Varieties of glowing aquarium fish with a common designation – GloFish.
Glofish – patented name of fluorescent fish obtained by gene modification. The name is formed by two English owls: glow – “shining”, “glow” and fish – “fish”.
Under this brand, transgenic fish are sold in America, but the official manufacturer of fish is Taikong Corporation in Taiwan.
The first fluorescent fish that were obtained by Taiwanese scientists were the Japanese medak and zebrafish.
To obtain luminescence in the DNA of these fish, a gene of one of the species of Pacific jellyfish was placed, which is responsible for the synthesis of fluorescent green protein.
New fish were named by the company Taykong “Night Pearls”.
Initially, the experiments were carried out for scientific purposes: the fish were supposed to serve as indicators of water pollution, that is, in the presence of hazardous toxic substances in it, change the color. At one of the scientific conferences, a photograph of a transgenic fish was shown, which was very interesting for a representative of a company specializing in the sale of aquarium fish.
As a result, scientists have received an order to receive another type of glowing fish. But this time the zebrafish was implanted in the gene of the sea coral, giving the fish no longer a green, but a red glow.
Individuals that have received the jellyfish and coral DNA genes glow yellow.
Scientific and commercial cooperation has led to the conclusion of a contract and the emergence of a new brand GloFish, under which various types of glowing fish are sold.
Scientists did not stop there, and in 2011 transgenic fish of violet and blue colors were bred.
Currently there are the following colors fluorescent fish: “Red Starfish”; “Orange ray”; “Green Electricity”; “Purple Galaxy”; “Blue of the Cosmos”.
Various combinations of genes of sea corals and jellyfish were introduced into the DNA of each species.
In 2012, the same company made an order to receive glowing terntions. Following them, transgenic scalars, Pterophyllum scalare and the black-striped cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata, are created.
The creation of luminous cichlids, according to scientists, turned out to be more difficult, since these fish have a more complicated spawning process and fewer eggs than medaka and danios.
All GloFish fish from the moment of birth have a fluorescent color that lasts for a lifetime and becomes brighter as the fish grows older. Luminous color is transmitted to the fry during reproduction of transgenic species.
Thus, thanks to the joint efforts of scientists and entrepreneurs, decorative aquarism has been enriched with unique fish, allowing you to create a completely new luminous aquarium design.
Glowing fish GloFish becoming more and more popular, so manufacturers of aquarium decorations also do not stand on the spot. Already you can find on sale plants, the color palette of which corresponds to transgenic fish, and the same artificial decorations.
Fish do not fluoresce when illuminated with ordinary lamps. Proteins, concentrated in their body, appear only under blue and ultraviolet light.
To make the glowing fish appear in all their glittering beauty, special lamps are produced, when illuminated with which the fluorescent glow of genetically modified fish manifests itself to the maximum.
In China and Taiwan, it has long been fashionable to create glowing in the dark aquariums, where among the twinkling decorations are floating glowing GloFish.
In addition to fluorescence, transgenic fish differ little from natural forms. Their size, longevity, behavior and nutrition are almost the same, but with some nuances.
For example, they have no visible sex differences, since both females and males of the same color. The only sign is a more rounded abdomen line in females.
The parameters of the aquarium unpretentious, but it is better to choose a not very deep oblong tank with a lid. The abundance of plants should be combined with open areas for swimming.
Water parameters: hardness about 10, acidity 6-7.5. And the temperature should be slightly higher than for ordinary fish – 28-29 degrees.
Fish have a very peace-loving character and get along well with any representatives of their kind, liliusi and cockerels. It is not advisable to keep GloFish with cichlids of any size, which will try to eat luminous prey, regardless of whether they are hungry.
In nutrition genetically modified fish also picky. They are suitable as live food – small daphnia, bloodworm, cortex, and dry flakes, frozen and vegetable food.
Thanks to the beauty and unpretentiousness luminous fish – GloFish they are easy to maintain even for beginners aquarists.
genome-modified snails will appear soon