maintenance, care, compatibility
Dear reader! This article is a team of all the articles on our site.
We also tried to supplement the article with the nuances of maintaining and caring for goldfish in an aquarium.
Why do you need such an article? Everything is very simple.
Many beginners in the aquarium world do not know how to contain them, make gross mistakes, as a result of which in a month the goldfish at best fall ill with fin rot and at worst pop up with the belly up.
For example, often on our forum, and on the Internet as a whole, they ask the question – why does my goldfish swim sideways or belly up? When you start to understand, look for the cause of this disease and ask questions to the owner. the answer is by itself and literally lies on the surface of the water.
Many do not know, forget, or do not want to know that feeding fish should be balanced, that is, in their diet should include dry food, and live and vegetable. Goldfish are gluttonous, prone to overeating, so the question of balance in the diet for them as for anyone is relevant.
As for the aforementioned question, the answer is simple – in the process of eating dry food, goldfish swallow air with food. If you feed them only dry food, fish, due to excess air in the food system, begin to float belly up.
The problem is solved elementary – the fish are transferred to the correct, full-fledged feeding and after 3-4 days the goldfish begin to swim normally.
Alas, such examples are mass and it is impossible to highlight everything. But, we still try to do it, by centralizing all the information about goldfish.
We will try to focus on the most important points of the content of gold aquarium fish.
Goldfish: description, types, highlights
Let’s take a closer look at how to keep your live “gold” in the aquarium.
Proper maintenance of goldfish in an aquarium begins with good soil. As mentioned above, suitable pebbles, coarse sand and a fraction of gravel, the size of 3-5 millimeters.
True, the fish love to sort through the faction in the mouth, so there is a risk that the fish will choke. So the fraction should be very small or, on the contrary, very large.
Do not forget to install a filter that provides cleaning the soil.
When the content of goldfish there is one major problem – the pollution of the aquarium. Not only do the fishes pretend to be mole-diggers, they also have to get rid of waste.
As a result, the water is polluted and, in order to avoid a bad end, you need a quality internal filter.
It is advisable to install an external filter to ensure biofiltration. Although this condition is not mandatory, but the external filter will help save space in the aquarium for your fish, and it should be cleaned less often.
When buying a filter (both internal and external), pay attention to the performance – it should be at least three or four volumes of the aquarium per hour.
You also need a heater to keep the temperature within 22-25 C. However, with heating you should not be zealous, otherwise you will do your pet a disservice – in warm water the fish age very quickly.
For the safe keeping of goldfish, a compressor is needed, otherwise they will experience oxygen starvation, because this species needs a lot of oxygen in the water.
And finally, the last important element – the UV sterilizer, which will destroy the parasites. We will talk about illnesses a bit later.
Finished with the technical equipment of the aquarium, move on to the plants. Fish will live well in an aquarium in which live plants grow. Plants are beneficial for at least three reasons:
- They improve the ecological situation in the aquatic environment.
- Help fight algae.
- They are an excellent “supplement” to the diet of your goldfish – dilute their diet and supply them with beneficial vitamins.
However, some fish owners are afraid that the bitten plants will spoil the picture in the aquarium, make it a kind of post-apocalyptic place. Such people may be advised to plant lemongrass, anubias, echinodorus or any other plant with hard leaves.
A double effect will be achieved – and your pets are well, and the ecological situation does not cause concern.
All the owners of aquariums are very concerned about the disease of goldfish, because such delicate creatures can easily die if you do not take appropriate measures.
To understand whether a fish is sick or not, you need to pay attention to its mobility, appetite, brightness of color and shine of scales.
The dorsal fin also tells about health problems – if the fish does not hold it vertically, then something is wrong. A plaque that has appeared on the body or formations that have suddenly arisen are a signal that the matter has already gone far.
When these signs appear, you must immediately isolate the sick fish from the rest. Sick fish should be placed in a large aquarium with salt water – the concentration is 20 grams of salt per liter of clean tap water.
Water temperature should not exceed 18 With. Keep the fish in the aquarium for three days, while changing the solution every day.
Here is a list of common goldfish diseases:
- Scale clouding followed by scabies. It is necessary to immediately change all the water;
- If hyphae appear in the fish – white strings perpendicular to the body, then it has ringworm or simply a fungus. Immediately take action, otherwise the hyphae will sprout inside the body and the fish will fall to the bottom, but it will not float;
- Fishpox is called multi-colored tumors (white, pinkish, gray), occupying the skin and fins. Tumors are not a threat, but badly spoil the beauty of the fish and are not treatable;
- Dropsy with subsequent sepsis is a terrible threat to goldfish. The chance to save the fish is only at the initial stage of the disease, when the patient is “resettled” into running water and bathed in a solution of potassium permanganate every other day for a quarter of an hour;
- If you feed the fish with bad food, or feed them for a long time with dried daphnia, bloodworms and gammarus, their stomach will quickly become inflamed;
In addition to these diseases of goldfish, there are still many ailments, so it is best to consult a specialist in the issue of disease prevention.
There are different varieties of golden aquarium fish, but they all require keeping them in a spacious aquarium.
Consider some types of golden aquarium fish and care for them:
- Vualekhvost. Individuals of this species reach 10 cm in length, while they can have a tail up to 30 cm, possess a disproportionate head with large eyes. They have a different color, from monotone golden to rich red, or even black. The content of these fish requires a spacious aquarium with a water temperature of at least 22 degrees. Veilhvostov should not be kept in the same tank with predators.
- Telescope. There are scaly and scaleless telescopes. These fish have huge, bulging eyes, in the form of a ball, from here they got their name. The length of the fish can be 12 cm, they have long forked fins and tail, there are black, red, calico, orange color. They require water up to 25 degrees, mandatory filtration and aeration, a large number of plants and shelter.
- Ryukin. The name of the fish is translated from Japanese as “gold”. The owner of a small body, large fins and massive head, has a characteristic feature – a hump on the back. The fish is pink, white, red, spotted and calico colors. Proper care of them requires a water temperature of at least 28 degrees in the aquarium; the fish cannot live at low water temperatures.
- Astrologer or celestial eye. The name of the fish is given because of the telescopic eyes. This fish has an orange-golden color, it grows up to 15 cm. To keep 2-3 individuals, you need an aquarium of at least 100 liters. Fish love to rummage in the ground, it is better to choose for them pebbles or larger sand, large-leaved plants with strong large roots. This type of goldfish cannot exist alongside aggressive pets.
Practice shows that such a neighborhood is impossible. And this is due to the natural aggressiveness of almost all tsikhlovyh.
Even if cichlids are herbivores of the same size as goldfish, then races around the aquarium are inevitable.
In some sources you can find information about the peaceful living in the general aquarium of goldfish and South American tsihlazom, however, clashes between them are inevitable. Especially if the fish are hungry.
As for the fairly common astronotus, he considers the “gold” only as an additional dish for his dinner.
From the point of view of behavior and calmness in a water hostel, in this case there will be no problems. Comets, voilehwosts, shubunkins, wakins, telescopes and richens will live peacefully in a common company.
But here another problem arises: the state of the offspring. Individuals of different subspecies will begin to interbreed with each other and give hybrids.
Thus, the breed will be spoiled, and the centuries-old efforts of Eastern breeders will go down the drain. If this process is not stopped, then a rather rapid transformation of goldfish back into ordinary carp will occur.
So, with whom it is better to combine elegant goldfish? There is only one answer, with which all experts agree: with no one.
In a species aquarium, goldfish of the same breed will be calm, comfortable and safe.
Feed the goldfish should be a special feed. Food for goldfish produced in the form of flakes or granules.
If you want to pamper your pet, you can add to the diet finely chopped lettuce or pieces of hard-boiled egg. Goldfish do not know the measures in food and overfeeding them is very simple. In order to avoid such troubles, carefully measure the amount of food that the fish managed to eat during the first three minutes of feeding.
In the future, do not give her more.
It is best to use artificial plants. From living plants Javanese moss is best suited.
Prefer sedge plants with strong and elongated leaves. The wider the sheet, the better.
If you decide to keep a goldfish in a small aquarium, it is better to completely abandon the plants or simply use a few artificial decorative elements.
Caring for a goldfish is very scrupulous and difficult only at the beginning. When you learn a little about all the tricks of this business, the eye will delight the beautiful clean aquarium and its well-groomed inhabitants. By the way, in the teaching of feng shui, a goldfish is a symbol of harmony and prosperity.
In addition, it is a symbol of material well-being, so take good care of your darling.
Reproduction and breeding of goldfish
Goldfish is one of the most ancient aquarium fish. Their story begins with the first century of our Era and Ancient China.
Even then, the emperors of the East and Buddhist monks began to maintain, breed and select goldfish.
Actually, therefore, at present there are a great many aquarium goldfish, and their cost can vary from 2 dollars to several thousand US.
So, if you want to feel like a true goldfish breeder, emperor or Buddhist monk, then this article is for you!
Breeding or breeding goldfish, is not a difficult task.
However, goldfish are not guppies and in order to get offspring you still have to work hard and be patient. In addition, you need to have a sufficient number of aquariums or ponds.
One aquarium will not get off!
Goldfish breed independently, without any hormonal injections or without creating too specific conditions. Actual, good maintenance and proper feeding is the criterion and incentive for spawning producers.
All types of goldfish can spawn in aquariums of a small volume of 30 liters. However, better results can be achieved in larger aquariums or in ponds.
Spawning of goldfish can occur at a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, but it is better to maintain the temperature of the aquarium water at a level of 22-24 degrees Celsius. After replanting manufacturers increase the temperature by 2 degrees.
The water level in the spawning pond should be 20-25 centimeters, the water should often be replaced by fresh and purged.
Unlike many other spawning aquariums, spawning for goldfish should be well consecrated all light day. If it is a pond, then the sunlight should be diffused, and the pond should be equipped with shelters in the form of floating plants.
Producers are planted in a spawning aquarium in the ratio of 1 female to 2-3 males and richly fed with live food (bloodworms, earthworms, daphnia, ground meat with bread, etc.). At the same time they try to select manufacturers based on their size.
Especially females – the bigger they are, the more eggs they sweep out. And vice versa – small females toss less eggs. They equip an aquarium with vegetation (such as a combo, riccia, duckweed, a peristist, etc.), and do not carpe the bottom of the aquarium – on a clean bottom the eggs retain and do not die, but some aquarists set up a separate grid.
Sexual maturity in fish comes to a year of life. In this case, the males appear on the gills white bumps and the so-called “saw” on the front paired fins, and the females are growing stout, their body is bent.
For more information, see: HOW TO DETERMINE THE FLOOR OF A GOLDEN FISH: A male and a female!
A female matured for breeding emits a special substance that has a characteristic odor and is particularly concentrated in the genital organs. Actually, this smell attracts males and is a signal of a female’s readiness for reproduction.
Under the influence of this secretion males begin to swim for females.
Under pond conditions, it is recommended to perform the above spawning manipulations in March – April, with the expectation that spawning will begin in May – June. It is believed that this is the most prosperous time for the successful ripening of caviar.
In addition, at this time it is easier to provide the eggs and fry with the necessary comfort.
If the courtship of the males began earlier than March – April and the spawning should be delayed, the producers are seated and also the water temperature is lowered to the desired period (period).
The peak of reproduction of goldfish is accompanied by violent courtship of the males – they chase the female around the reservoir, and on the day of spawning, these courtships look like a frank pursuit.
Taking into account such features, the spawning aquarium is equipped with soft aquarium plants and not sharp decor (it is better without it at all). Otherwise, the fishes will sweep, and their fins will be torn after spawning.
The spawning begins with the first rays of the sun and lasts 6 hours. Spawning gold can every month until October.
During one spawning, the female can sweep up to 3000 eggs. In the “home” spawning of goldfish can sometimes occur continuously – year-round.
However, this leads to the exhaustion of manufacturers, and in this case they should be given rest, seated in different aquariums.
Photo Caviar Goldfish
Caviar ejection occurs gradually. – the female driven by the males touches the vegetation or the walls of the aquarium and releases 10-30 eggs, which the males immediately fertilize – watering the eggs with milt.
Then, sticky caviar falls to the bottom or sticks to the plants.
Eggs on the first day are slightly orange and slightly flattened, the diameter of eggs is up to 1.5 millimeters. On the third day, the eggs are straightened and discolored, in connection with which they are difficult to detect.
Immediately after spawning, the producers are removed from the spawning tank, otherwise the offspring will be eaten.
The water level in spawning caviar is reduced to 10-15 centimeters and protected from overheating and excessive sunlight (if it is a pond). Aquarium intensively aerated.
The appearance of fry from caviar depends on the water temperature. At a water temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius – the incubation period is 4-5 days, but at a temperature of 14 degrees Celsius it can reach 7-8 days.
On the second day after the appearance of the young in the aquarium, it is recommended to launch snails (for example, coils) so that they eat the dead and not fertilized eggs. You can carefully assemble yourself, but it is more difficult than it seems. It is very important not to kill the young.
At the same time, leaving the dead calf is fraught with – live larvae do not tolerate “dirt” and can get sick.
Young goldfish in the first days is weak and harmless, in fact it looks like a reed with eyes and a yolk vesicle in the middle (the yolk bubble is necessary for obtaining nutrients in the first days of life). Fry move in spurts and can stick to the stop.
After about 2-3 days, they begin to blithely float around the reservoir, and from this point on, the young need to be fed with starter feed: live dust, the finest alga, and other finely ground to feed dust. After 2 weeks, you can give larger feed.
At the age of one month, juveniles are capable of taking small bloodworms. As a starter feed, they also use egg yolk finely ground in water, as well as the soaked oatmeal grated in the dust. The fry are fed abundantly, but in portions – little by little but often.
photo larva Golden Fish
We can recommend the following feed for young goldfish.
JBL GoldPearls mini is premium class granules, packaged in 100 ml.
It has a special recipe ideal for young fish. The diameter of the granulated feed 1-2 mm.
Contains spirulina and carotenoids, which contribute to the development of good fish color, contain proteins (10%) from wheat germ, fatty acids.
After two weeks the fry are planted in a 30 liter aquarium at the rate of 250 fry per aquarium. Aquariums flush or replace water frequently.
Without purging, it is recommended that 120 fry be planted per aquarium. So they contain up to 2 months of age, gradually sorting by size and reducing their number.
Fry are caught not with a net, but with a saucer or other utensils. So they are easier to get and count.
Photo spawning hotbed for goldfish
Sorting carried out on the principle of rejection. Harvested juveniles with defects, juveniles lagging behind in growth, etc.
In the end, get pedigree goldfish.
Defective and non-standard young, unfortunately kill. First, because it, as a rule, does not survive itself, and secondly, even if it survives, nothing good comes out of it.
With its further content, you risk getting outbred offspring “bastards”, but if you go further, then the fish just degenerate into a silver carp.
At first, the scaled juveniles of goldfish have a silver-gray color, like the progenitor of the goldfish. Coloring appears only at the age of 3-5 months.
To improve the brightness of the fish color, it is recommended that “sunbathing” light should be diffused. In an artificial reservoir, no shading is necessary, on the contrary, the aquarium is intensively illuminated with lamps.
It is worth noting that the color of goldfish can vary in fact a lifetime.
Scaleless fry do not pass the aforementioned period of silver color and already at two weeks of age begin to turn into their final color.
Juveniles of goldfish are very capricious and prone to disease. To avoid mortality of offspring, you should regularly monitor the cleanliness of the aquarium, aeration and filtration.
Constantly monitor the population – do not forget to settle as they grow.
When breeding goldfish need to strictly observe the species crossing. All goldfish can interbreed with each other (for example, veil tails with comets).
photo whitebait goldfish
1 month However, this will lead to degeneration and out-of-proportion scrofula.
Summing up, you can make a short list of what you need for breeding goldfish:
– one year old males: 1 female, 2-3 males.
– Aquariums: the main from 150 liters, spawning from 30 liters, aquarium for youngsters; (aquariums should be illuminated).
– aquarium soft-leaf plants;
– of course: aeration, filtration, thermostat;
– feed for fry;
– improvised aquarium equipment;
If you still have questions, you can ask them to our expert on fish breeding Vitaly Chernyavsky, HERE!
Video about breeding, breeding, spawning and young goldfish
When you settled such wonderful pets as goldfish in your home aquarium, the question immediately arises: “How and what to feed these cute creatures?”. In fact, feeding the fish in the aquarium is not difficult.
First, it is an omnivorous species of fish, and secondly, when pets get used to the owner, they can be given food with their own hands.