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Description of swimming air bubble in fish

Fish is a huge group of vertebrate animals living in water. Their main feature is the gill breathing. To move in a liquid medium, these animals use a variety of devices.

The swim bladder is the most important hydrostatic organ regulating the depth of immersion, as well as participating in the breathing and generation of sounds.

The swim bladder is the most important hydrostatic organ regulating the depth of immersion of fish.

The formation of a fish bubble begins at an early stage of development. One of the sections of the rectum, modified into a kind of outgrowth, eventually fills with gas. To do this, the fry float and capture the air with his mouth.

Over time, the connection of the bladder with the esophagus in some fish is lost.

Fish having an air chamber divided into two types:

  1. Open-bladder capable of controlling the filling with a special channel that has a connection with the intestines. They can quickly float and sink, and if necessary, capture air with their mouths from the atmosphere. This type includes most of the bony fish, for example: carp and pike.
  2. Closed bubble have a sealed chamber that does not have direct communication with the outside world. The level of gas is controlled by the circulatory system. An air bubble in fish is entwined with a network of capillaries (red body), which are able to slowly absorb or release air. Representatives of this type – cod, perch. Can not afford to quickly change the depth. With the instant extraction of water from the fish greatly inflates.

The air bubble in fish is a cavity with transparent elastic walls.

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By their structure are distinguished:

As a rule, in most fish this organ is one, but in lungfish it is paired. Deep species can do with a very small bubble.

The swim bladder in the body of the fish is a unique and multifunctional organ. It makes life much easier and saves a lot of energy.

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The cavity of the chamber cannot expand and contract arbitrarily. When immersed, the pressure on the body increases, and it contracts, the volume of gas decreases accordingly, and the total density increases. Fish easily sinks to the desired depth.

When the fish rises into the upper layers of water, the pressure weakens, and the bubble expands like a balloon, pushing the animal up.

The gas pressure on the chamber walls generates nerve impulses, causing compensatory movements of the muscles and fins. Using such a system, fish effortlessly swims to the desired depth, saving up to 70% of energy.

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Additional functions:

  1. The swim bladder in fish is used as a kind of barometer. In some species (carp, char, catfish) changes in the size of the air capsule through a complex system of compounds are converted into nerve impulses. They enter the brain and report environmental pressure and immersion depth.
  2. Sense organ. Allows you to feel some of the sounds and shock waves distributed in the water.
  3. Play sounds. Drum muscles, striking the walls of a bubble, are capable of generating sound waves of various frequencies. With their help, fish exchange information with their relatives.

The bubble allows you to feel some of the sounds and shock waves distributed in the water

  • Protective. In critical and stressful situations, air is blown out of a bubble and converted into a rather powerful sound, capable of propagating for a long distance in water and even in air. With the help of these screams there is a universal danger alert.
  • Respiratory. In most cases, the respiratory properties of the bladder are ineffective. There is enough air in it for only a few minutes of life. However, a dog’s fish feels great in the water that is poor in oxygen, trapping air from the atmosphere. She pumps it into the bladder, and from there it enters the bloodstream. The lungfish on the site of the air chamber are real lungs with which they can absorb air.
  • Such a simple, at first glance, organ is an indispensable and vital apparatus.

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    From the description of the swim bladder can be seen how perfect and versatile is it. Despite this, some easily manage without it. In the underwater world lives many animals that do not have a hydrostatic apparatus.

    To move, they use alternative ways.

    Deep-water species spend their whole lives at the bottom and do not feel the need to climb into the upper layer of water. Because of the enormous pressure, the air chamber, if it had been there, would have instantly shrunk, and all the air would have come out of it.

    As its alternative, accumulation of fat is used, which has a density less than that of water, and also does not shrink.

    Some fish can easily go without a swim bladder.

    For a fish that needs to move very quickly and change its depth, a bubble can only do harm. Such representatives of the marine fauna (mackerel) use only muscle movements.

    This increases energy consumption, but increases mobility.

    Cartilaginous fish too accustomed to doing on their own. They can not immovely hang on the spot.

    Their skeleton is boneless, therefore, has a smaller proportion. In addition, sharks have a very large liver, two thirds consisting of fat.

    Some species can change its percentage, and thereby make their body heavier or lighter.

    Aquatic mammals, such as whales and dolphins, are provided with a thick layer of fatty tissue under the skin and air-filled lungs.

    Life on planet Earth originated in the aquatic environment of the world’s oceans, and we are all descendants of fish. There are scientific assumptions that in the process of evolution the respiratory organs of land animals originated precisely from fish bubbles.

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