maintenance, care, compatibility
Reproduction and breeding of goldfish
Goldfish is one of the most ancient aquarium fish. Their story begins with the first century of our Era and Ancient China.
Even then, the emperors of the East and Buddhist monks began to maintain, breed and select goldfish.
Actually, therefore, at present there are a great many aquarium goldfish, and their cost can vary from 2 dollars to several thousand US.
So, if you want to feel like a true goldfish breeder, emperor or Buddhist monk, then this article is for you!
Breeding or breeding goldfish, is not a difficult task.
However, goldfish are not guppies and in order to get offspring you still have to work hard and be patient. In addition, you need to have a sufficient number of aquariums or ponds.
One aquarium will not get off!
Goldfish breed independently, without any hormonal injections or without creating too specific conditions. Actual, good maintenance and proper feeding is the criterion and incentive for spawning producers. All types of goldfish can spawn in aquariums of a small volume of 30 liters.
However, better results can be achieved in larger aquariums or in ponds.
Spawning of goldfish can occur at a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, but it is better to maintain the temperature of the aquarium water at a level of 22-24 degrees Celsius. After replanting manufacturers increase the temperature by 2 degrees.
The water level in the spawning pond should be 20-25 centimeters, the water should often be replaced by fresh and purged.
Unlike many other spawning aquariums, spawning for goldfish should be well consecrated all light day. If it is a pond, then the sunlight should be diffused, and the pond should be equipped with shelters in the form of floating plants.
Producers are planted in a spawning aquarium in the ratio of 1 female to 2-3 males and richly fed with live food (bloodworms, earthworms, daphnia, ground meat with bread, etc.). At the same time they try to select manufacturers based on their size.
Especially females – the bigger they are, the more eggs they sweep out. And vice versa – small females toss less eggs.
They equip an aquarium with vegetation (such as a combo, riccia, duckweed, a peristist, etc.), and do not carpe the bottom of the aquarium – on a clean bottom the eggs retain and do not die, but some aquarists set up a separate grid. Sexual maturity in fish comes to a year of life.
In this case, the males appear on the gills white bumps and the so-called “saw” on the front paired fins, and the females are growing stout, their body is bent. For more information, see: HOW TO DETERMINE THE FLOOR OF A GOLDEN FISH: A male and a female!
A female matured for breeding emits a special substance that has a characteristic odor and is particularly concentrated in the genital organs. Actually, this smell attracts males and is a signal of a female’s readiness for reproduction.
Under the influence of this secretion males begin to swim for females.
Under pond conditions, it is recommended to perform the above spawning manipulations in March – April, with the expectation that spawning will begin in May – June. It is believed that this is the most prosperous time for the successful ripening of caviar.
In addition, at this time it is easier to provide the eggs and fry with the necessary comfort.
If the courtship of the males began earlier than March – April and the spawning should be delayed, the producers are seated and also the water temperature is lowered to the desired period (period).
The peak of reproduction of goldfish is accompanied by violent courtship of the males – they chase the female around the reservoir, and on the day of spawning, these courtships look like a frank pursuit.
Taking into account such features, the spawning aquarium is equipped with soft aquarium plants and not sharp decor (it is better without it at all). Otherwise, the fishes will sweep, and their fins will be torn after spawning.
The spawning begins with the first rays of the sun and lasts 6 hours. Spawning gold can every month until October.
During one spawning, the female can sweep up to 3000 eggs. In the “home” spawning of goldfish can sometimes occur continuously – year-round.
However, this leads to the exhaustion of manufacturers, and in this case they should be given rest, seated in different aquariums.
Photo Caviar Goldfish
Caviar ejection occurs gradually. – the female driven by the males touches the vegetation or the walls of the aquarium and releases 10-30 eggs, which the males immediately fertilize – watering the eggs with milt.
Then, sticky caviar falls to the bottom or sticks to the plants.
Eggs on the first day are slightly orange and slightly flattened, the diameter of eggs is up to 1.5 millimeters. On the third day, the eggs are straightened and discolored, in connection with which they are difficult to detect.
Immediately after spawning, the producers are removed from the spawning tank, otherwise the offspring will be eaten.
The water level in spawning caviar is reduced to 10-15 centimeters and protected from overheating and excessive sunlight (if it is a pond). Aquarium intensively aerated.
The appearance of fry from caviar depends on the water temperature. At a water temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius – the incubation period is 4-5 days, but at a temperature of 14 degrees Celsius it can reach 7-8 days.
On the second day after the appearance of the young in the aquarium, it is recommended to launch snails (for example, coils) so that they eat the dead and not fertilized eggs. You can carefully assemble yourself, but it is more difficult than it seems.
It is very important not to kill the young. At the same time, leaving the dead calf is fraught with – live larvae do not tolerate “dirt” and can get sick.
Young goldfish in the first days is weak and harmless, in fact it looks like a reed with eyes and a yolk vesicle in the middle (the yolk bubble is necessary for obtaining nutrients in the first days of life). Fry move in spurts and can stick to the stop.
After about 2-3 days, they begin to blithely float around the reservoir, and from this point on, the young need to be fed with starter feed: live dust, the finest alga, and other finely ground to feed dust. After 2 weeks, you can give larger feed. At the age of one month, juveniles are capable of taking small bloodworms. As a starter feed, they also use egg yolk finely ground in water, as well as the soaked oatmeal grated in the dust.
The fry are fed abundantly, but in portions – little by little but often.
photo larva Golden Fish
We can recommend the following feed for young goldfish.
JBL GoldPearls mini is premium class granules, packaged in 100 ml.
It has a special recipe ideal for young fish. The diameter of the granulated feed 1-2 mm.
Contains spirulina and carotenoids, which contribute to the development of good fish color, contain proteins (10%) from wheat germ, fatty acids.
After two weeks the fry are planted in a 30 liter aquarium at the rate of 250 fry per aquarium. Aquariums flush or replace water frequently. Without purging, it is recommended that 120 fry be planted per aquarium.
So they contain up to 2 months of age, gradually sorting by size and reducing their number. Fry are caught not with a net, but with a saucer or other utensils.
So they are easier to get and count.
Photo spawning hotbed for goldfish
Sorting carried out on the principle of rejection. Harvested juveniles with defects, juveniles lagging behind in growth, etc.
In the end, get pedigree goldfish.
Defective and non-standard young, unfortunately kill. First, because it, as a rule, does not survive itself, and secondly, even if it survives, nothing good comes out of it.
With its further content, you risk getting outbred offspring “bastards”, but if you go further, then the fish just degenerate into a silver carp.
At first, the scaled juveniles of goldfish have a silver-gray color, like the progenitor of the goldfish. Coloring appears only at the age of 3-5 months.
To improve the brightness of the fish color, it is recommended that “sunbathing” light should be diffused. In an artificial reservoir, no shading is necessary, on the contrary, the aquarium is intensively illuminated with lamps.
It is worth noting that the color of goldfish can vary in fact a lifetime.
Scaleless fry do not pass the aforementioned period of silver color and already at two weeks of age begin to turn into their final color.
Juveniles of goldfish are very capricious and prone to disease. To avoid mortality of offspring, you should regularly monitor the cleanliness of the aquarium, aeration and filtration.
Constantly monitor the population – do not forget to settle as they grow.
When breeding goldfish need to strictly observe the species crossing. All goldfish can interbreed with each other (for example, veil tails with comets).
photo whitebait goldfish
1 month However, this will lead to degeneration and out-of-proportion scrofula.
Summing up, you can make a short list of what you need for breeding goldfish:
– one year old males: 1 female, 2-3 males.
– Aquariums: the main from 150 liters, spawning from 30 liters, aquarium for youngsters; (aquariums should be illuminated).
– aquarium soft-leaf plants;
– of course: aeration, filtration, thermostat;
– feed for fry;
– improvised aquarium equipment;
If you still have questions, you can ask them to our expert on fish breeding Vitaly Chernyavsky, HERE!
Video about breeding, breeding, spawning and young goldfish
Goldfish kept in aquarium in good conditions become ready for breeding at about the age of one year. By this time, the goldfish male acquires small growths that appear on the anterior pectoral fins, and the female has a more prominent abdomen.
Let’s take a closer look at how to keep your live “gold” in the aquarium.
Proper maintenance of goldfish in an aquarium begins with good soil. As mentioned above, suitable pebbles, coarse sand and a fraction of gravel, the size of 3-5 millimeters.
True, the fish love to sort through the faction in the mouth, so there is a risk that the fish will choke. So the fraction should be very small or, on the contrary, very large.
Do not forget to install a filter that provides cleaning the soil.
When the content of goldfish there is one major problem – the pollution of the aquarium. Not only do the fishes pretend to be mole-diggers, they also have to get rid of waste.
As a result, the water is polluted and, in order to avoid a bad end, you need a quality internal filter.
It is advisable to install an external filter to ensure biofiltration. Although this condition is not mandatory, but the external filter will help save space in the aquarium for your fish, and it should be cleaned less often.
When buying a filter (both internal and external), pay attention to the performance – it should be at least three or four volumes of the aquarium per hour.
You also need a heater to keep the temperature within 22-25 C. However, with heating you should not be zealous, otherwise you will do your pet a disservice – in warm water the fish age very quickly.
For the safe keeping of goldfish, a compressor is needed, otherwise they will experience oxygen starvation, because this species needs a lot of oxygen in the water.
And finally, the last important element – the UV sterilizer, which will destroy the parasites. We will talk about illnesses a bit later.
Finished with the technical equipment of the aquarium, move on to the plants. Fish will live well in an aquarium in which live plants grow. Plants are beneficial for at least three reasons:
- They improve the ecological situation in the aquatic environment.
- Help fight algae.
- They are an excellent “supplement” to the diet of your goldfish – dilute their diet and supply them with beneficial vitamins.
However, some fish owners are afraid that the bitten plants will spoil the picture in the aquarium, make it a kind of post-apocalyptic place. Such people may be advised to plant lemongrass, anubias, echinodorus or any other plant with hard leaves.
A double effect will be achieved – and your pets are well, and the ecological situation does not cause concern.
Fish are ready for breeding from the age of two. Around March-April, you will notice the characteristic behavior of males.
They constantly pursue females and at the same time keep as close as possible to the egg deposit.
If you increase the temperature in the aquarium a couple of degrees, then it will go faster. For two weeks we divide the male and the female and feed them as nourishingly and diversely as possible, and go on a hunger strike just before the spawning.
Spawning should be about 100 liters, water poured there soft settled.
When breeding a cometfish, be sure to lay a protective net for caviar on the bottom. The period of caviar development is four days, and after five days the fry begin to emerge. Feed the fry should be living dust.
With decent care, very soon the young will grow up and it will be possible to switch to rotifers or artemia. As a neighbor, goldfish will do; small species are better not to be moved.
The Cockerel Fish: content, compatibility, reproduction, photo-video review
Amazingly beautiful, beautiful, unpretentious, bold – all these words can be applied to the cockerel aquarium fish. Aquarium cockerels have a bright variable color. Males, of almost all types of cockerels, have chic, veiled fins.
And their content and breeding does not represent any difficulty.
That is why cockerels are among the most popular fish among beginners in the aquarium world, as well as among professionals, who contain beautiful breeding forms, exposing them to competitions.
To understand the beauty and temper of these fish, I’ll give below a literary description of the behavior of cockerel fish in nature from the book by I. Sheremetyev: “Along with beautifully colored gouras, a greyish-green fish does not immediately strike the eye. Her body is 6 cm long, slightly compressed laterally, elongated.
On the sides there are turbid longitudinal stripes with a greenish sheen.
And the same gray, inconspicuous fish approached the fish. And suddenly, as if something had flared and shone in a small body.
The body and splayed fins have become emerald. The fish opens the gill covers and goes to meet the guest. Who is it – the female or rival – the male, the fish can determine only when he sees what the stranger will answer.
The female is in front of a gorgeous male, obeying, placing fins. If she is not ready for spawning, she immediately flees. If two males meet, their intentions will be more serious than can be imagined.
Mutual posing begins, demonstrating brightness, playing brilliance and fin sizes.
This may take a few minutes, and sometimes an hour. If one fish turns out to be half the size of the second, then it leaves another area. But, if males are the same size, then the first blow will be made sooner or later!
Within minutes after the start of the fight, the fins of a weaker male hang down in pieces, the gill covers are broken, the body is covered with bloody wounds. Fishes do not bite, and having opened their mouths so that their teeth stick out ahead, with all their might they drive dozens of needles into the body of an opponent.
After some time, the opponent is defeated, … the male who won the fight, does not allow him to the air and the surface. The loser is killed! ”
Beautiful, professional photo of a rooster fish
Let us take a closer look at these amazing representatives of South Asian reservoirs.
Latin name: Betta splendens;
Russian name: Cockerel fish, Siamese cockerel, cockerel, chicken, betta, fighting fish;
Order, suborder, family, subfamily, gender: Perciformes –Perciformes, Anabantoidei, Osphronemidae, Macropodusinae, Betta
Comfortable water temperature: 25-28 ° C.
Ph acidity: It does not matter, but comfortable 6-8;
Stiffness dH: does not matter, but comfortable 5-15 °;
Aggressiveness: cockerels – Betta relatively peaceful fish – they can not be called predators. However, they have a strong intraspecific aggression and territoriality. Keep two males in a small aquarium is not possible.
The dominant male will surely kill the weaker. Two or more males can be maintained only in large and wide aquariums, while fights for territory and females still cannot be avoided.
In addition, males often show aggression and to a “disliked” female during spawning.
The complexity of the content: easy;
Cockerel fish compatibility: in addition to the previously mentioned intraspecific aggression, the aggression of fish extends to all small, clumsy and voile fish. Therefore, you can keep them, only nimble, active fish that will be similar in size.
As a recommendation, it is possible to advise in the neighbors of the males: corridors (speckled catfish), danios, molines, swordtails, other nimble petilles, tetras.
Males are not compatible with cichlids, the family of goldfish, other labyrinth fish are not desirable. Not compatible with snails, they eat small snails, and large ones cut off their whiskers.
In addition, when combining fish you should always take into account the similarity of conditions and water parameters, for more information on the compatibility of aquarium fish, see HERE!
How many live: Cockerel fish are not aquarium long-livers, their age is short – only 3 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
Requirements for the care and maintenance of cockerel fish
From the above, we can conclude that in one, a small aquarium, you can contain only one male cockerel. If the aquarium is large – from 100l. You can try to plant the second male or make transparent partitions in the aquarium, for example from plexiglass, pre-drilled holes in them to circulate the water in the aquarium.
In addition, I advocate the creation of a natural – natural environment in an aquarium. The aquarium can and should be decorated with stones, grottoes, snags, as well as living aquarium plants. Lighting should not be very bright, preferably the presence of filtering.
The aquarium itself should not be filled with water to the brim, you need to leave 7-10 cm and be sure to cover the aquarium. All labyrinth fish and cockerels in particular breathe atmospheric air, swallowing it from the surface of the water.
In the absence of airspace or access to the surface of the water, the fish will suffocate. A lid is needed to ensure that the air swallowed by cockerels from the surface of the water is not too cold.
An aquarium with cockerels can be equipped with artificial plants, but still, if you have the opportunity, purchase live aquarium plants. With live plants, the aquarium looks more natural, the plants themselves contribute to biological balance, and the males can also use them for spawning and creating a foamy nest.
Of unpretentious plants for cockerels can recommend: vallisneria, rogolini, cryptocorynes, other not complex plants.
Feeding and diet of cockerels: they are not whimsical in food, they are happy to eat both dry and live food (Artemia, bloodworm, etc.). The males eat any brand-name dry food, but advanced aquarium brands have developed special ones for them – individual foods that are best suited. Feeding aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied.
This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc.
Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, live: Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Vietnam. They live in stagnant, oxygen-free waters – puddles, ditches, rice fields.
Description: Very beautiful fish, its veil tail and fins just fascinate. The color of the fish is different.
The most common ink color with a reddish tint. Males are colored much brighter, fins are longer than those of females.
The size of the fish is 5-10 cm. The body is laterally compressed, elongated, oval.
They have cycloid scales, pointed pectoral fins, upper and tail fin of a rounded shape, the lower fin originates from the head and ends at the base of the tail.
The history of cockerel fish
The first mention of the fish dates from the beginning of the nineteenth century, it was then that the people of Siam paid attention to these small, but lively and aggressive fish. Next, the Siamese began to cross wild individuals Betta and got a new kind of fish, calling it “biting fish.”
A couple of copies of these “pieces” in 1840. King of Siam handed over to Dr. Theodor Cantor, who in 1849 gave them the name Macropodus pugnax. After 60 years, the British ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan renamed them “The Beton Fish”, arguing that the Macropodus pugnax species already exists in nature.
It is known that the cockerel fish appeared in Paris in 1892, in Germany in 1896, and in 1910 appeared in the United States with Frank Locke from San Francisco, California. Through the selection of these fish, he received a “new” fish, calling it Betta Cambodia – one of the first color variations of Betta Splendens. The history of the appearance of Bette in Russia is not truly known.
There are several versions. The first is associated with aquarist VM.
Desnitsky, who allegedly in 1896. brought from Singapore exotic species of fish and plants, but it is not known for certain whether there were any cockerels among them. The second version says that the aquarist V.S. Melnikov approximately in the same period spread a number of labyrinth fishes in Russia.
By the way, a competition for the best fighting fish was established in his honor. And the latest version says that the fighting fish were brought in by the Frenchman Seysel, and all descendants from Russia and Europe went from his fish.
Types of Bette and Petushki selection forms
The first thing I want to say is that the cockerel fish (Betta splendens) is one of the Bett species. Bette species should be distinguished from Betta splendens breeding forms.
On the Internet, everywhere breeding forms of a rooster are given for species, which is not correct!
So, the Bette’s species include: Betta picta (Betta picta), Betta striped (Betta taeniata Regan), Betta smaragdova (Betta smaragdina Ladiges), Betta untamulata (Betta unimaculata), Betta black, she’s also the dwarf, Cockerel black, she’s black, she’s black, she’s black, she’s black, she’s black, she’s black imbeIIis ladiges), Cockerel (Betta splendes).
And here, the selection forms of the Cockerel (Betta splendes) include:
In size and shape of the fins:
– Veiltail fighting fishes or “veil cock”
– Deltatail fighting fish
– Giant or royal fighting fish
– Crescent-tailed warrior fish
– Round-tailed fighting fish
– Crescent-tailed warrior fish
– Deltatail fighting fish
– Flagtail fighting fishes
– Poster fighting fish
– Crownstail fighting fish
– Poster fighting fish
– Crosstail fishes
– Two-tailed fighting fish
By color: Multicolor “multicolor”, two-color, one-color.
Photos of some breeding forms
Fish telescope – a kind of goldfish, in the wild is not found. As is known, goldfish appeared as a result of selection of wild carp.
According to reliable data, the telescope fish was bred in the XVII century in China, from which it came to Japan. The most prominent part of the animal’s body is large, bulging eyes located on the sides of the head.
Due to the unusual shape of the eye, the fish got its name. Unfortunately, these eyes themselves are very vulnerable in the aquarium, they can be damaged by random objects. For this reason, keeping a pet requires maximum care.
Caring for fish imposes some restrictions and rules that help protect its health.
The reproduction of telescopes is possible in an artificial reservoir in the springtime, when the water is warming. As in the reproduction of goldfish, the female and the male telescope are planted for two weeks in separate aquariums, giving live and artificial food. Before settling in spawning, they are satisfied with the fasting day.
Spawning occurs in fresh and softer water with a temperature of 23-25 degrees.
The required spawning volume is 50 liters, a separator grid and several stile-leaved plants are placed there. Usually one female and 2-3 males spawn.
The female lays many eggs – more than 2000. Incubation lasts 3-4 days.
5 days after spawning, the larvae will hatch, which will swim in a few days if the water temperature is from 21 to 26 degrees Celsius. The fry are weak and helpless, barely noticeable. Starter feed – live dust.
Later you can eat artemia and rotifers. Caring for fry requires constant observation in the spawning aquarium – in order to prevent cannibalism between brothers, large fry should be separated and settled separately from smaller ones.