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Goldfish in the aquarium care and maintenance

maintenance, care, compatibility

How demanding are goldfish to conditions?

Opinions on this score are opposite. Some believe that this is a patient, practically unkillable, fish that survives in any conditions, suitable for beginners and people who do not want to invest in the aquarium a lot of effort and money.

Others, on the contrary, argue that the content of gold must comply with a number of fairly tough conditions, and they are no doubt right. A goldfish should not be started by someone who is not ready to make efforts for its comfortable existence.

And the most important condition for the maintenance of these fish is an aquarium of a sufficiently large volume.

In Soviet literature of the last century in aquariums it is indicated that one goldfish should have 1.5-2 dm3 of water surface, or 7-15 liters of aquarium volume (15 liters per fish is considered to be a small landing density). This data migrated and in some modern tutorials.

However, it should be noted that Soviet books were written about goldfish of domestic breeding, which for many generations lived in aquariums, and as a result of breeding were adapted to such conditions. At the present time, the vast majority of goldfish comes to us from China, Malaysia and Singapore, where they are massively bred in ponds.

Accordingly, they are not adapted to life in small volumes of water, and even to a sufficiently spacious aquarium they need to be adapted, and a volume of 15-20 liters means death for them within a few days.

Experts who today work with goldfish brought from Asia have empirically established:

The minimum volume of an aquarium for one individual should be about 80 liters; in a smaller volume, an adult fish will simply have nowhere to move. For a couple – 100 l.

In large aquariums (200-250 l), with good filtration and aeration, the density of planting can be slightly increased, so that the volume of water is 35-40 liters per individual. And this is the limit!

Here, opponents of half-empty aquariums usually object that in zoos, for example, goldfish are very densely packed in aquariums and at the same time they feel great. Yes, indeed, this is the specificity of the exhibition aquariums.

However, one should keep in mind that behind the frame there are several powerful filters with which this monster is equipped, the most severe schedule of water changes (up to half the volume daily or twice a day), as well as a regular ichthyopathologist, for whom there is always work.

Regarding the shape of the aquarium, the classical rectangular or with a slight curvature of the front glass is preferred, the length should be approximately twice the height. In the old Soviet literature it was stated that water should not be poured above the level of 30-35 cm, but as practice shows, this is not critical.

Goldfish live well in higher aquariums, if they have the appropriate width and length (tall and narrow aquariums – screens and cylinders – are not suitable for keeping gold).

Water parameters, design and equipment of the aquarium

The capacity of an aquarium for a goldfish must be at least 50 liters. In such an aquarium, you can settle up to 6 individuals, it is dangerous to settle more – they most likely will not survive due to excessive pollution.

You can share your neighbors with goldfish. It may well get along with them scalar, catfish. Before you start an aquarium, familiarize yourself with all possible diseases of goldfish.

Knowing the symptoms will help you quickly recognize the disease and save the fish. Here are some basic rules for keeping a goldfish in an aquarium:

  • Do not skimp on the “living space”. For a goldfish you need a large aquarium. This is more convenient, it is easier to maintain biobalance.
  • Buying the right filter. You need to choose an aquarium filter with the ability to pump air. A goldfish needs oxygen-rich water.
  • The ideal bottom for keeping fish is gravel. It contains beneficial bacteria. These bacteria consume ammonia and thus lower its level in water. Try to choose coarse gravel, small fish can eat.
  • Do not rush to populate a new aquarium. Let the biobalance settle in it. You can run snails and catfish there for a while. They a little “pollute” the aquarium, then the water will be suitable for running the fish.
  • Periodically check the following water tests: pH level (it should be 7-8), ammonium level, nitrites and nitrates (up to 40 is considered normal).
  • Place a thermometer. Goldfish is a tropical species. In cold water, it simply will not survive. The ideal water temperature for goldfish is 21 ° C.
  • Change water regularly. For an aquarium of 5-10 liters, it is enough to change 20-30% of water. Doing this is enough once or twice a week. In the new water, you can add a special conditioner. Complete replacement of water can disrupt the biobalance and harm the inhabitants of the aquarium.

Breeding and maintenance of goldfish. Goldfish Care

Goldfish in the content of unpretentious, but there are a number of features that should be considered so that your fish do not suffer from unwanted neighbors or as a result of improper care.

Whether short-haired goldfish and long-bodied fish can live together is not an idle question. Despite the fact that these are two varieties of the same fish, it is better to keep them separate from each other. The nature of long-bodied goldfish is characterized by mobility, these fish prefer to move in flocks.

It is better to keep them in ponds, because the size of a fish without a tail reaches 30 centimeters. If, nevertheless, you decide to put them in an aquarium, it should be quite spacious (about 200 liters).

Such fish as a wakin, a comet or a shubunkin are hardy, unpretentious and not very sensitive, but due to temperament, it is better to keep them separate from their relatives.

The same statement applies to short goldfish. For example, the telescope does not differ in agility, and the sight of this fish is not very strong, therefore, it will not have time to grab food, unlike its more powerful neighbors in the aquarium. The most unpretentious among the short-bodied goldfish are ruinkin and fantail, followed by such fish as the oranda, telescope, ranch, astrologer and lionhead.

The most “difficult” recognized pearl and water eyes.

The best option would be to purchase an aquarium of 100 liters for two goldfish. In this case, they will be where to swim, and they will be able to grow to its maximum size.

In order not to hurt the main decoration of a goldfish – a veil fin, choose an aquarium with a length of at least one meter and a width of at least 30 cm.

Care for goldfish is very important. Be sure to take care of the technical equipment of the aquarium for fish. Since goldfish can quickly pollute their homes, the larger the area of ​​the aquarium, the lower the concentration of ammonia in the water.

Of course, it is necessary to install a powerful aquarium filter for keeping goldfish. Along with the filter, it is necessary to equip the home of the fish with a thermostat and an aerator.

Water hardness should be dGH up to 20 °, and acidity should be pH 6.5-8.0. Twice a week it is necessary to replace from 20 to 35% of the volume of water.

Naturally, the water should be separated and have a temperature equal to the temperature of the water in the aquarium.

Goldfish adore plant foods. It is advisable to choose for them hard-leaved plants with powerful roots.

In order not to dig the fish plants, you can plant plantings in pots and put stones on them.

A special feature of goldfish is the constant digging of soil. This is not surprising, since they are descendants of crucians.

That is why it is necessary to choose coarse sand for them, the fraction of which does not exceed 1-3 mm, and there are no sharp edges.

Goldfish are unpretentious in food, but you should not overfeed them, enough to feed them once a day. If you take into account all the features of the content of the fish, they will remain healthy and will be able to please you and your loved ones for a long time.

Shubunkin-goldfish content breeding description feeding


According to the shape of the body, shubunkin is an ordinary goldfish. The fins resemble another species of goldfish – the comet. Caudal fin not forked fork.

The main distinctive feature of this breed is transparent scales, which is why it is sometimes called scaly-free. Variegated color, dominated by red, yellow, black and blue colors.

The most valuable specimens of shubunkin have a color dominated by blue colors. The blue color in coloring appears only in the second – third year of life.

These fish are not very demanding of conditions. The main thing with its content is proper feeding – the key to success is the balance of the feed.

The fish is susceptible to intestinal diseases and gill rot.

For the content you need a spacious aquarium with clean water without impurities. The minimum volume of the aquarium 80 liters per pair.

Pearl neighbors should not be active and especially aggressive fish – barbs, cichlids, gourams, etc.

Optimum conditions of maintenance: temperature 15-30 С, hardness dGH up to 20, pH 6-8, intensive filtration, regular water changes up to 30% per week. Prefers a community of its own kind, bright light, an abundance of free space.

At registration of a reservoir it is recommended to use loose small-fraction soil, stones, snags, live or plastic plants, including floating. Design elements should not have sharp edges about which fish can tear off the fins.

The maximum size is 20 cm.

The peculiarity of the fish is that it loves to rummage in the ground. As the soil is better to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered fish. The aquarium itself should be spacious and species, with large-leaved plants.

Therefore, in the aquarium it is better to plant plants with hard leaves and a good root system.

As already mentioned, shubunkin some of the most unpretentious in the content of goldfish. At home, in Japan, they are kept in ponds, and temperatures in winter can be quite low there.
Since the fish is quite small (usually about 15 cm), then you need an aquarium from 100 liters for maintenance, but more is better, since the Shubunkin is an active swimmer. At the same time, they constantly dig in the ground, picking up dirt and digging up plants.

Accordingly, you need to start only the most unpretentious species of plants that survive in such conditions. And a powerful external filter is desirable to constantly remove the dirt that they pick up.

Soil is better to use sandy or coarse gravel. Goldfish constantly dig in the ground, and quite often swallow large particles and die because of this.
Although Shubunkin lives well in rather old and dirty water, it is still necessary to substitute part of the water for fresh, approximately 20% per week. As for the parameters of water, they can be very different, but the optimal will be: 5 – 19 ° dGH, ph: 6.0 to 8.0, the water temperature is 20-23C.

The low water temperature is caused by the fact that the fish comes from carp and tolerates low temperatures, and high temperatures, on the contrary.

Everything goldfish, including Shubunkin can spawn at aquarium capacity of 20 – 30 liters. It is necessary to put sandy soil in it and plant small-leaved plants.

It is customary to spawn one female on two or three two-year-old males for spawning. Before spawning, they should be kept separately for 2-3 weeks.

Spawning aquarium It is recommended to maintain the temperature at 24 – 26 ° С. To stimulate spawning, it is necessary to gradually warm the water until its temperature rises by 5-10 ° C. The males at the same time begin to quickly rush and chase females who lose their eggs, scattering it around the perimeter aquarium, mostly it turns on plants.

In total, the female spawns about 10,000 eggs. Once spawning is over, producers need to be removed from aquarium.

The starting food for the hatched fry will be “live dust”. They can also be given special food, which is now in abundance commercially available for feeding fry. goldfish, for example, Sera Mikron.

Unlike ordinary goldfish Shubunkin delicate transparent scales and elongated fins. The laterally extended body is slightly flattened laterally.

The blades of the tail undivided fin large. Coloring – the most valuable in calico – consists of a combination of white, red, yellow and blue colors and manifests itself only upon attaining one year old.

Often Calico called “calico”. Fish are especially appreciated, in which blue-violet or blue color prevails, usually appearing by the third year of life. Also in the breed there is a species that is characterized by a slightly shortened body, a high dorsal fin and a forked caudal.

Calico variegation was so much liked by breeders from Japan that they “painted” the same orande, voilehvostku, telescope and others. Hybrids in the title received the prefix Calico, for example, Calico telescope, Calico Oranda.

In length, the fish grows up to 16 cm.



Pearl goldfish content compatibility breeding description of photos feeding.

Calm in nature, peaceful Pearls get along well with the same calm neighbors. Contain pearl goldfish need to aquarium volume of at least 50 liters per fish, it is better if it will be an aquarium of at least 100 liters, which will accommodate a couple of fish.

With an increase in the size of the aquarium, the population density can be slightly increased, so 3-4 fish can be settled in a 150-liter aquarium, and 5-6 in a 200-liter aquarium. But with increasing population density should pay attention to good aeration of water.

These aquarium fish love to dig in the ground, so as it is better to use pebbles or coarse sand, then to fishes it will not be so easy to scatter. Himself aquarium desirable species and spacious, in which you want to put large-leaved aquarium plants.

However, pearls quickly spoil the tender plants, or the surface of the leaves is contaminated by settling on them suspended particles in the water.

To avoid this, put in aquariumplants with a strong root system and hard leaves. Very well fit plants like, vallisneria, sagittarius or elodea, as the most enduring. Goldfish – Pearls contain in one aquarium along with calm types of aquarium fish.

AT aquarium natural light and good filtering should be provided. All varieties of goldfish prefer good aeration.

To the parameters of water in the aquarium fish not particularly sensitive.

The hardness of the water should be 8 – 25 °, with an acidity of 6-8. Part of the water in aquarium it is desirable to replace regularly. In general, the pearl is not very demanding in the content.

However, there are a number of things that newcomers may not cope with when keeping this tender fish. Pearl prone to gill rot and bowel disease.


Pearl Goldfish

Ammonia and nitrite should not be present in the aquarium water. In food pearls unpretentious, they eat everything and a lot.

Their diet should contain both live and vegetable food. Despite the gluttony goldfish, do not overfeed them.

The amount of daily food they consume should be about 3% by weight. fish.

Feed adults fishes It should be twice a day – the first time early in the morning, and the second – in the evening. The amount of feed is calculated for 10-20 minutes of feeding, then the remnants of undernourished food from aquarium remove.

Adultsfish, who receive proper nutrition can endure a long week-long hunger strike without harm to their health.

Breeding: Reproduction begins at 2 years. Spawning occurs in early spring.

Spawning is stimulated by raising the water temperature by 3 – 5 ° C. The incubation period is 4 days.

On the 4th day the fry are already swimming. After a month and a half, they have the usual appearance of pearls.

Feeding: Fish food should be 75% vegetable, 25% animal. Feed pearls need in the morning and evening.

The total weight of the feed – no more than 3% of the weight of the fish. Leftover food must be removed.

Pearl Goldfish Photo

Oranda content feeding description compatibility photo reproduction.



Relations with neighbors Oranda is a very calm and peace-loving neighbor. But she can easily be offended and even dangerous to injure any significantly smaller representative compared to her of another species, even guppies, who gladly gorge on luxurious jewelry – her magnificent fins and tail.

Little Red Riding Hood So it is better to keep so different representatives of the underwater world in separate aquariums. In addition, the Oranda is an extremely bright and colorful fish, it is completely self-sufficient and does not need noisy mixed-sized companies.

To keep red cap

a bright aquarium with a capacity of at least 80 liters with hard-leaved plants (for example, valisneria, nugget, sagittary, elodieus) and free swimming space is suitable. It should not have stones with sharp edges. Water parameters for optimal red cap orande content: hardness 6-80, pH 7.0, temperature 16-24 ° C (overheating must be avoided).

Filtration is necessary (preferably a biofilter), powerful aeration (sensitive to the oxygen content in the water) and a weekly substitution of up to 25% of the volume of water.


Oranda Red Riding Hood loves to rummage in the ground, therefore, as a substrate, it is best to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered with fish.


Mollies content feeding compatibility spawning care description

Mollies, like other viviparous fishes, are very hardy, not complicated in maintenance, unpretentious to the stern. Mollinesia has a dense short body with a strong fin and a bright belly. Females are much larger than males: the body size of males is ten centimeters, females – sixteen centimeters. Yellow-gray color – is the main body tone of individuals, with scattered on it spots of green, blue, black and yellow colors.

The sex of individuals is established in the form of a fin – in females it is rounded, in males it is rolled up into a tube, forming genopodia, which is their common organ. Life expectancy of Mollies is five years.

Black Molly requires a volume of water from 60 for normal development and vital activity, and ideally from 100 liters.

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