maintenance, care, compatibility
FISH IS PAIN AND BAD
first symptoms of the disease, description of fish diseases
The first symptoms of the disease in aquarium fish should not be ignored!
Diseases of aquarium fish – an emergency for an aquarium. Even experienced, knowledgeable gurus of the aquarium world can have a state of emergency of illness of pets. However, in such cases, do not despair.
Many diseases, especially in the initial stage, are treatable.
The first and most important step in the treatment of fish disease is diagnosis. With the help of several signs – symptoms, you can understand exactly what your fish is sick and how dangerous it is.
Ichthyopathology – the science of fish diseases, divides them into: infectious infectious and invasive, as well as non-infectious. The causative agents of infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria and fungi. Invasive diseases arise as a result of invasions – attacks on the fish organism of parasites of animal origin – disease-causing ciliates, intestinal cavities and worms.
Some small crustaceans can also parasitize the body of the fish. The occurrence of non-communicable diseases in most cases is associated with a violation of the optimal conditions of fish in the aquarium or improper handling of them.
The main sign that the fish hurt and bad – it is when they hang for a long time in one place or lie on the bottom, hiding under the roots or decorative elements of an aquarium.
When there is a lot of nitrates and nitrites in the water – organic matter that ferments, rot and pollutes the aquarium due to an excess of food and waste products of its inhabitants, the fish is wrapping gill cover (on the body of the fish, there are gill covers on the sides of the head, which cover the gills, and under them is a layer of skin that can “crawl out” behind these covers). A plus, if the fish is very active breathing, This is also a sign of an increased amount of nitrates, nitrites, since oxygen is very poorly soluble in such waters.
In such cases, it is necessary to immediately replace the aquarium water.
Due to the increased amount of organic matter, fish poisoning occurs. Poisoning can also occur due to the use of poor-quality live food caught in water-polluted waters when feeding dry daphnia and bloodworms, with frequent feeding of artificially diluted potworms – such food is difficult to digest and causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of fish.
Symptoms of poisoning are as follows: the fish willingly eat food, but remain sluggish, the color of the skin dims. They can lose orientation in space, with severe poisoning, convulsive movements are observed. In inflammation of the stomach, the belly of the fish slightly increases (should be distinguished from other diseases or from the maturation of the genital products), there may be redness of the anus.
Fecal masses have a large amount of bloody mucus and filamentous form.
In such cases, it is sometimes sufficient to transfer the sick fish to a diverse and comprehensive feeding with live hydrobionts and clean the aquarium, carry out the process of removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and volatile oils from the water. It is not recommended to collect live food in ponds with wastewater.
Also, when installing a new aquarium and various equipment, everything must be thoroughly rinsed – after all, toxic substances from putty used in their manufacture can get into the water.
If your colorful fish change color, reasons for excitement are few. Such a process often takes place as a result of maturation, mainly in young individuals.
Carp, for example, is born just gray, and after a while it can enhance the color, which is incorporated genetically.
If the fish spend the night in the dark, and in the morning they turn on the light – they can dull slightly. And if this happens during the day – this may be, again, the effect of nitrates and nitrites.
Of course, it is impossible to keep the aquarium on the windowsills – under the influence of direct sunlight the fish grow dull and can get sick.
Faded fins are often the result of injury. (aggressive neighbors, injury to stones and foreign objects, improper transportation, etc.) can lead to the formation of fin rot. In this case, it is better to isolate the fish until its fins heal.
If on them bunches that look like cotton flakes or white spots will appear, then the fish must be treated with antibacterial drugs.
Sometimes, on the fins of a fish, which ideally should be transparent, red strings appear – this is a hemorrhage in the fins, meaning a dramatic change in the parameters of water – hardness, acidity, temperature, increased content of organic matter. Of course, a simple water change and tracking and adjustment of its parameters will help here.
But pressed to the body fins – spinal, anal, lateral – can mean both elevated levels of nitrates and nitrites, and fungal disease, which is not difficult to destroy.
Everything, that on fish looks like a foreign body is bad and should attract the attention of the owner. In an infectious fungal disease (ringworm), the inhabitants of the aquarium covered with white thread, growing into a vat-like formation.
Sick fish become slow-moving, stop feeding, and in the absence of timely treatment they die from ulcers that affect the gills. In most cases, rheumatic fever suffers fish are in tight containers with dirty and cold water – below 20 ° C. At the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and can be cured – you just need to create optimal conditions for the fish, dissolve salt or copper sulfate in water.
In the local form of fungal growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rhinovanol.
If the fish white dots appeared of the same shape and size, this means that her ichthyophthiriosis or “semolina” is the simplest (ciliates) that settle on aquarium fish and parasitize, propagating by division outside the host’s body. The fish quickly dies from this invasive disease, but it is easy to cure it – dilute malachite green or corny salt, pour it into the aquarium, increase aeration, raise the temperature by 5 ° С for 10 days. If a white dots of different sizes, but round – this is most likely a bacterial infection.
It can also be killed with special medicines, for example, baktopur, antibacterial. It may be that points are not the same and have irregular shape – it will also be a fungus, it is easy to destroy it with malachite (malochite green), salt.
Sometimes on the fish may form an abscess, like a purulent pimple – these are microsporidia or cnidosporidia (protozoa that form a colony in the muscles of the fish). Destroy them almost impossible.
The only thing that can be done at home is to put an ultraviolet lamp through which water flows, as a result of which all bacteria and microorganisms are destroyed. That is, when these sporidii break through the scales and begin to look for another fish, then they pass through the water with the water passing through the lamp.
But the best option would be to fish this fish with “cones”.
Aquarists call lepidorthosis the worst disease (Rus. scattering).
Symptoms – when the scales start to stand on end (if you look at the fish from above, the scales look like needles), under it are visicules – bubbles, in which there are pathogens. Lepidorthosis is almost not treated – such a fish must be very carefully pulled out with a net so that the bubbles will NOT crack and the pathogens will not get into the water.
Sad and painful, but the fish itself must be disposed of, and the net boiled, or washed with alcohol or formalin. It is also worth to disinfect the aquarium, soil, plants and equipment.
Ways to treat fish:
In general, the treatment of sick fish is carried out mainly in three ways: in the general aquarium, in a separate vessel and individually (with medical lotions). Common and effective treatment is in a separate vessel.
With its short course, a therapeutic solution of high concentration is detrimental to the causative agent.
Resuscitation of sick fish in the general aquarium does not always provide a 100% recovery. Low concentrations of therapeutic solutions do not completely kill the pathogens, especially those that are under the skin or in the muscles. In addition, increasing the concentration of therapeutic solutions destroys aquatic vegetation.
With this method of treatment, a number of pathogens remain in the soil and water for a long time, so symptoms are often attenuated: a fish with a previously pronounced disease clinic becomes outwardly healthy, and after a while the symptoms recur.
If in the aquarium there are single specimens of fish affected by parasites that can cause mass disease and death, it is necessary to treat all the inhabitants of the aquarium. Often the treatment of several diseases is the same.
For example, if pathogens are ectoparasites. Such treatment can be carried out both in a separate dish and in the general aquarium.
Prevention of aquarium fish diseases:
Prevention of fish diseases is very important for the prevention of diseases that often arise as a result of violations of the rules of keeping or the introduction of infections from the outside.
To fish was not bad, we recommend to observe the following rules:
– regularly and regularly conduct weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/4 of the volume of water, to prevent overcrowding of the aquarium;
– do not place objects (decor) in the aquarium, which can cause poisoning or injury to aquarium fish;
– acquire only high-quality food for fish and ensure its proper storage;
– Be sure to follow the feeding regime (1-2 times a day), do not leave the fish hungry and prevent them from overfeeding;
– maintain an optimum and constant temperature in an aquarium recommended for specific species of fish, exclude the possibility of sudden drops and overcooling;
– ensure reliable transportation of fish;
– in winter, be sure to use the thermostat;
– put quarantined fishes at a time, placing them in a designated brewhouse filled with water from an active aquarium;
– Aquarium equipment (nets, siphons, etc.) that the patients were served with must be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
– When treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.
We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.
To read and / or download the Navigator
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If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.
Diseases of aquarium fish can be divided into two categories: infectious, infectious, caused by various microorganisms and transmitted from fish to fish, and non-infectious, caused by improper conditions of detention or large parasites.
In the first case, to cure a pet requires the intervention of medicinal drugs that can destroy the causative agent of the disease. In the second, changes in housing conditions are often effective, eliminating the pathogenic factor, mechanical removal of the parasite, any measures that will strengthen the body of the fish, which are weakened by the disease.
But almost always the poor conditions of the fish and poor-quality food weaken the immune system or are the immediate causes of the disease.
Timely diagnosis always facilitates the treatment of any disease of aquarium fish, because almost all diseases are effectively suppressed in the early stages.
Signs of illness in the aquarium fish