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Goldfish (Carassius auratus) – types, description, content



Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)
Linne, 1758.

Carp family (Cyprinidae).

The first information about a goldfish was obtained from China and refers to the interval between 968 and 975.
Length up to 30 cm. In the aquarium less.
The body is elongated, ellipsoid, with a sharp snout, flattened laterally. The dorsal fin is long, begins in the middle of the body, the caudal two-lobed, anal short, referred to the end of the body.
The back is red-golden, the side is golden, the belly is yellowish. Fins are red, reddish or yellowish.
There are also pale pink, red, white, black to black and blue, yellow to brown and spotty specimens.
The labor of Chinese and Japanese breeders obtained a large number of species of goldfish. The following are some of them.

Sideviewer or Ranchu.

The body is short, rounded, the back of the profile of the back forms an acute angle with
upper outer edge of caudal fin. On the upper part of the head there is a massive growth arising from the compaction of the skin, which begins to form from 3 months of age.

Dorsal fin absent.
tail forked.
In Japan, red is considered the best. There are also red fish with white spots on the body; with a white body, a brilliant red snout and fins, or with a red gill cover.

The body is ovoid, with a low back, rounded, the profile of the head smoothly changes into the profile of the back. The eyes look like fluid-filled bubbles hanging from both sides of the head. Dorsal fin absent.

The remaining fins are paired. The tail is two-bladed, not hanging down.
Coloring is different: orange, silver, brown.

Vualekhvost.

The body is ovoid, rounded, the profile of the head smoothly changes into the profile of the back. The dorsal fin stands vertically, and its front rays are equal in length to the height of the body.

The anterior rays of the ventral fin of the same size. Tail and anal steam.

The tail is flat, without blades, folds down, almost equal to the body length.
Coloring is different.

Pearl.

The body is rounded, the back is low, the profile of the head smoothly changes into the profile of the back, the scales are dome-shaped raised.
The dorsal fin stands upright, unpaired.
The remaining fins are paired. The first rays of the spinal length equal to 1/2 the height of the body, the ventral one of the same height.

The tail is two-bladed, cut into 1/3 of the length, does not hang down.
The body is golden or orange, with large, bulging, pearl-like scales.

The body is ellipsoid, elongated. Caudal fin longer than 3/4 of body length, two-bladed with deep notch.
Coloring is different.

The body is rounded, the back is low. Dorsal fin absent.
Fins forked. The tail of the two-bladed, with rounded edges, hangs down.
The color is silver with a metallic sheen, the upper half of the head is orange or red.

The body is ovoid, round, low back. The head and gill cover are covered with a growth, similar in structure to a raspberry berry.

Dorsal fin absent. All fins are paired.

The tail is two-bladed, the edge of the upper blade should not fall below the line of the back.
Coloring is different.

Lionhead Chinese, red.

The body is ovoid, round, low back.
Dorsal fin absent. On the top of the head and on its sides is a massive translucent growth.

Tailed fin with 4 forks.
The body is golden or light red, the outgrowth is of an intense red color.

The body is ovoid, round, the back is low, the profile of the head smoothly changes into the profile of the back. The eyes protrude above the head and directed upwards.

Dorsal fin absent.
All fins are paired. The tail is two-bladed, the edge of the upper blade should not fall below the line of the back.
Coloring is different.

The body is ovoid, round, the back is low, the profile of the head smoothly changes into the profile of the back, growths on both sides of the head. Dorsal fin absent.

All fins are paired. The tail is two-bladed, the edge of the upper blade should not fall below the line of the back.
Coloring is different.

Black telescope.

There are other color options for the telescope.

The body is ovoid, round, the back is low, the height of the body is more than 1/2 of the length, the profile of the head smoothly changes into the profile of the back. Eyes on symmetrically arranged cylindrical or conical processes protrude on both sides of the head. The dorsal fin stands vertically.

The remaining fins are paired. The tail is flat, hanging down, longer than 3/4 of the body length.

Riukin is a breed of goldfish bred in Japan, which is considered to be a prototype of the voiletail.
The body is very short, egg-shaped, swollen. The ratio of height and body length is from 3/4 to 1. A characteristic feature of the breed is the “hump”, starting from the head to the dorsal fin. The head is large, with slightly enlarged eyes.

The color can be different – red, two- and three-colored, pink, white, calico.
Caudal fin forked, widely straightened, the length should be from 3/4 to 1.5 body lengths. The angle between the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin should be 90º and more.

The dorsal fin is high (about 1/3 of the body height and more) rigidly standing. The remaining fins are paired, of moderate length, slightly rounded at the ends.

A characteristic feature of the orande are fatty growths on the head and upper part of the gill covers, often in combination with beautiful veil fins. Galls can have a different shape and color, cover as only the upper part of the head, and the entire head, sometimes even completely covering the eyes of the fish.
The body is elongated or very short, egg-shaped, swollen. The ratio of height and length of the body is from 1/2 to 3/4.

The color can be red, orange, black, pink, two-tone or calico. Head blisters are often contrasted in color with the body.
The head is massive, growths are usually symmetrical. Caudal fin bifurcated, different in length (from 1/2 to 1.5 body lengths), lobes rounded at the edges.

The dorsal fin is of medium height (from 1/3 to 1/2 of the body height), the remaining fins are paired, well-straightened, slightly rounded at the ends.

Chen cites the following differences in the characteristics of the goldfish species common in China:
1. Coloring: gray, red, yellow, black, white, spotty, cyan, magenta, translucent and speckled.
2. Body shape: narrow and long, rounded and short (ovoid).
3. Dorsal fin: normal, rudimentary, absent, long, short.
4. Tail fin: simple, forked, from above simple and from below forked, hanging, enlarged triple, long, medium length, short.
5. Anal fin: simple, forked, from above simple and from below forked, rudimentary, absent, long, short.
6. Head shape: normal, narrow, wide, lion, goose.
7. Eyes: normal, small, like a dragon, the celestial eye, water eyes.
8. Scales: normal opaque, translucent, mother of pearl.
9. Gill covers: normal, turned out.

Peaceful, calm fish, like to rummage in the ground, demanding high oxygen content in the water. Can keep with other calm fish.
The size of the aquarium is chosen at the rate of 10 liters of water per 1 fish in the presence of aeration and 15 liters without it. Mostly plants (but not with small leaves, dirt settled on them, lifted from the ground by fish when digging), rounded stones, snags.
Water: 15-24 ° С, dH 8-25 °, pH 6-8, daily change of 1/10 volume, aeration, filtration (a biological filter is desirable). Food: live, vegetable, substitutes.

A female ready for spawning has a fat belly full of caviar. The male on the gill cover appears spawning rash in the form of small grains, and it floats behind the female, keeping it at its ovipositor.
2-3 males and 1 female at the age of 2-3 years are planted for spawning, which are kept for 2-3 weeks separately. Spawning aquarium with a length of 80 cm with sandy soil, sloping laid to one side, and small-leaved bush
plants. The water is fresh, the level of 20-25 cm.

For fish of selected species, the temperature is 24-25 ° C. The female throws up to 10 thousand eggs. After spawning, the fish are removed and the substrate is transferred with the eggs to the incubator, preferably illuminated by the sun.

The temperature in the incubator should be constant, fluctuations of 5 ° C are fatal for caviar. The incubation period is 2-4 days, the fry swim in 2-5 days.

Starter feed: live dust.

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