To date, there are more than 30,000 different types of marine and freshwater fish. Scientists are exploring the World Ocean, discovering new species and gaining more knowledge about the aquatic organisms already known to them.
About the most colorful and unique inhabitants of the underwater depths became known not so long ago. Rare fish prefer greater depths or live in coral reefs, which explains the riot of colors and their unusual behavior.
Very little is known about the depths of the ocean, so it is impossible to determine exactly how many species inhabit the deep seabed.
Fresh water of rivers and lakes differs in a smaller variety of species, which is explained by difficult living conditions and active human influence. Only in remote regions where rivers and lakes are inaccessible to humans and not so studied, there are various exotic rare fish that are distinguished by an unusual color or a shape that is uncharacteristic for most species.
The category of rare and endangered species today includes the majority of sturgeon, which are found in nature only in North America, Russia, China, Iran and a number of other countries of Southeast Asia. Today, the sturgeon is actively fishing, which led to the almost complete destruction of most species of this valuable and rare fish.
Beluga is a large predator that feeds mainly on fish.
Rare sturgeon include:
One of the most rare and interesting species of sturgeon is paddlefish, which lives in Mississippi, and its subspecies are found in the Yangtze and other Chinese rivers. This fish is characterized by an enlarged nasal appendage, which in large specimens resembles an oar in appearance.
Paddlefish is large in size. and weighing up to 90 kilograms, and the rostrum, that is, an enlarged nasal appendage with a paddle shape, can be one third of the entire body length.
Paddlers are among the oldest fish, as evidenced by the fossil record.
Extremely interesting is the blind cave fish that lives in the subtropics of Thailand. During evolution, this species lost pigmentation and vision, gaining a unique ability to climb vertical surfaces.
This unique skill is necessary for this fish, as it lives mainly in caves and has adapted to the rapid flow of underground streams.
The silt jumper is another extremely interesting freshwater fish. The structure of the body of the muddy jumper resembles a cross between a frog and a tadpole. The fish belongs to the family of gobies and spends most of its life outside the water, moving along the clayey shores.
On land, thanks to the unique structure of its body, the muddy jumper can stay up to half an hour or more.
Silt jumpers can be found in the mangroves along the shores of Africa, India, and South Asia.
The depths of the sea are extremely rich in various exotic and rare species of fish. To date, no more than 20% of the World Ocean has been studied, therefore new deep-water species are constantly being discovered, which amaze with their appearance, ability to live in complete darkness and under conditions of enormous pressure.
This fish was discovered more than a century ago, but so far scientists have only come into the hands of a few specimens, on the basis of which this species was described.
Scorpion Ambon has the ability to change the color of the body.
Characteristic features of scorpions include:
- frequent molt of the cornified body;
- ability to change color;
- the presence of specific growths above the eyes;
- superb disguise abilities.
Scorpion Ambona prefers shallow depths and is found near southern coral reefs. Scorpina likes to hunt at the very bottom, burrowing in the fine sand, luring the victim with flexible appendages near the mouth.
Scorpion Ambon prefers exceptionally clean warm water, so in recent years, with the pollution of the oceans, the population of this fish has decreased significantly.
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This is a rare deep-sea fish that has a unique body structure. The tail of the tail has a huge mouth in the form of a tubular hole, and the jaws move into an expanding leather bag.
This bag works on the principle of blacksmith and can expand several times, which allows the tail to catch and digest prey, which is several times larger than its size.
The length of the sea deep-water rod can reach 10 meters. Moreover, the length of the tail of this fish is 5−6 meters.
The tail is extremely rigid and long, and its structure has not yet been studied by scientists. This fish was discovered about 20 years ago, and during this time, scientists caught only three specimens that were already dead and in poor condition.
But to capture on camera the behavior of a live rod-tail has not yet succeeded.
In psychedelic toad fish, an unusual color is a set of stripes of white, brown and yellow colors that form a complex colorful pattern.
This species of marine fish was discovered in 2009. The frog fish prefers great depths and has an unusual appearance that allows it to be masked against the background of the bottom and corals. The head is large, with wide-set eyes.
The psychedelic frog’s coloring is extremely interesting. – with reddish and yellowish winding lines of stripes, which diverge from the eyes in different directions. The fins of the frog fish are modified and vaguely resemble the paws of land animals.
Ichthyologists argue that this species is a transition between aquatic organisms and terrestrial animals.
To date, several color variations of this rare marine fish are known:
- Yellow shape with turquoise eyes and white lines.
- Red variety with yellow stripes.
- The dark form, which is able to change color to almost black.
Body color depends on the overall color of the environment. On dark ground and great depth, there are black forms, but in shallow water in coral reefs you can see yellow and red colors at the same time.
The frog fish prefers a benthic lifestyle and is found at depths of the order of 200−500 meters. Young specimens often stay in shallow water near coral reefs, however, as they mature, they go to great depths and lead a pronounced predatory lifestyle.
It is established that the habitat of frog fish are the waters of Australia, as well as the tropical region of the Indian Ocean.
A characteristic feature of a rag-saver is a variety of leaf-like growths that perfectly mask them in their natural habitat.
This species was discovered in 1865, but so far scientists have come across only a few dozen specimens of these fish, which is explained by their secretive lifestyle and strictly limited habitat. This species is remarkable in that the whole body, fins, tail and head are covered with processes that mimic various algae.
Such processes perfectly mask the rag-pickers during their hunt for shrimp and other crustaceans.
Habitat habitat is the Indian Ocean and the south-east coast of Australia. The fish leads a hidden lifestyle, prefers clean and warm coastal waters, hiding in corals during the day, and at night going on a hunt for small plankton and crustaceans.
This species was discovered in the XVIII century, when this fish was found everywhere. Today, the pollution of the oceans and the active fishing of the fish-moon is becoming less common. This species is large and laterally compressed with a tall, short body.
Fish-moon can reach gigantic sizes with a body diameter of tens of meters and weighing up to one and a half tons. Adults feed on jellyfish, eels, squid and various plankton.
The fish-moon is a bad swimmer, so it does not like a strong current, and often just lies on the very surface of the water surface.
Thorn is a semi-through fish, as it winters in rivers.
The wide-nosed chimera prefers the depths of the Atlantic Ocean, where it feeds on various mollusks. To date, scientists have come across only a few copies of this extremely rare fish.
Its peculiarity is the jelly-like body, which, when raised to the surface, quickly dissolves to the bone skeleton of the chimera.
The complexity of studying this species is explained by its way of life, when the chimera practically does not appear at depths less than 1000 meters. Only with the development of special technology could scientists see it in their natural environment at depths of more than one and a half thousand meters.
This species of deep-sea shark was discovered in 1884. In appearance, adults resemble more eels or a strange sea serpent. The gill openings, of which there are 6 pieces on each side of the body, are covered with skin folds.
The membranes and gill slits are also located in the shark’s throat, connecting to a wide leather blade. This is one of the rarest species of sharks, which are found only at great depths.
To date, the shark shroudsman is poorly understood, and a total of about 100 specimens of this rare predator come across to scientists.
Latimeria lives at a depth of 100 m and more, a length of more than 1.8 m, weight up to 90 kg.
Opened the Indonesian Latimeria in 1999. This fish belongs to the family of celicantes and is the oldest hydrobiont described on earth.
Previously it was believed that all members of the squad of celicantes became extinct before the advent of dinosaurs. Studies have shown that this species appeared about 40 million years ago.
To date, no more than a dozen specimens of Indonesian coelacanths have been caught. Latimeria has a strange body shape with modified lower fins that vaguely resemble the limbs of ancient fossils.
The internal structure of the coelacanth is extremely unusual – a cross between the structure of land animals and classical fish.
The European angler lives on the seabed, at a depth of 200 meters.
These terrible and strange in their behavior fish in 1930 were discovered. Sea hairy features prefer greater depths over 1 km.
In such water there is total darkness, and this is what the devil uses, who has a glowing process on his forehead. With the help of such a device, the hairy features attract crustaceans and other fish that are prey to this predator.
Extremely interesting way of breeding this fish. Females of monkfish have a size of about one meter and a mass of 15−20 kg.
The male is usually ten times smaller than the females, he simply attaches to the body of his chosen one, after which the spermatozoa constantly enter the body of the female through the blood. For the rest of his life, the male gets from the huge predator all the nutrients he needs.
On one large female you can find several males attached to her, who can live like this until death.
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