maintenance, care, compatibility
Cardinals – aquarium fish that are almost gone
Cardinal (Latin Tanichthys alboneubes) is a beautiful, small and very popular aquarium fish that you probably know. But, you know, what are you …
Cardinal habitat in nature has changed significantly in recent years, and this has affected the number of fish. Wildlife has become parks, hotels and sanatoriums. This led to the fact that the cardinal disappeared, and since 1980, for twenty years, there has not been a single message about the population.
The species was even considered extinct in its homeland in China and Vietnam.
Fortunately, a small amount was found in isolated areas of Goundong Province, and on Hanyang Island in China, as well as in Quang Nin Province in Vietnam. But this species is still very rare, and is considered endangered in China.
The Chinese government is taking measures to restore the cardinal population in nature. All individuals of the cardinal, which are now sold – raised in captivity.
The Cardinal is very hardy and unpretentious, and is well suited for keeping novice aquarists. The only feature is that cardinals do not like warm water, preferring a temperature of 18-22 ° C.
They may be contained in warmer water, but their lifespan will be reduced. It is also noted that the cardinal’s body color becomes much brighter if it is kept at a temperature lower than recommended for tropical fish, about 20 ° C.
Aquarium with a biotope of the cardinal in nature:
In the aquarium it is better to use dark soil, a large number of plants, as well as snags and stones. Leave free places for swimming, where there will be a lot of light and you will enjoy all the beauty of the cardinal’s coloring. The water parameters are not very important (pH: 6.0 – 8.5), but it is important not to go to extremes.
Avoid using drugs with copper, as the cardinals are very sensitive to the copper content of the water.
In Asia, cardinals are sometimes kept as pond fish, for beauty and to combat the mosquito population. Do not forget that they can not be kept with large pond fish.
Cardinal fish: content, compatibility, photo-video review
Order, family: Carp.
Comfortable water temperature: 20-22 C.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 0%.
Cardinal fish compatibility: with all the peaceful fish (danios pink, terntion, catfish speckled, neons, etc.)
Useful tips: not capricious fish, suitable for beginners and young aquarists.
Homeland – China. Fish size up to 4 cm.
Males are brighter colored than females and slimmer.
Cardinals contain a small flock. The fish is mobile, peaceful and unpretentious. Loves medium-sized live and dry food.
Effectively a flock of cardinals looks in a spacious, planted and brightly lit aquarium.
Color: from the head to the tail of fish a bright, shimmering band passes, which, on reaching maturity (4 months), disappears. Under good conditions, the Cardinal spawns his whole life.
Comfortable parameters of water: dH 20 °, pH 6.5-7.0, t 20-22 ° C.
Breeding cardinals is not tricky. Fresh water is poured into a spawning aquarium, several small-leaved plants are placed, a sprayer is installed and a group is planted (there should be more females) or one pair of fish.
Water for dilution: dH up to 10 °, pH 6.5-7.0, t 24-26 ° C.
Fish Cardinal male and female
The female lays several eggs every day. Calf and fry parents usually do not eat. When floating fry appear, the producers are transferred to another aquarium, and in the first one they begin to feed the fry.
Food for the start – rotifers, cyclops nauplii, egg yolk or simply triturated dry food.
Feeding aquarium cardinals must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc.
Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Cardinal (fish) – fish of the carp family, of the class Ray. The name got its due to the desire of easy money merchants, who hoped that it would be better sold for industrial purposes. The Latin, classical specific name is more euphonic: “alba nubes”, which literally translates as “white clouds”.
For the first time these fish were found in China.
In Guangdong, China, in 1930, the leader of a pioneering movement named Tang Meng Yo made the first entries about cardinals. In the description, it was stated that this fish survives well in water with a low temperature, and, as it turned out later, aquarium conditions for it are also not a bad place.
Later it was sold under different names, and the “cardinal” was not the only one. Chinese danios, false neon, magnificent minnow – such names are often found on the market.
The fast south Chinese rivers are the natural habitat of the cardinals. Keeping and breeding them is available only in aquarium conditions, since they are almost wiped out in the wild.
Since the 1980s, there has not been a single notification about the places of their population. In China, this species was temporarily considered extinct.
Miraculously, it turned out that a small school of fish was found in some Chinese and Vietnamese provinces. All fish sold today are bred.
The small golden cardinal, despite its miniature size, can live with other small fish. Guppies, zebrafish, microassemblies of the galaxy can become his housemates.
You should not keep them with goldfish and larger aggressive fish.
Look at how beautiful the cardinal fish is.
For a comfortable existence within a limited aquatic environment, there should be a lot of cardinals, preferably 15 individuals in one flock. If there are few of them, fear will not be avoided, because of which the color will deteriorate.
Cardinal is a fish that does not like to eat its offspring, so it is even easier to breed.
As a short-lived aquarium fish, the cardinal can spawn all year round. Breeding is simple because they do not eat their caviar. There are several ways to breed cardinals.
The first method is that adults begin to breed themselves, provided that no other species of fish live in the aquarium. The second way is to prepare a small tank for a spawn (from 20 to 40 liters in volume), where you can transfer the most active and vibrant males and 4-5 females.
Spawning lay out the plants, they will be laid caviar.
Look at the marriage dances of the cardinals.
Dilution is possible at a water temperature of 18-22 degrees, pH 6.5-7.5. Soil for such an aquarium is not required, the internal filter will improve water filtration and aeration, a small flow will be a plus.
Spawning is possible when producers are ready. Feeding live food (shrimp, daphnia, pipe maker) stimulates readiness for spawning.
They become sexually mature at the age of 4 months, only after that spawning is possible. In adult females, the belly becomes “full”, and the males become brighter.
Over the course of several days, females spawn eggs, which fertilize males. The problem is that spawning in the general aquarium will be difficult when the young fry eat the eggs of their younger relatives.
Therefore, it is better to spawn in a prepared, safer place.
When spawning takes place, the producers are sifted out. After 3-4 days, the fry will appear, which is fed with rotifers, egg yolk pounded, live dust, ciliates, nauplii, oat flour.
Colorful and live aquarium fish as representatives of the exotic water world, are easily recognized by many lovers due to their peaceful behavior and ease of breeding.
Tanichthys albonubes, or simply cardinal – an ideal fish for those who are just starting their acquaintance with aquarist. These small and mobile creatures are not only beautiful, but also very simple in maintenance and care.
But first things first.
The rapid streams of mountain streams in southeastern China are considered to be the historical homeland of these carps.
From there, the cardinal was brought to Canada (1935), then came to the United States, and after that to Europe, and more precisely to Germany (1938).
It should be noted that from 1980 to the present, the cardinals have been considered an extinct species in China. This is due to the influence of man on wildlife and its transformation into parks, hotels, sanatoriums and so on. A small number of fish survived in the provinces of Goundong (China) and Quang Nin (Vietnam), but it is negligible.
The Chinese government is taking measures to preserve and restore the population.
And all the fish that go on sale and which we see in pet stores, are raised in captivity.
Tanichthys albonubes should preferably be settled in an aquarium with a large flock of 15 or more individuals (and there should be 2-3 males in the flock, not more). If the cardinals in the home pond will be a bit, then they become fearful, most of the time hiding and losing the brightness of the color.
And so it is very peaceful and friendly creatures that do not conflict with each other, do not touch their fry, and treat representatives of other species very well.
About how to choose the right fish in the aquarium will tell our article.
We advise you to read the article Unpretentious aquarium fish.
Small neighbors, similar in temperament, will become good neighbors for them: a galaxy, a guppy, a zebrafish microassembly, etc.
Big, aggressive fish for which the cardinal will easily become food are categorically inappropriate. The neighborhood with goldfish is also not very good – they can eat.
It is also better not to keep along with catfish, gourami, laliusi and similar slow-moving calm fish, in which the cardinals will divert food from under their noses.
Aquarium better to choose an oblong shape. It will be enough and a small 15-liter for 5-7 fish.
But the ideal is still a 40 liter spacious container. The water level should not be below 20-25 cm.
Water. Cardinals do not like warm water. In such conditions, their coloring fades and their life expectancy decreases.
Also, there should be no sharp temperature changes, otherwise the fish will get a fungus. The optimal parameters of water is considered to be the temperature of 18-22 degrees, the hardness of 4-20 °, pH 6.5-7.5.
Filtration and aeration very desirable. Every 1-2 weeks is required to replace 30 percent of the volume of water.
Lighting Fish need bright, so you need additional lighting.
Priming better to choose the dark. Suitable as sand and small pebbles.
Plants. Despite the fact that the cardinals prefer dense vegetation, the algae must be placed so that the light can reach the bottom, and there is a place for swimming. Fern, myriophyllum, Ludwigia, Elodaea, Limnophila, Wallisneria and other small-leaved varieties are well suited.
On the surface, you can arrange duckweed or riccia.
Decor. For decoration, you can install snags and stones.
- In Asia, cardinals are sometimes kept as pond fish. They are not only beautiful, but also help in the fight against mosquitoes.
- These carp are able to withstand temperature drops from 14 to 30 degrees.
- The name Cardinal is a commercial move. The merchants gave it to these fish so that the goods sold better. Such a name was often found in German books on aquarism of the time, from which it got into Russian and took root.
- In China and England, fish are called minnows, mountains of white clouds, or Guangdong minnows. They are so named because of their habitat. Cardinals can be found in fast and cool water flows on Baiyunshan Mountain, which is also known as White Mountain Clouds.
As we can see, it’s really easy to care for cardinals. They are loyal both to the volume of the dwelling, and to the parameters of the water, and to the stern.
The only thing that is important is to maintain the purity of the water. And so these fish will delight the owner not only at home, but even in a mini-aquarium in the office on the desktop.
Thanks to its compact size, even in a small aquarium, you can make a flock of naughty and mobile fish. The cardinals are adapted to the gregarious way of life. Aquarists say that their behavior is very interesting to observe.
The great advantage for keeping fish in domestic aquariums is their peace-loving nature. Ideal neighbors for cardinals:
- Red neons;
- Rodostomusy and others
But do not forget that overcrowding aquarium will have a bad effect on the content. So, for a small group of 6-8 fish should be at least 15-20 liters of water. Designers are often used in the premises of low, long aquariums.
It is very beautiful and fits well into any interior. Cardinals have enough fish in water for 25 centimeters, so in China they inhabit shallow rivers. To aquarium fish feel great, you need to take care of the correct, close to the natural range,
In the aquarium must have:
- Some pebbles;
- Compressor for aeration;
- Purification systems.
Soil is best used
vat sterilized river sand. If you can’t find it, you can use smooth small pebbles lined with a small layer on the bottom of the aquarium.
Plants that are actively growing need to be periodically cleaned, since for a freedom-loving fish, limiting space is the right way to the blues. It is better to place the algae near the back wall, leaving the cardinals a place to frolic, and you can easily watch their fun.
- The optimum temperature is 20 degrees;
- Acidity from 6.6 to 7.6pH;
- Stiffness from 4 to 20 degrees;
- Frequent change ¼ of the water.
The content of the cardinals is not difficult. But, if you want to observe in your aquatic world adorable individuals who will look great and behave very lively, you will have to carefully monitor their diet. Cardinals from the entire feed prefer a more natural for their natural habitat – live food.
It can be purchased at pet stores. In this case, aquarium fish tolerate dry food well, if you suddenly have to leave and leave the care of the fish to a friend.
Cardinal fish content breeding description compatibility photo video.
Cardinals are considered to be peaceful and non-aggressive aquarium dwellers, which are recommended to be kept in flocks of 6-8. They get along well with ternetii, red neon, rhodostomusami and danios.
Basically, the cardinals are kept in the upper layer. You should not have any difficulties with keeping aquarium fish. Prepare a small aquarium, based on the proportion of 30 liters of water per pack of up to 7 pieces.
Make it the water level centimeters 25.
Aquarium soil can be used in the form of river sand, which must be processed before being laid in the aquarium. It is also possible to use small pebbles as a substrate.
It is also recommended planting aquarium plants, but not very thick. As a rule, they put an elodea, a people, a hornpole or a vallisneria into an aquarium. The parameters of aquarium water in an aquarium with fish cardinals should be the following: hardness: 4-20, pH: 6.5-7.5, water temperature: 18-21 degrees.
The aquarium requires filtration and aeration of water, as well as weekly changes of up to 20%. Cardinals also like bright lighting, especially light is needed in the winter.
There is a cardinal live and dry food. Perfectly eats cyclops, bloodworm, dry daphnia.
In nature there is almost all the time small insects.
HUPPY ENDLER CONTENTS REPRODUCTION PHOTO COMPATIBILITY DESCRIPTION VIDEO.
The cardinal aquarium fish is the only species in the genus. The fish belongs to the carp family, the genus Tanihtis, has a very narrow habitat. Home of the Cardinal are fast mountain streams in the vicinity of Canton, South China.
Usually individuals reach 3 cm, the maximum length is 4 cm. These nimble fishes are in active, continuous movement during the daytime.
The cardinal feeds on small live food – crustaceans and larvae of aquatic insects. For the first time in Europe, this species appeared in the late 30s in aquariums of exotic fish lovers.
Cardinals are very beautiful and, at the same time, unpretentious. The maintenance of cardinals does not cause difficulties even for beginning aquarists.
Aquarium fish cardinals can withstand temperature changes in the range of 6-7 ° C, can live in water at room temperature without heating. Cardinals can be kept in an aquarium with a volume of 20-30 liters in a small flock of 5-10 individuals.
They willingly feed on any kind of food, but prefer live moth and pipe worker.
Cardinal fishes have a simple but very attractive color. The pectoral fins are framed in black edging, the overall color of the fins is lemon-colored.
The rest are partially painted red. The lower part of the abdomen is colored silvery white, and the upper part is reddish brown.
Young fish cardinals have a beautiful strip of emerald color throughout the length, in adults this strip is golden in color.
It is best to keep cardinals in a large aquarium thickly planted around the perimeter with aquatic plants with small leaves. In the aquarium should be enough space at the front glass for swimming.
Fishes can peacefully coexist with other small species, but for predators they become easy prey. Aeration, filtration and replacement of 30% of the volume of water in an aquarium every week is necessary for maintenance.
Fish are distinguished by absolute harmlessness, so that they can coexist with almost all aquarium inhabitants. It is necessary, however, to take into account that individual fish can harm the cardinals, so the neighbors should be chosen carefully.
Often, aquarium cardinals are found together with freshwater shrimp. But absolutely any kind of peaceful fish will be good neighbors: it can be neons, guppies, tetras, pecilia, and many, many others.
The content of cardinals in a large aquarium, which is rather densely planted with various aquatic plants with small leaves, is recommended. It is important that the fish have enough free space for swimming at the front glass of the aquarium. Aquarium capacity sufficient for cardinals is 30 liters.
The aquarium should be oblong (at least 60 cm long), so it’s not long to think about the shape. It is recommended to close the aquarium cover.
At the bottom of the aquarium, you can sprinkle small pebbles.
Considered aquarium fish is very demanding of cleanliness. For this reason, it is necessary to ensure a one-third daily water refreshment. In addition, you need to place the aquarium in a place that has sufficient lighting.
Water should have a temperature in the range of 17-24 degrees, while its acidity should be 6.2-8.2, and the hardness – 4-20 degrees.
When feeding, cardinals are good to live food, combined and dry. Feed should be about 3-4 times a day.
The cardinal is divorced quite simply, and there is more than one way to do this.
The first method is natural reproduction. This breeding is quite successful and in the general aquarium.
Consider that in such a case you should install a separator net at the bottom of the aquarium.
So, to create all the necessary conditions should:
- to provide such a number of fish that the males were twice as large;
- raise the water temperature by two to three degrees;
- keep all other parameters unchanged.
Breeding usually lasts about 3-4 weeks, during which the female spawns some eggs daily.
Do not worry about the caviar, because the producers do not eat it. However, the very young, as it grows up, should be filtered, since the probability of cannibalism among the fry is not excluded.
However, there is a second way. Such breeding involves controlling spawning. So, it is necessary for a week (or even 10 days) before spawning to plant males and females.
Then put them in spawning, where the female will immediately sweep about 30 eggs. After that, manufacturers should again sit down (for another 7-10 days).
Finally, repeat the dilution again.
The second method, as we see, allows for breeding and, without unnecessary trouble, to watch the young grow up.
In any case, the duration of the incubation period is about 1-2 days, and in another three to four days you can see already swimming fry that feed themselves. For a start, they can be given live dust and ciliates as food.
These are the basic rules to ensure the correct content of the cardinals, as well as their breeding. Note that the cardinal does not cause great difficulties, for which many aquarists like it.
Aquarium fish cardinal – one of the most striking, eye-catching and beautiful. Contrary to expectations, it is not purple, like the capers of real cardinals.
The article tells about it, about how to maintain it, what to feed, what to do at the time of spawning.
The cardinal fish was brought to Europe from China in 1938. In nature, this representative of the carp prefers to dwell in mountain streams.
At the same time, the cardinal fish quickly got used to the aquarium content.
It has an extremely bright body color, beautiful fins. Males are somewhat different from females, as they look slimmer and brighter.
Usually the cardinal fish has a slightly elongated body with bright longitudinal stripes. The color of some species of these aquarium inhabitants has a flickering effect.
Aquarium fish, the cardinal liked European aquarists so much that very soon all kinds of species were bred. For example, the Banggai Cardinal Fish resembles a scalar in some way, while the cardinal (Tanichthys albonubes Lin Shuyen) resembles a hairy goldfish.
Content in an aquarium
These representatives of carp do not need special conditions, so it will not be difficult to maintain them. But it is worth remembering that they are accustomed to live in a flock, because in the aquarium you need to keep at least four individuals.
In this case, you can add cardinals in the aquarium to other fish.
Cardinals behave peacefully and friendly, do not interfere with other fish. But still it will be easier for them to get along with their neighbors, who also have a calm temperament.
Cardinal prefers to have a large space. Usually the fish is kept in the middle and upper layers of water.
It is not necessary to heat the water in the capacity for cardinals, but you need to make sure that the water temperature does not fall below 10 degrees.
A cardinal is a fish, the content of which does not cause any particular trouble to its owner even during the breeding season. She is not picky about food and is resistant to disease.
Although aware of some of the features of care and pay attention to her aquarist still obliged.
During the mating season, the males become brighter and begin to fight for the attention of the females. But do not worry, as this struggle is harmless and does not cause much harm to the fish.
For a person with experience, it will not be a difficult task to breed cardinals. This will require a spacious spawning plant, planted with plants, which should be located in a place protected from sunlight.
In order to speed up the process, you can reduce the usual water temperature by a few degrees. Typically, the water temperature in the spawning should reach 22 degrees.
Before spawning, you need to feed the male and the female well. For nutrition should choose natural feed.
To make the fish feel more comfortable, you should install a filter.
Females usually lay about 300 eggs on the leaves of aquarium plants. After a few days, the larvae appear from them. Feed the little cardinals worth rotifers or ciliates.
In this case, the parents will not touch their fry, so you can not rush to move them out of the spawning.
Cardinals are great aquarium fish that will bring little hassle, but at the same time will please their owners.
Almost any home marine aquarium does not do without one excellent representative – Cardinals fish. The name Cardinal aquarium fish received its name because of its unique reddish color, but not because of its character.
This is a lively and nimble little fish, accustomed to dwell in a flock, and it does not have the importance and degree inherent in these cardinals. Along with individuals with a reddish tinge, there are those that have a golden color.
A flock of cardinals looks very interesting and spectacular, especially if the marine aquarium is inhabited by various plants.
This fish is very unpretentious and does not require time-consuming care and special conditions of detention. Cardinals are very cold resistant and can tolerate even significant temperature differences. The most optimal temperature for Cardinals fish is 18-23 degrees, which allows even to do without heating the aquarium.
Marine aquarium for this fish must have good lighting and filter. Weekly, water should be replaced, the hardness of which should be 5-20 degrees, and the level of acidity 6.5-7.5.
Feeding these fish also does not cause trouble, because they are completely unpretentious in food. You can give them both dry food and canned food, as well as live food (cyclops, shallow bloodworms, daphnia).
What is important, when feeding with live food, cardinals develop much faster and acquire a special brightness of color.
Cardinals are best kept in flocks of 10-12 individuals, among which there should be no more than three males. It is desirable that the marine aquarium was not less than 60 cm long, because this fish needs a place for its high-speed maneuvers.
Also, the cardinals are very fond of various small-leaved plants, such as: fern, elodiea, limnofila. With all the pomp of the vegetation, these fish need some free space.
The marine aquarium should have sand and small pebbles in the form of soil on the bottom. To Cardinals not jumped out of the aquarium, it is better to close it with a lid.
If the cover is not provided, you can use surface plants – water cabbage, duckweed.