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Description of flounder, fish lifestyle and habitat

The flatfish family includes many species of fish with different habits and habitat, but they also have common features. All of them lead a bottom life, prefer to live at depth and have a flattened body shape in the form of an oval or a rhombus.

All members of the family flatfish are a delicacy that many people love. Knowing where flounder lives, it is easily found and caught by experienced fishermen.

All species of flounder are bottom-dwelling, prefer to live in depth and have a flattened body shape.

Representatives of the family of flatfish live for an average of 20-30 years and have a rather unusual and interesting look, which makes it possible to distinguish it from other species of fish. The main features are as follows:

  • the body is flat and plate-like, completely framed by a fin with a large number of rays;
  • asymmetrical head, turned to the right or left;
  • eyes closely spaced and functioning separately from each other;
  • there are many sharp teeth in a slanting mouth;
  • on the side of the body where the eyes are located, scales of a darker shade, here is a wide gill slit;
  • the tail is very short and is equipped with a fin without grooves;
  • that side which is deprived of eyes has lighter shade and dense skin.

To survive in the sea and the river, the flounder learned to adapt to any landscape and change the color of the body.

Fish fry at birth have the same structure and appearance as all other fish. But gradually, irreversible metamorphosis occurs, which leads to the displacement of the mouth and eyes on the right side of the head.

After transformation, the fish turns over to the blind side., which gradually atrophies and begins to be used by flounder as a flat belly for easy lying on the rocks and the bottom. But in river flounder, the changes occur in the reverse order – the eyes and mouth move to the left side of the head.

To survive in the sea and the river, the fish learned to adapt to any landscape and change the color of the body. Because of this, it is often called the “water chameleon”.

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Numerous species of river flounder habitat is chosen as lightly salted and fresh water. It features a rounded body and numerous spines along its perimeter. The sighted side can have a shade from light brown to olive with numerous spots.

It grows up to 3 kg in weight and 50 cm in length.

In order for her laying to develop fully, fish needs to constantly get a large amount of oxygen from the water column, which is achieved by regular drift of individuals, but this is only possible in salt water, due to its density. In freshwater bodies, the larvae settle to the bottom and die.

For this reason, the flounder is sent to spawn in the sea.

Most often for these purposes the fish uses the Baltic waters. Therefore, another of its name is Baltic flounder.

It is widespread in the coastal zone.

The habitat of the flounder of this species is North Pacific. Freshwater form is often located in the lagoons, bays and lower reaches of rivers. The star view is represented by individuals with a left-sided arrangement of the eyes.

It has a dark color and wide dark stripes on the fins.

It got its name for studded plates in the shape of a star on the sighted side of the body. Most often it is called the Pacific River Flounder. Its dimensions in most cases do not exceed 60 cm with a weight of 4 kg.

But fishermen tell the cases when this variety grew to 90 cm and gained weight over 9 kg.

Star view is represented by individuals with left-sided eye placement.

This fish looks a lot like flounder in appearance, but it belongs to another family – scoftalm. It is found in the North Atlantic, the Black, Baltic and Mediterranean seas.

Often, the specimens of the Kalkan grow up to a meter in length and reach a weight of 20 kg.

Distinctive feature is left eye, round body shape and a large number of spines located on the entire surface of the sighted side of the body.

But the fish feels great not only in sea water, it is found in the mouth of the Don, the Dnieper, the Southern Bug. Here you can also find a smaller variety – the Azov diamond, which does not grow more than 40 cm in length.

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