maintenance, care, compatibility
South America (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia) is considered the birthplace of these cichlids, where they have chosen the Amazon and its tributaries. Discus birds like flowing black water with a lot of snags and semi-submerged trees.
In Europe, the fish were brought in 30-40 years. Initially, only the Heckel Discus was known (by the name of the discoverer), or red. At the beginning of the 20th century, another species was described – a green discus living in the central Amazon (Putumayo River in Peru, Lake Tefe in Brazil).
In the late 60s discovered blue and brown discus. All of the above fish are natural species.
In addition, in the nineties, new breeding and hybrid forms appeared. And now they are much more popular than natural ones, even though they are more prone to diseases and require more thorough care.
Modern classification identifies five main groups of discus, within which there are still many variations:
Red. The main body background is in the range of red hues from orange to cherry.
These fish are very bright and therefore sell well. However, to maintain the intensity of the color they need food with special additives.
Cobalt. These fish are distinguished by the presence on the body and fins of shiny stripes and sparkles.
Slightly similar to turquoise, but unlike them, the color does not give in green, but in blue.
Turquoise. From the name it is clear that the main shade of their bodies is turquoise. Maybe a pattern in the form of spots and stripes.
In Russian aquarium lovers, this species is most common due to the fact that it came to our country in the 70s.
Pigeon blood. The main body color is yellowish-pink, as if dusted.
Gold. These are the most expensive fish from all five groups.
Especially prized individuals with pure gold color without dark pigment.
Why it is not recommended to settle the discus in the general aquarium?
If you want to acquire different types of fish, and watch them through the glass of the general aquarium, check with whom the discus has full compatibility. This is to ensure that the content does not cause you trouble, and the pets do not experience stress.
Also ensure that frequent water changes do not harm the neighbors of these cichlids.
The catfish pterigoplichts brocade well tolerate the high temperature of water. They eat the remnants of food from the bottom of the tank, clean the aquarium glass. Periodically, soma must be given food of plant origin.
There is one big minus – pterigoplicht is often caught from natural reservoirs, then put up for sale. They can be carriers of parasites or infections.
Before settling into an aquarium, they are kept in quarantine for 2 weeks, adding a certain dose of medication to the water.
Admire the aquarium with discus and scalar.
When you are not sure of the origin of the fish – do not move it into a common tank, so you will protect the lives of all pets. In the extreme case, a beautiful species aquarium, with different plants and fish, will help to create these types of fish:
- Neon is a peaceful, small fish, compatibility with discus is complete. Neons are “indicators” of water status. They look harmonious with bright neighbors, do not cause them trouble. Some aquarists have successfully kept them with discus. But in this case, the temperature of the water in the pond should be 28 ° C, not higher. For cichlids, this is the lowest threshold, for neons, the upper one. The parameters of medium hardness and acidity are identical: pH 6.0-7.0, hardness up to 20 dH.
- Red tetras, or rhodostomuses, are bright fishes, live in a flock, have a peaceful character. Like the discus, they love the water soft and sour, clean. They swim in the middle layer of water, but they like shade more than light. Permissible water parameters: temperature 23-28 ° C, hardness 2-15 dh, acidity – 5.5-7.5 pH. Discus carries such parameters of water, but not below 27 degrees in temperature.
Order, family: South American cichlid.
Comfortable water temperature: 25-30 C.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.
Blue Discus Compatibility: better to keep separate. Compatible with all non-aggressive fish: dunk, terence, minor, tetra, soma, etc. Some comrades recommend an angelfish in neighbors discus, but I would not risk putting young discus to adult scalars, since the latter are capable of aggression.
And taking into account the cost of discus and scalar – experiments are equivalent to recklessness.
Useful tips: Discus is very beautiful fish – they look gorgeous in a specific aquarium. However, there is one thing: the fish is very “capricious.”
Discussions are demanding in terms of content, conditions, and require special attention from the host. Forgetting about them for two weeks you can get a sad outcome.
The discs inhabit the upper and middle Amazon. They are kept in shady places of calm water bodies, above all near the shores, creating reliable shelters.
Discus is a big fish. In the natural environment, it reaches a length of 20 cm, in aquariums the size does not exceed 12 cm. The shape of the body is discoid.
The dorsal and anal fins are very long, bending around almost the whole body. Pelvic fins narrow.
The body is brown with vertical blue stripes. The whole body is decorated with numerous blue strokes.
Males are larger and brighter than females, males fins are more pointed.
Discus is very demanding to care – for their content you need a tall and spacious aquarium. The minimum size of an aquarium for a couple is 100 liters.
However, schooling fish and for its maintenance (5-6 individuals) an aquarium is needed from 300 to 500 liters.
Comfortable water parameters for keeping discs: hardness up to 10-15, pH 5.8-7.5, temperature 25-30 C. Aeration and filtration are required.
At the bottom of the aquarium arrange small shelters of snags and stones.
Plants suitable for discus – is Amazonian Echinodorus, cryptocoryne, ambulia, cabombou. The lighting is moderate.
Once or twice a week, cleaning in the aquarium and changing the water to fresh is recommended.
Food for blue discus – live variety of food and substitutes. The diet for adults and large individuals can be varied with pieces of fresh lean beef meat (I recommend using a bull heart).
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, areovan, discus etc.
Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Discussions are recommended to keep in a separate aquarium: firstly, they themselves are very beautiful, and secondly the discus is very “demanding” to neighbors and conditions.
Other species of discus brachidania can be neighbors in the general aquarium.
Discus is a very capricious fish and even a slight deterioration in conditions can lead to their illness. If the fish are sick, first of all determine what they are sick (read info or consult at the pet store). The general and recommended measures in case of illness are raising the water temperature to 32 ° C and ensuring good aeration of the water.
If this proves ineffective, you can use table salt at the rate of 5 g per 1 l of water or biomitsin 120 mg per 1 liter of aquarium water.
A selection of beautiful photos of discus blue
Interesting video about the blue discus
Category: Aquarium Articles / AQUARIUM FISHES | Views: 8 093 | Date: 03/14/2013, 10:36 | Comments (0) We also recommend reading:
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Bright discus rightly have the status of “Kings of the aquarium.” Fish in the rivers of South America. Their water is saturated with tannins, which do not allow microorganisms to develop.
Such “sterility” undermined the immune system of fish, making it extremely weak. The specificity of the natural conditions in which the fish lives is reflected in its content in the aquarium.
Beginners may not be able to maintain and breed capricious fish, since caring for them requires a lot of attention, and treatment of diseases is often very troublesome. It is important to carefully observe criteria such as lighting, water properties, aquarium size, choice of food.
Variety of Discus
Aquarium fish belongs to cichlids. The little body is flattened from the sides, recalling the disk (hence the name). The mouth and head of the fish are small, the eyes are bulging, the fins are long.
The size of the fish reaches an average of 15-17 centimeters. Discus is not the most active inhabitants of the aquarium, and they even eat slowly.
In nature, the fish has a simple color with vertical dark lines. The natural background of plants allows it to hide from predators.
Artificial breeding gave about 20 colors: pigeon blood (another name is red pigeon), snake skin, leopard, green, brown, red turkis, discus blue. And this is not all names.
Proper lighting and background can emphasize the beauty of each type.
Aquarium discus very gentle fish. Successful maintenance is possible only if all the aquarium conditions are met.
Be prepared that in the event of illness, treatment and care will take a long time.
- Aquarium. The fish has a rather large size, and therefore it needs a lot of space. On average – at least 40 liters per fish. Discus – schooling fish, badly tolerate loneliness, and you need to start them in groups of 5-6 fish. The volume of the aquarium in this scenario starts from 250 liters. In the future, it will also ensure successful breeding. Aquarium tank should be convenient for discoid fish – high and long.
- Water parameters. Water needs soft, slightly acidic, heated to a rather high temperature. Aquarium filters and aerators are required.
- Temperature: 28-31 ° C. Lowering the temperature of the fish will survive much harder than its increase.
- Stiffness: 10-15 dH
- Acidity: 5.5-6.5 ph
- Lighting. Discussions do not like bright light. Because of him, they become fearful, constantly trying to hide. The lighting in the aquarium should be soft, diffuse and weak.
- Priming. Aquarium substrates such as gravel or small pebbles are preferred. Many aquarists prefer not to use the primer, but then a dark-colored gasket is needed between the bottom of the tank and the surface. Soil and background is better to choose dark. So the bright colors of the fish will look spectacular.
- Water change is carried out at least once a week, about 20-30%. If the fish in the aquarium a lot, the substitution will have to make more often.
Discus diseases occur due to violations of content rules. Dirty water, lowering the temperature, bright light … Proper care involves minimizing stress.
Excessive sensitivity to the slightest changes creates the background for the development of various diseases.
Fish can easily catch an infection brought by other fish or even plants, and treatment can take a lot of energy. Food for discus should be selected carefully, and if necessary, processed and washed.
Parasitic diseases such as hexamytosis, and fungal infections, for example, semolina (scientific name – ichthyophthyriosis) is a common occurrence. It is difficult to treat discus disease, therefore it is better to comply with the conditions to avoid infection.
If an illness is detected, treatment should begin immediately – the fish’s immunity will not resist for a long time.Red turkis
Aquarium fish reaches sexual maturity in about 1.5 – 2 years. Distinguishing a male from a female can be problematic. It is only possible to make sure who is who during spawning.
Therefore, if you conceive breeding, you need to acquire several individuals.
Discus will form a strong pair. Noticing a couple, they can be moved from the aquarium to the breeding ground.
Breeding requires careful arrangement of the site. Place stones, driftwood, various decorative elements in the tank – the female will lay eggs on them.
The lighting is set uniform and weak.
Water change is carried out regularly, but it should be done carefully, so as not to give the fish an extra reason for stress. Aquarium water plays a big role: the temperature is maintained within 28-30 degrees, the rigidity is low. If the water is hard, the female will be able to lay eggs, but it will be more difficult to fertilize.
Breeding is carried out in an aquarium of at least 100 liters.
Fish lays from 200 to 400 eggs. In the first 5-7 days, the main diet of fry is a special secret that parents secrete through the skin.
Therefore, the larger the size of individuals, the better. Water throughout the development of fry should be updated.
After 2 weeks, the fry can no longer eat at the expense of the parents, and therefore adult discus fish are removed from the aquarium. By about 3 months, the fish will acquire a proper body shape.
Discus are wonderful and very unusual aquarium inhabitants. A variety of colors allows you to create a unique atmosphere in the aquarium.
Discus blue, red turkis, brown and green species – properly selected background will shade the beauty of any kind. And although the care, treatment and breeding of their very troublesome, cute fish worth it.
Discus are relatively large aquarium fish, the shape of the body is discoid, flattened symmetry. Their size is 15-25 cm in length, regardless of the variety. “Discus” is translated from Latin as a “disk”, so the fish received this name.
It is difficult to describe the general characteristics of body color, because all species and breeds are very different. The most famous discus fish in the aquarium are: leopard, pigeon, green, red, pigeon’s blood, white, turkis and many others.
These fish interbred with each other, as a result, the offspring received a weak immune system, although the color of their scales is very contrasting. Ornamental breeds have a capricious, capricious temper.
In these fish, the dorsal and anal fins are parallel to each other; they are long, toothed. Caudal fin single-bladed.
In some species, the ventral fins end with threadlike formations, like an angelfish. Sexual dimorphism is weakly expressed: in males the forehead is more pronounced, the lips are thick.
Look at the species diversity of discus.