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Fishes of the Black Sea: list, description and features

The Black Sea is not only a source of minerals, but also a home for a huge number of fish. Its bottom is absolutely unsuitable for marine life, as the water there is supersaturated with hydrogen sulfide.

Because of this, all the fishes of the Black Sea live in the 150-meter depth and rarely descend below. Most of them live and reproduce close to the surface, so their study is greatly simplified.

Fish in the Black Sea live at a depth of 150m

The Black Sea is the closing link of the long chain of the Mediterranean seas. Because of this feature in it dwells the minimum number of fish. All of them are of oceanic origin and live only in the water that is similar to their natural environment.

However, with the distance from the Strait of Gibraltar, its composition, quality and natural wealth change. Because of this, only certain species of fish have adapted to the conditions of the Black Sea, which are unpretentious in food and endure abrupt changes in the environment.

About 500 species of fish live in the Mediterranean basin, but only 180 of them can be found in the Black Sea. Some of them live in it permanently, and some species swim only for a certain period of the year.

Because of this, the diversity of the Black Sea fish is further reduced.

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The list of the most famous representatives of the ichthyofauna:

Some species of fish in the Black Sea are of great commercial value. They are massively caught, which leads to a decrease in populations and the gradual extermination of the species. Among them are the following types:

  • goby;
  • sea ​​ruff;
  • sea ​​Horse;
  • stickleback;
  • greenfinch;
  • angler;
  • gurnard.

Until recently, 3 species of mullet lived in the Black Sea, but heavy pollution and industrial fishing put them on the verge of extinction. To remedy the situation was brought pelengas. He adapted well to environmental conditions and began to actively reproduce.

The consequence of this was his industrial catch, which is strictly controlled and helps Pelengas to avoid the fate of other species of mullet.

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To determine which fish live in the Black Sea, you need to study their main species, which are of interest not only for the entire ecosystem, but also for humans. Such representatives of aquatic fauna often become objects of sports and amateur fishing, which only control their population, but do not carry threats to the whole species.

The list of commercial fish of the Black Sea reveals the most popular species – an ordinary goby. He is adored not only by people, but also by large aquatic inhabitants.

This representative of the fauna spends all its life in shallow water, hiding in the coastal vegetation, rocks or crevices at the bottom.

There are a total of 10 species of the Black Sea goby, which can be very different from each other. This is due to the environmental conditions in which the fish lives.

The main distinguishing feature of this creature is the ability to adapt to rapidly changing conditions and change its color. They use the last ability for camouflage on the terrain in which they are now located.

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Because of its small size, the bull is forced all its life to escape from large predators. For this, he developed the following methods:

  1. At the moment of danger, the fish quickly reacts and flees. Despite the length of his body, he swims pretty quickly.
  2. Hiding in a pre-prepared shelter. Gobies are distinguished by their ingenuity, so they rarely go far from a safe place.
  3. Merge with the environment. If all rescue methods cannot be implemented, then the fish tries to become invisible to the hunter. Most often, they sink to the bottom and try to merge with the sand.

Despite all the tricks, the bull is powerless before a massive catch. For people, it is a real delicacy and often diversifies their daily diet.

Other edible fishes of the Black Sea belong to the mullet species. There are 4 varieties of them, and they are all quite rare. These include the following:

  1. Singhil. This is one of the largest representatives of the mullet. The length of his body can reach 60 centimeters, but more often smaller specimens can be found. Singyl prefers to live in the coastal zone, but for reproduction it goes into the sea. The basis of its diet is detritus (undecomposed remains of plants and animals). The distinctive feature of this mullet is an orange spot on the gill cover.
  2. Pilengas (pelengas). This representative of aquatic fauna can grow up to half a meter and weigh about 12 kilograms. He spends his whole life at sea and leaves it only for wintering. To this end, he is looking for suitable secluded places in small rivers. Pilengas feeds on small crustaceans and detritus.
  3. Loban. This inhabitant of the Black Sea can grow up to 80 centimeters and weigh at least 6 kg. Fish prefers to live in a flock and settles in the coastal waters. With the onset of cold weather, the bar goes to the mouths of rivers and bays. People appreciate it for its great taste and impressive size.
  4. Ostronos. Proceeding from the name, it is not difficult to guess that the peculiarity of this species is a slightly elongated and pointed front part of the head. The fish is small, its maximum length can be about 40 centimeters. It uses small shellfish, worms and crustaceans as feed. The Black Sea island only comes in August and September. Here he searches for secluded places and accumulates his fat reserves.

Mullets are quite rare

All of these types are able to exist in both salt and fresh water. This feature gives them a huge advantage over other types of fish.

It is especially important when spawning, since for fry it is necessary to have secluded places, which they can easily find in the mouths of freshwater rivers. A mullet, like other similar creatures, has many enemies, including scad, bluefish, and garfish.

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This representative ichthyofauna is considered one of the most popular objects for sea fishing. There are several varieties of them, which differ from each other not only in body shape, but also in size (from 22 to 55 cm).

The life cycle of scad proceeds in several stages:

  1. She winters until April. For these purposes, the fish chooses underwater holes and protrusions in front of deep depressions. During this period, the horse mackerel practically does not feed, and it maintains its vital energy due to its accumulated fat reserves.
  2. With the onset of April, the fish gather in large flocks and rise closer to the surface of the water. There they are actively accepted for the search for food and are gaining weight.
  3. From May to August, the horse mackerel begins spawning. For this process, the fish is settled along the entire coast of the Black Sea.
  4. The water creature spends time before the onset of cold weather in search of a place for wintering.

Scad is a born cold-blooded killer. The basis of its prey is small fish (hamsa, goby) and crustaceans.

However, she also enjoys eating worms and animal remains. Larger individuals are able to eat fish of considerable size (mullet, red mullet and others).

As a rule, this predator hunts near the surface of the water, but if necessary it can sink to the bottom.

Scad is very popular with fishermen

Such a marine inhabitant can grow over a meter long and weigh at least 15 kg. However, such large individuals can only be found in rare cases. Other features of this Black Sea species include:

  1. During the year, the bluefish makes long migrations and swims considerable distances.
  2. In autumn and spring, fish can be found in shallow water, as well as near the sea shore.
  3. He tries to keep in small flocks and likes to hunt near the surface of the water. He chooses sprat, hamsa, mackerel, and herring as potential prey.
  4. Smaller individuals feed on fry of other fish or worms.
  5. The bluefish has very powerful jaws with many sharp teeth. Thanks to them, he not only firmly grabs his prey, but also escapes from anglers.

This fish is considered one of the main objects of fishing. She is small (reaches a length of 25 cm) and likes to live in small flocks at a depth of up to fifty meters.

When choosing a reservoir, it pays attention to the presence of a large number of randomly scattered stones overgrown with algae and other marine vegetation. For the winter, the red carp goes into the sea and returns only with the onset of spring.

Sea carp reaches 25cm in length

This creature is very cautious, so catching it with a bait is quite problematic. As the basis of the diet uses small crustaceans, diatoms and fry of fish.

Most often it is possible to meet sea pond with length from 8 to 15 cm, however some individuals are able to grow twice as much.

It is one of the most beautiful predatory representatives of the Black Sea. The fish is very bright and can change its color, adapting to environmental conditions. Most often it is dominated by green shades, for which the marine life and got its name.

Males are more beautiful than females, and their appearance resembles tropical fish.

Zelenushka rarely grows more than 15−20 centimeters in length, and their weight is about 300 g. The whole summer period, the fish is found near the coastal cliffs covered with algae. In such a place, she is looking for bivalve mollusks and small crustaceans, which are included in her daily menu.

Sinks or hard shell of greenfinch are smashed with powerful jaws and strong teeth.

These aquatic creatures love solitude and gather in flocks only during mating or migration.

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