maintenance, care, compatibility
At the initial stage, hexamytosis, or hole disease, is very difficult to determine, which is why it is impossible to start timely treatment. If the fish began to stay detached from the flock, the color of the body darkened, she began to lose weight, despite the regular feed, then this is a sign of the disease.
At this point, you should carefully examine your pet. Typical symptoms of the disease hexamytosis in fish in the general aquarium:
- Loss of appetite, refusal to eat (in the acute stage of the disease – complete refusal of food).
- Selectivity in the feed – the fish captures it, and then spits it out.
- Changes in appearance:
- The darkening of the lateral line of the body, the appearance on the scales and the skin of holes and ulcers, from which white, thread-like processes can be seen. Gradually the cartilage tissue of the fish is destroyed.
- If the fish has undergone a successful treatment and recovered, after the disease there will still be dents and erosion, indicating “hole disease”. They will be visible all my life.
- The anus of the sick pet swells, the excrement becomes slimy, stinging, threadlike, and may turn white.
- Such filamentous processes sometimes sometimes do not separate from the anus. Sometimes a sick fish can release fragments of undigested food from the anus. This is due to the decomposition of the internal tissues of the intestine, a violation of its work.
- In fish, fins are destroyed, fall away. The tips of the fins look like a burnt line, they become uneven. This feature is clearly visible in patients with scalar. At this stage of the disease, the main mistake is the treatment of only the damaged fin, and not the disposal of unicellular parasites.
- On the body of aquarium fish appear bumps, fistulas and holes: on the head, in the side of the body, on the back. This feature is well seen in the representatives of the Cichlov family, since their bright body color and large sizes are distorted by furrows, which is visually noticeable.
- On the frontal part of the head are formed boils, of which white mucus stands out.
The listed symptoms of the disease Hexamitosis may manifest in different sequences, and some of them may be almost imperceptible. Timely diagnosis and treatment will guarantee that your pet will improve its health, and the sooner a survey is carried out, the better.
See how to treat hexamytosis.
Unfinished hexamytosis is sure to manifest again
The general rule, no matter what method of treatment you choose, a sick fish should only be in quality water, in the main tank or in a treatment aquarium. Any negative factor in the composition of its environment can seriously interfere with the procedures.
It is better to transplant the diseased fish into a separate aquarium – they may be less effective in the main tank of the procedure. However, in the case of, for example, cichlids originating from Africa and America, and all types of cichlids in general, it is better to perform the treatment mainly in the general aquarium, since this family is very prone to disease.
Infection among them spreads extremely quickly, and it is likely that you will notice far from all cases. In the early stages, hexamytosis is much easier to treat, so in case of cichlid disease, it is better to play it safe and treat everyone.
The very first thing to do is to plant the diseased fish (or group of fish) in a separate aquarium, which will become a kind of hospital for them for the entire duration of treatment.
- Climate change.
The most common and quite effective treatment procedure is to smoothly raise the temperature of the water in the quarantine aquarium to 33 ° C – 35 ° C above zero. It is noted that at such a high temperature, Hexamita salmonis parasites die, and pets are cured.
But not all. Attempts to cure American or African cichlids in a similar way did not meet the expectations of their owners.
- Antiprotozoal drugs.
An effective means of combating infection is metronidazole. It is a highly effective antimicrobial drug and in many countries is included in the list of essential drugs.
For people, naturally. However, metronidazole has such an important quality as the absence of a negative impact on the environment (in dissolved form).
That is why it is used to treat fish with infections by various parasitic bacteria.
A proven method is to add a medicinal solution to the aquarium water in a ratio of 250 mg of the drug per 20-25 liters of water. The solution should be added to the aqueous medium every day at a specific time.
During the first three days it is recommended to replace ¼ of the contents of the aquarium. In the following days, the solution is poured in the same proportion, but is replaced by 10% to 15% water.
The practice of treatment shows that noticeable improvements from such medicinal baths come in a week. Only to stop the procedure should not be: the duration of the full course of treatment should be at least 14 days.
Otherwise, a contagious disease can flare up with a new force.
- Special tools.
In the trading network you can purchase branded therapeutic and prophylactic drugs and mixtures designed to prevent and treat hexamytosis.
Specialized drugs produced by JBL, Sera and Tetra do not disturb the equilibrium of the aquarium biosystem, they are convenient to use directly in the general aquarium. Experts recommend the use of such drugs to combat parasites, such as
- JBL Spirohexol,
- Sera med Professional Flagellol,
- Sera baktopur direct,
- ZMF HEXA-ex and some others.
From domestic drugs, Ihtiovit Kormaktiv and Ihtiovit Antibak proved to be a good idea.
- Treatment in the complex.
Many experienced aquarists recommend not to get hung up on one therapeutic method, but to carry out complex therapy. This is due to the fact that the susceptibility of certain species of ornamental fish to parasitic diseases is still poorly understood.
Hyperthermal treatment can help some pets to cure, for others (cichlids and labyrinths) only drug treatment is effective.
Hole disease is a fairly common occurrence in aquariums. That’s why you shouldn’t panic and start saying goodbye to your favorite fish. On the contrary, you need to roll up your sleeves and get to their treatment as quickly as possible.
Oh, and do not forget to seek help from experienced veterinarians.
Video of an experienced aquarist on how to treat fish hexametosis:
My two-year experience in administering an aquarium forum allows me at this stage to draw certain conclusions about the treatment of aquarium fish.
In this article, I would like to discuss all aspects and nuances of treating a sick pet. The purpose of the article is to give the basic basics to beginners, and to many experienced aquarists – WHAT TO DO IF FISHES ARE DISEASE.
This article will not be a revelation and a panacea, I will, in principle, talk about simple and understandable things, but still, in my opinion, it is in them that the key to the health of both fish and the aquarium as a whole lies.
To begin, let’s see why and from what the fish are sick. Fish – these are the same living creatures as we are with you. Any living thing will feel good and not get sick when it is in a comfortable environment.
People go to fitness clubs, go to a sanatorium, try to live in comfort, eat the right and healthy food, breathe fresh, clean air and this is a guarantee of their health and longevity.
The same applies to fish, they will always be healthy and you will not have to treat them if they live in comfort, i.e. in a healthy, full, proper aquarium. With a certainty of 120%, I can say that in a healthy aquarium with a tuned biobalance, no aquarium fish will get sick.
So, we have established the root cause of all troubles – the “bad aquarium”. What is it expressed in? There are many factors that characterize the concept of “bad aquarium”:
– this is both overpopulation and the wrong selection of fish;
– these are inappropriate parameters of aquarium water for one or another fish species (t, pH, dH, kH, etc.);
– this is also inadequate water quality, i.e. the presence of poisons in it: ammonia, nitrite and nitrate;
– This may be expressed in the wrong decoration of the aquarium;
– in defective or poor quality lighting;
– in the end, in the wrong care for the aquarium: feeding, water changes, etc .;
If you summarize all these negative factors, you can simply say: there is no in an aquarium BIOBALANCE – BIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Now, based on the above, let’s see what happens to the body of a fish in such negative conditions. And the same thing happens as with you and us – the protective mechanisms are activated. Depending on the damaging factor in fish, this can manifest itself in different ways, for example:
– in case of overpopulation or the wrong selection of fish, they begin to fight, stress or depressed state appears;
– at elevated temperatures or lack of oxygen, the fish begin to swim near the surface, puff up the gills, and greedily swallow air. Again, stress, lethargy, “fainting.”
– in the presence of poisons in the water, the defense mechanisms of habituation also work in fish.
Due to what work – these protective mechanisms? The answer is also simple – due to immunity.
Which, as you understand, is not rubber. And when it ends, the fish organism ceases to resist all pathogens and / or negative factors.
There comes a phase of the disease.
Diseases of aquarium fish Angelfish: Hexamytosis among the Angelfish
In fact, curing hexamitosis is not such a problem. Against the causative agent of the disease Spironucleus vortens, there are excellent medicines, both potent and more delicate.
What needs to be done first? Set the fish in a separate aquarium, and start a prevention in the general aquarium: change the water, remove the rest of the food.
In the future, you should pay more attention to the purity of kvass and buy proven and fresh food.
Sick fish can be treated with trichopolis – this is one of the mildest means, but at the same time one of the most effective. For treatment it is better to take the Polish drug: although it is expensive, it acts very quickly and without side effects.
Is the scalar sick? For her treatment there is another technique that helps get rid of intestinal invasion. At a water temperature of 27-30 ° C, metronidazole should be given.
On the first day – 250 mg per 30 l of water. On the second day – again the same dosage, but with the replacement of 30% of the settled water in the aquarium.
The course is 7 days.
The scalar feed should be replaced by another. You can give artemisia – a small red crustacean sold in frozen form.
Buy it better in a blister, not in the package.
After such treatment, the fish will no longer refuse to eat and will soon become completely healthy and still cheerful.
Summary of intestinal fish flagellates and symptoms of diseases caused by them (hexamitosis, spironulosis, hole disease, lateral line erosion)
a case from one of our forum topics on fish disease.
It was a mixed infection: mycobacteriosis + “hexamitosis”. In the red frame, just started to form “naryvchik” – the future “holes”. In the absence of kanamycin, both fish could not be saved.
This fish, in addition to all troubles, is also sick with ichthyophthyriosis (small white dots are visible on the body and head, arrows showing the formation of hexamytic ulcers)
In the photo above, in the fish on the left, the initial stage of formation of ulcers on the head in the form of two white dots, which are somewhat larger than ichthyoftirious pustules. The skin does not break right away: this is preceded by swelling and, as it were, “whitening from the inside” of a small area, for 2-3 days the formation “tightens” into a pointed cone with a white head, then the skin breaks through and the decomposed cartilage emerges as a thick mass of white colors – “horns”.
In the photo on the right, it occurs above the eye of the fish. Outwardly, it resembles the maturation of a small abscess.
However, as is again seen in the photo to the right, already large furuncles form on the lower jaw and in the lower part of the head. Hole disease can begin this way. Furunculosis associated with hexamites in the form of relatively large abscesses is mainly characteristic of red parrots (Red Parrot), and in this case, boils usually do not appear on the head.
With proper and timely treatment, the formation of new ulcers stops, and those already formed are delayed. Some time in their place remain small grooves (dips), but over time, the cartilage regenerates and ulcers go away almost without a trace.
Lovers of small cichlous fish species (microgeophagus and apistogramm should pay attention that the formation of ulcers on the head often begins with the nostrils and geniporus (more on this in one of the topics on our forum). In this case, the fish’s head appears symmetrically and in the correct order very small whitish depressions located at first, which increase in size over time. Usually “holes” appear in two rows, starting above the nostrils and higher to the “nape” above the eyes, and also clearly in the middle “on the forehead”, just above the eye line.
Instead of a bluffer in the back of the head, slight ruffling of the scales may occur with the loss of individual scales – this is the beginning of the formation of extensive erosion. All these processes are illustrated in the photos below.
|Spironulosis in microgeophagus. Arrows indicate sores occurring at the site of genipore. |
Photo from Gerald Bussler’s New Illustrated Guide to Fish Diseases
(The New Illustrated Guide to Fish Diseases).
|Another example of an associative bacterial-protozoal disease is mycobacteriosis + spironulosis. More information about this case can be found on our forum. Here we draw attention to the following circumstance: if the abrasion on the back of the head can be attributed to a simple injury, then the occurrence of properly arranged small whitish tubercles, which then become pits (clearly seen in the photo of 12/31/04), clearly indicates the beginning of hole hole disease. The combination of all these symptoms allows even an inexperienced person to understand that there are no injuries or ichthyophthyriosis in front of him. Here is a replica of the fish hostess: “There are already a lot of points, on the attractive face there are such white tall towers. There are now small holes in the place of the old points. He eats well and behaves normally. The bald spot has not grown yet. If it was a decoy, there would be improvements already. After all, they have been swimming with medication for 4 days. Yes, it is “hexamytosis”, and there was no digestive upset. The destruction of tissues was so rapid that the fish still lived only 8 days|| |
Cockatoo stitches (Apistogramma cacatuoides), with hole disease.
The first clear symptoms of the disease – enlarged sensitive pores (genipory)
The same fish. Education pustules on the head and sides (horns).
As can be seen from the dates given in the photo, the disease develops rapidly. Treatment with nifurpyrinol did not help.
At the time of this writing, the result was still unknown, but I’m afraid
that we missed the time while we were slow to make metronidazole
And in conclusion we will give a completely different example – with the most severe depletion of fish and digestive disorders –
complete absence of ulcers on the head. This often happens with juvenile scalar and mesonout.
In the red frame enlarged anus fish. When defecation stands almost undigested bloodworm. Pay attention to the characteristic keel-shaped abdomen.
Juveniles eat, but does not grow. Even directly after eating, the tummies look somewhat shriveled.
This fish is from the same batch with the one shown above. She is photographed hungry, it can be said with a let down stomach, but still the difference with the hexamite gain is obvious.
|Here the fish has already eaten and continues to feed, gathering dry food floating on the surface. Well visible normal belly healthy fish|
We left on the basis of several unsold mesos of the big party that came from Singapore. The fish were treated with medicinal feed and the addition of furazolidone and kanamycin to the aquarium water (they were cured of ichthyophthiriosis at the same time). Most of them gained commodity standards within two weeks and were sold.
However, in any supply there are fish-income which can not be sold. Three fish were left to live in a hygienic barn without live plants and fed predominantly with bloodworms.
And the other two were in a decorated aquarium on a mixed diet of bloodworms and dry food from vitawater. The first 10 days they were given daily our medical feed.
About the remaining fish in the hygienic aquarium simply forgotten. Medical food they did not fall.
A month and a half has passed and conclusions can be drawn. They confirm all that has been written above about the treatment of “hexamitosis”: with inadequate feeding and conditions for keeping weakened fish, the disease returns.
For the recovery of fish, it is necessary to take all measures to improve the quality of water, provide a varied diet and prevent possible beriberi. In an aquarium with live plants, these conditions are much easier to observe.
The course of treatment of “hexamytosis” is long enough, and the schedule for the introduction of drugs must be strictly adhered to. And the most important thing!
Strongly weakened fish 2-3 weeks after the first course of treatment should be treated again, even if they do not show clear symptoms of hexamitosis. When conducting a second course of drugs in the water can not make, and confine medical foodsfour).
This article appeared thanks to the initiative of Elena Solntseva (Pika), who in the fall of 2005 wrote and gave me her text, which served as the impetus for the creation of this material. I added, and in some places significantly changed the treatment schemes and made some details in the description of the symptoms of hexamytosis, expanded the list of fish that are susceptible to hexamytosis, then it remains only to find suitable illustrative material, and even advertise on vitawater medical food :).
Special thanks to JONI B, sharrlinn, cps and the Milky Way for the photos sent to the forum. I hope we all tried for good reason and now far less fish will die from “hexamitosis”!
March 25, 2006
one) African cichlids are also affected by the intestinal form of cryptobe (Cryptobia iubilans). This is also flagellates.
Excessive reproduction leads to impaired digestion and bloating of fish.
2) It should be noted that in domestic publications on ichthyopathology this symptom is not correlated in any way with the affection of fish. Hexamita salmonis, that is, it is hexamite. In foreign publications, the occurrence of a hole disease is associated with flagellates of the genus Spironucleus and, perhaps, Bodomonas and Trichomonas.
3) For example, according to Dieter Untergasser. “Handbook of FISH DISEASES”, t.f.h, 1989, bodomonosis and cryptobiosis cannot be cured with metronidazole and Hex-Ex.
Furazolidone, which is part of vitawater medical food, As a rule, it allows to cope with intestinal flagellates, but even in this case there are sometimes exceptions to the rule.
four) There is no strict need to buy medical food from vitawater. It can be done independently.
It is important to use not only any of the anti-plague drugs, but also an antibiotic active against mycobacteria, as in the vast majority of cases the fish suffer not only with hexamytosis, but also with tuberculosis or suffer from a mixed bacterial infection.
The authors are not responsible, directly or indirectly, for the use of the information provided in this article. Any comments and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
A series of messages “aquarium and its inhabitants”:
Part 1 – Fighting algae in aquariums
Part 2 – Types of aquarium filters. Comparative characteristics
Part 14 – Beautiful cockerel fish
Part 15 – Cychlasma Blue Dumps
Part 16 – Diseases of aquarium fish. Hexamitosis. Treatment
Part 17 – Inhabitants of the deep sea
Part 18 – Sea pike dog
Part 19 – Cooking Homemade MelaFix
Part 20 – Antsitrusy threesome fight
Part 21 – My favorite animals