maintenance, care, compatibility
Molliesia (lat. Mollienesia): black, snowflake, veifera, sphenops, latypin – which of these types you name, they are all popular and common in an aquarium and belong to the same species, although they sometimes look very different. And all due to the fact that they have a lot of advantages – they are peaceful, very hardy and unpretentious, inexpensive, and simply multiply.
These are purely American fish, as they live in North and South America. Wild species can be divided into two groups – with short fins, such as black molly and with long fins, for example, Velifer molyneziya or marble.
Most species appeared in aquariums in 1899, and various hybrids since 1920. Now you can find black aquarium mollies, snowflakes (completely white or yellow), silver, stained.
And the number of diverse species continues to grow and gain popularity.
For novice aquarists, the best choice is the usual black aquarium mollies, as it is less demanding, easier to breed and requires smaller aquariums. For the maintenance of all types you need a well-overgrown aquarium, quite spacious.
It is important that in their diet was a lot of plant substances and algae.
How to feed mollies? Omnivorous fish that eat all kinds of live, frozen or artificial food. But, they need a very large amount of feed with fiber, such as algae or vegetables.
The fact is that in nature, mollies fish have a lot of algae and various fouling in the diet, their lips and behavior speak about it. You can often see how they scrape off fouling from glass and decor in an aquarium.
From vegetable feed, the easiest way is to give molly flakes with spriulina, or pieces of slightly boiled cucumbers, zucchini, lettuce leaves. Of the animals – bloodworm, pipe worker, Artemia.
In general, there are no problems with feeding mollies, the main thing to remember is that vegetable food is very important for them.
Mollies: content, types, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
Habitat mollies is very wide. In addition, the natural habitats of various types of mollies consist of fresh water, brackish water bays, and even sea coasts. Velifer molliesia populates only lakes and rivers of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.
Latipina mollies inhabit the brackish waters of Virginia, Florida, Carolina and Texas. Sphinops mollies live in a variety of reservoirs in the territory from Mexico to Colombia.
Latin name: Poecilia.
Comfortable water temperature: it is below 25 degrees, better than 27. Mollies are thermophilic, the temperature drop is poorly tolerated.
PH Acidity: 7-8, which is typical of many viviparous fish – they love a weakly alkaline environment.
Aggressiveness: Peaceful, but nimble – shebby fishes.
How many live: up to 4 years.
The complexity of the content: lekaya
Compatible mollies: viviparous fish – platies, swordtails; labyrinth – gourami, lyalius; non-aggressive and small dwarf cichlids“, angelfish, even cockerels (It is worth noting that scalar and cockerel are soft water fish, which is not very similar to the parameters of water for mollies).
In the aquarium, it is desirable to create a stable biological balance environment. All types of mollies are quite thermophilic and prefer water with a temperature of 25–27 ° C, they do not tolerate temperature fluctuations.
Like all fish, mollies love fresh water, so systematic is desirable – once a week, replacement of aquarium water in a volume of 1/4. This manipulation will ensure the absence of high concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in the aquarium – ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. When making water changes, you need to strictly monitor the temperature regime.
Filtration and aeration of water is required.
Most of the time the fish are in the upper and middle layers of the aquarium. Optimally light day for these fish should last at least 12 hours, so you need to equip the aquarium open, well-lit areas.
No less important is the presence of stones, koryag, thickets of plants, etc. for shelter.
Mollies is an active fish, moderately friendly. Keep it better in a group with a predominance of females.
It can live both in the general aquarium and in a separate one. It gets along well with diverse neighbors. In general, the fish “neighbors” should be about the same size.
Between themselves, mollies get along well – intraspecific aggression is poorly pronounced, but at the same time in the close aquarium males can chase each other. Therefore, it is better to provide a spacious aquarium so that at least 10 liters of water are needed per individual.
Reproduction and sex differences of male and female mollies
Aquarium fish mollies balloon: description, photo, content, reproduction
This beautiful aquarium fish was artificially bred during a careful selection of representatives from the mollies species of latypin. Mollies balloon has a very unusual constitution – it resembles a balloon filled with air.
The body is shortened, which does not contribute to the normal functioning of the internal organs, so the fish needs close attention from the person.
Despite this, mollies balloon – this is one of the most popular aquarium inhabitants, which is bred by many fans of the underwater world.
Molliesia, which photos often adorn publications for aquarists – viviparous fishes. The natural habitat is the saline and fresh waters of Latin America, from Colombia to Mexico.
Males of mollies are much smaller than females, in nature representatives of the species reach a length of from ten to sixteen centimeters, in the aquarium they are much smaller – do not exceed eight centimeters.
Molliesia, whose photos you can see in this article, were found in the southern part of the United States and Central America. To breed it in aquariums began in 1899, and the first hybrids appeared in the 20s of the XIX century. Under natural conditions, they are colored yellowish gray or silver and have blue, bluish, green or black spots.
The abdomen is usually lighter than the back and spotless. The body is short, dense, the fins are strong and wide.
However, in the course of hybridization and cross-crossing, numerous variations of colors were obtained.
This species also has a shortened body, with a noticeable curvature of the ridge. Fish mollies balloon does not grow more than six centimeters.
Its feature is a large abdomen. It is the result of a modification of the species. The internal organs are tight and small.
Body color is somewhat reminiscent of the latex mollines. But today individuals of other shades are widespread: orange, red, black, silver, gray.
These fish are very much decorate the aquarium, so for many lovers it is important that in their underwater kingdom lived a mollies balloon. How to distinguish the female from the male?
Quite simply, males have a genopodia (anal fin) conical, with females it is round.
Mollies – viviparous fish: the offspring are born completely adapted to life in water. The life span of this species is from 3 to 5 years.
Mollies easily breed in an aquarium, and the offspring very quickly reaches puberty. Depending on the size of the fish and the age of the female gives birth to a hundred young fish. In addition, a feature of viviparous fish is that male sperm is stored in the female’s body for a long time.
This allows you to give birth to fry several times, even if the male is removed from the aquarium.
For breeding, you only need to purchase individuals of both sexes, and these fish will overpopulate the aquarium in a short time.
We mentioned the stamina that distinguishes the mollies balloon. Fry, unlike adults, are very sensitive to water parameters, especially for harmful impurities. Frequent water renewal is recommended.
To make the offspring adapt more easily and not be afraid to eat (fry are afraid to take it in the first days of life), place Javanese moss in a container. The very first food for young fish is ground food, small ciliates.
If you have nowhere to move fry, use a five-liter jars with separated running water. Banks better put in a bright place, but direct sunlight should not fall on them.
Mollies are active, but at the same time peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium, they are very sociable, they love to live in the vicinity of their species or with other viviparous fishes. Males sometimes quarrel, but do not cause each other serious injuries. Only a few fish exhibit a character that can manifest itself in aggressive behavior.
You can keep mollies with any fish that has a similar temperament and has the same requirements for the chemical composition of water.
Avoid proximity to fish that can damage the fins of their peaceful neighbors. This primarily refers to the barb of Sumatran.
Bottom catfish corridors, platies, other viviparous, some types of rainbow fish will become their best neighbors. Not bad coexist with mollies tetra, carp, other haratsinovye that can live in such parameters of water.
- The fish are examined and the anal fin is found. You should look at the belly of the individual and find the anus. It is located near the tail unpaired fin. If the individual is feminine, then it has a triangular fin, if masculine, then the shape of the fin resembles a tubule. With this fin, the individual produces internal fertilization, as the viviparous fish. This sign is used to determine the sex of any viviparous fish.
- There are individuals of mollies, which are distinguished by size. The size of the male is smaller than the female. The activity of males is higher. She talks about the ability of individuals to produce healthy offspring. Sailing mollies look different than usual.
- The adult male Mollienesia velifera has a huge dorsal fin in the form of a sail, so this fish is called Sailing: photo
The female has an ordinary, not large dorsal fin.
Going to the store or the market for fish, you need to be able to distinguish a girl from a boy, because the seller’s task is to sell his goods quickly and he may not understand such matters. You can get a beautiful fish in the aquarium, only it should have the ability to breed.
Of course, who would not want to get luxurious mollies with paired fins in the form of large brushes. Only in this case it is difficult to distinguish the male individual from the female individual, because the pair fin will also end in a large brush.
The same with the anal fin. This occurs because this fish was created from two species of individuals and is called guppinesia.
Having stumbled into a similar fish in a store, it is worth knowing that it is sterile and not suitable for breeding.
With improper maintenance, feeding and care, the inhabitants of the aquarium begin to feel unwell, but they cannot say so. Often that an epidemic has occurred, they will know when it is already late.
The aquatic environment should have favorable habitat conditions so that infection does not occur. She appears and because of hypothermia. The disease is manifested by dots, pimples on the body of the pet.
Elevated spots or sores may occur. Black individuals become ill with melanosis.
This results in increased pigmentation of the skin. As a result, a tumor is formed.
Preventive measures are carried out by observing the temperature of the water, make sure that the pets eat clean food. Washed soil and scenery.
Every sick inhabitant of the aquatic environment is separated from a healthy society. Patients should be in a different tank in quarantine with a balanced diet, regardless of their gender.
When they recover, their appearance and behavior will improve and it will be possible to place them to healthy fish.
If you know in advance about all these features, then there will be no negative manifestations in the aquarium, and its inhabitants will always delight their owners with their beauty.
Mollies – viviparous fish, a representative of the family Pecilia. Homeland of mollies – fresh and brackish ponds of Latin America.
In the home aquarium, you can find different types of mollies, which were cultivated or bred by humans as hybrid breeds.
Despite the many species that differ morphologically, all share one trait – females independently give birth to fry, and do not lay eggs. Molliesia, reproduction and breeding of which is possible at home, can bring offspring both in the general aquarium and in the prepared reservoir.
Spawning mollies is possible one month after settling in the nursery of adult fish.
Conditions of keeping and breeding fry
Males and females of different types of mollies may be neighbors and not in conflict, therefore, living in an aquarium with a company of other fish is only a joy for them. They prefer to swim in the upper middle layer of the tank.
During the day, they move alone or in small schools (flocks), and at night they form one joint, swimming in the upper ball of the reservoir.
In order for different types of mollies to live comfortably in an aquarium, 10-20 liters of water are required for 1 individual. For fish of one species, an aquarium of 80 liters, for different species – 110-120 liters. At least 3 females should be settled on one male.
Fish can breed in the general aquarium (on the condition of a small population) or in a prepared breeding ground. To breed the fry, producers need to be fed for 2 weeks with vegetable food.
Look at the spawning of mollies.
Comfortable conditions of maintenance guarantee spawning in a month or two after settling in a new “house”. The cone-shaped organ of the male genopodia is used for fertilization of the female: seminal fluid is transmitted through it, it also allows you to hold onto the female during breeding, and the ability to become pregnant increases. In fact, pregnancy does not come so easily.
Only 1 in 10 copulations ends successfully. Males become sexually mature at 8-12 months, females at 5-6 months.
Breeding of all types of mollies is not difficult for the responsible aquarist. However, the fry of this fish are sensitive to water parameters, in particular, to its pollution, so you will have to change the water frequently.
With successful copulation, the male fertilizes at once many eggs, in which the fry begin to develop. Some mature and are born, others remain inside the female until the next generation.
In the absence of a male in the aquarium, the female can give birth to another 35-50 days at intervals.
Velifer mollies (lat. Poecilia velifera) is a small fish that lives in freshwater and salt water bodies of North America (Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula).
Nowadays it is found in home aquariums. It was introduced to Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century; it reappeared in the USSR in the post-war years.
The fish belongs to the genus Molliesia (Poecilia), as well as its relatives, viviparous guppies and other mollies. Males reach at least 12.5 cm in length; females are somewhat larger and much heavier.
In nature, they grow larger in size, in salty water they are brighter.
The fish oval body, flattened on the sides. Dorsal fin large, fanlike.
Caudal fin rounded. The P.velifera male has a gray-lavender body color with many dotted horizontal lines. Often the head and the front of the body are orange.
The tail fin (tail) is orange in the center and blue or turquoise in the upper part, with a black stripe in the lower part. The dorsal fin is edged with black stripes and orange fields.
Females have a gray-green body with many dotted horizontal lines.
Molly’s body can be golden or orange, often with a metallic sheen. On the body of “pure gold” can be found black marks and spots.
Since these fish may differ in appearance and labeling, the individuals you buy may look different from the standard description.
For adult fish fit tank of 100 liters or more. It is recommended to install vegetation, snags, shelters – caves, grottoes, coconuts in the nursery.
The light day should last 12 hours, high-quality fluorescent lamps are suitable for lighting. Rays should fall on the aquarium at least 2 hours a day.
Prefer to stay in the upper and middle layers of the water tank.
Admire the orange mollies of the Velifer.
As a primer suitable pebbles of medium size. Velife’s mollies loves a lot of swimming space, make sure that there is enough space in the aquarium to move around. Filtration and aeration are necessary; weekly it is recommended to update 20% of the water to a new one.
Allowable water temperature is 24-27 degrees, acidity is 7.0-8.5 pH, hardness – 8-25o. Preferably the same indicators of magnesium and calcium in the aquatic environment.
Also in the water, you can add sea salt (2 grams per liter of water).
Viviparous fish that give birth to free-floating fry instead of laying eggs. As neighbors they are suitable fish for tropical freshwater aquariums, including swordtails, mollies, and guppies.
All of these fish have much in common in behavior and care.
Keep viviparous should be in a landscaped aquarium with live or artificial plants (vallisneriemi, cryptocoryne). They prefer a little salt in aquarium water, although this is not a necessary condition. Mollies are safe and peaceful representatives of the underwater world.
Males have a modified anal fin, known as “gonopodia”, the same fin is located “fan” in females. For the male, a “harem” should be organized (one male with two or more females). As a rule, this convention is capable of reducing aggression, persecution, and is favorable for successfully obtaining a brood.
In captivity live about 8 years.
Orange mollies can eat granulated food, frozen foods. The main diet in the wild – plants, so the main food for them – the fruits of vegetables and algae.
You can give scalded lettuce, spinach, dandelion, food with spirulina, boiled porridge (oatmeal, rice).
Look at the orange molly in the company of other mollies.