebbles is contaminated :: Aquarium fish
Aquarium – transparent tank for the constant maintenance of fish. The water in the aquarium plays a huge role for the organisms and plants that live in it.
Try to follow the purity of the water and adhere to the recommendations.
1. Before planting in a new aquarium, plants and fish should be prepared not only water, but the aquarium itself. The framed aquarium is thoroughly washed with warm water at room temperature with baking soda or laundry soap. Then it is filled with water at room temperature, depending on the putty for a period of two to three to ten days.
After two or three days the procedure should be repeated. Water needs to be changed two or three times until the smell of paint disappears.
2. Organic glass aquariums are washed with warm water and salt or 5% solution of acetic or hydrochloric acid is added. After that, they are again washed with warm water.
When filling out a new aquarium It should be remembered that it is first filled with water to half, and after two or three days water is added so that the top edge remains 4-8 cm. Thereby pressure on the glass aquarium increases gradually, and they do not burst.
Filling a small aquarium with water, a wide plate, a hand, a piece of plywood, and a piece of cardboard should be put under the stream in order not to blur the ground.
3. It is better to fill a large aquarium through a hose. At the same time, the water should fall on a deep plate placed on another plate, standing upside down on the ground.
Sometimes aquarists fill the tank with water immediately after planting, and not before it. In this case, when filling aquarium water will have to use a funnel with a reflective plate.
For aquarium need to find a coating (usually thick glass). It will protect it from dust, will not allow fish to jump out, will prevent too fast cooling and evaporation of water.
If the air in the room is too dry, you can use the aquarium to humidify it. In this case, you can not cover the aquarium, but you need to lower the water level so that the fish can not jump out of it.
For air inflow into the aquarium and for rust protection of the steel frame, the coating is not placed on the walls aquarium, and on a small stand height 5-15mm. It can be pieces of an eraser, strips of organic glass, clips of non-oxidizing metal.
But the aquarium, which contains fish that can jump well or climb walls through the gap, should be tightly covered.
4. How to make an aquarium beautiful.
Interior design aquarium should be close to the natural habitat of the fish, as we usually create an aquarium in order to have a corner of nature in the apartment. Sometimes it is possible to see blocks of marble imitating a flooded city or divers, from whose helmets air bubbles strike, but all this can be allowed only to a child in the children’s room.
An aquarium not for kids should look as simple as possible outside and bright, but naturally inside. It is desirable to hide all devices and technical devices.
Generally, choosing jewelry for aquarium, one should strive, first of all, to recreate the natural picture, emphasizing only the beauty of the main inhabitants aquarium – fish and plants.
5. It looks good soil, located steps, and the sand creeping into the water can be fixed with stones or hidden behind them strips of glass.
Trays of flowers, set along the back wall, create a good background. They can be placed steps: in front of plant low plants, and behind them are high.
Another variant of multi-tiered planting is possible: low plants are planted in front, and large ones are behind and from the sides. For lovers of asymmetry, you can suggest to plant in front, almost at the front glass, some large plant, and in the middle or side to put a stone or snag, while throughout the aquarium, let plants of different sizes grow. When choosing, remember that different plants require different lighting.
Plants with the same requirements can be grouped at different levels and equip terraces (steps), which are usually made of wood and stones. In the overall composition of your aquarium there should be one or more eye-catching bright spots.
The rest of the decorative tools should not be evident, they are better placed in the background.
Sometimes the big picture aquarium It has only one element that attracts attention. It should be a bush of a lush plant, for example, Japanese sagittaries or cryptocorynes.
It needs to be planted slightly away from the center. aquarium, so as not to create unpleasant symmetry for the eyes, as well as make room for feeding. Then around the edges will look good plants with ribbon-like leaves, normal vallisneria or branching elodeya and peristolistnikom that, growing, will create a frame in the background. Several bushes, not cluttering the middle aquarium and foreground, it is possible to arrange isoethis, helix vallisneria, and marcilia; the ground must always have a slope with the deepest place in the free, unplanted part aquarium, where the dirt will be collected.
On the surface of the water is good to let Ritchie, salvinia and a few bushes water cabbage or frog.
6. If you have two or three around aquarium, When planting plants, it is necessary to think not only about creating an underwater landscape in each of them, but also about the general impression made by the living area as a whole.
The underwater picture, of course, reaches its greatest charm only when the plants start to grow: leaves oriented in relation to light, processes that occupy the most brightly lit areas, give the aquarium landscape greater naturalness.
7. To recreate the river landscape, round stones are used, to imitate rocks, flat stones of irregular shape, fragments without sharp edges. AT aquariumx with fish digging in the ground, large stones serving as grounds for high terraces are placed directly on the bottom, they are sometimes glued with epoxy or cement.
Stones intended for aquarium, must not contain metals and calcium salts. It is best to use stones of basalt origin, as well as granite and some types of sandstone.
If the chemical composition of the stone is suspicious, it can be treated with a solution of hydrochloric acid, like gravel.
The roots and branches of the trees look beautiful in the aquarium. For registration, you can use snags, which for a long time lay in running water or peat bogs. The best breeds are alder and willow.
You can not put in the aquarium rotten tree, lain some time under a layer of silt. Fully unusable live wood. Roots or branches, even if they were in running water for a long time, should be boiled in a saturated solution of salt before being placed in an aquarium.
Such processing disinfects the wood and compacts its structure – the boiled snags become dense, heavy and sink in water.
For tropical decoration aquarium You can use coconut shells, bamboo stalks and reeds.
8. In aquariumx For twilight, nocturnal or territorial fish species, cover should be made for each such fish. To do this, put on the ground snags (again, alder or willow); individual or folded in the form of caves, grottoes large stones; sanding, gravel, stones or driftwood trimming ceramic pipes or pots.
9. For the period of spawning in an aquarium it is necessary to create shelters or a substrate for caviar. These can be flower pots lying on their sides, coconut shells, pottery, cutting glass, synthetic tubes, fibers, tiles, etc. However, these items should not have sharp corners and emit harmful substances in water.
In the fry tag set by females of viviparous breeds of fish you need to hang a piece of glass. It should hang obliquely on aluminum or galvanized steel wire so that its side edges are adjacent to the walls. aquarium, and the bottom had a gap of 3-4 mm, through which the fry would have the opportunity to fall down.
It is impossible often and the more completely to change water in aquarium. For most species of tropical fish water simply update, and this is done no more than once every seven to ten days.
For this rubber hose from the bottom aquarium suck debris and remnants of food, drain no more than 1/3, and preferably 1/5 of the total volume of water, topping up water with the same characteristics as the water in the aquarium. Fresh water should be added in small portions, gradually.
In cold water aquariums when pouring water should not be heated. For warm-water aquariums, it is best to use water 1-2 degrees warmer than water. aquarium.
Partial change of water is carried out in violation of the oxygen regime (if the fish suffocate), while cleaning the bottom and glasses. But you should try to minimize even a partial change of water.
When changing water or cleaning aquarium fish do not need to catch.
A complete change of water is a last resort and should be carried out in exceptional cases: in case of illness and death of fish, the appearance of parasitic microorganisms, etc. After a complete change of water, biological equilibrium must be established anew. And with a well-established stable regime, water may not change over the years.
Before you start a fish in the aquarium (or even buy them), find out how these fish get along with each other. And do not immediately run into the aquarium a lot of fish – they are too much upset the biological balance of the aquarium, as a result, they may die.
Before placing the fish in tap water, let it stand at room temperature for at least two days, so that chlorine escapes from it. Water is defended in enameled, glass, clay, plastic dishes for food.