maintenance, care, compatibility
To choose the right aquarium for fish, consider the following recommendations:
- In a spacious tank, fish care will be easier. The products of their vital activity in a close aquarium quickly decompose, poisoning the water. In a spacious tank more water that will be mixed. Cleaning can be done less frequently.
- The size of the tank depends on the type of fish and their size. Before buying an aquarium, you should know which pets will be settled there. Large and gregarious fish require a large amount of swimming space. At 5-centimeter fish need 10 liters of water.
- Attention should be paid to aquascape. This shelter in the form of caves, moles, clay pots, pipes, rocks, snags and plants. Fish with bulging eyes do not need a lot of scenery due to the threat of injury.
See how to lay the soil in the aquarium.
Tips for beginners to care for aquarium and fish
The equipment necessary for operation includes the already known heater, as well as a device for measuring temperature, a filter and an aerator. Filters are chosen in accordance with the volumes of the home “pool”. Filters require care, so once every three weeks they are washed outside with water and they pull out the sponge of the internal filter and clean it of dirt.
There are coal (it is replaced every month), or primary cleaning (white material is replaced every two weeks).
Lighting is usually mounted in a protective top cover. If it was not sold along with the aquarium, be sure to pick up the lid so that the water does not evaporate and the particularly frisky fish will not jump out.
The lamp should be chosen in proportion to the size of the tank, at the rate of 0.5W per liter. Usually the lights are turned off at night, although there are some types of fish that need additional lighting at this time of day.
Soil plays an important role in the formation of the aquarium ecosystem – all biochemical processes occur. You can buy ready-made options in the pet store, you can use sand, pebbles, glass beads. In the second case, thorough disinfection and boiling are required, and in the first case, abundant washing is sufficient.
Get a siphon to handle the soil in your “pond”.
See how to clean the aquarium yourself.
The water must be separated: the required amount is poured into a clean tank, left for a couple of days, and then it is filled with an aquarium. For water, parameters such as hardness, acidity, temperature are important, which are determined for each species separately and are constantly maintained either by heating devices or special products that can be purchased along with fish. Caring for aquarium fish requires constant water changes.
Do it either manually or with a special pump.
Fish for beginners better to choose from unpretentious species. Perfectly suitable small schooling species (scalarii, guppies, barbs, danios), catfish. The choice depends on compatibility (it is impossible to settle even one predatory specimen together with peace-loving, for example, gourami).
The inhabitants of the aquarium should also combine the same preferences in acidity and water hardness.
In feeding, they follow a strict regimen: once a day, just as much as they can eat in 5-10 minutes. Fish do not feel the measures in food, therefore they are prone to overeating, which means – to the pollution of the aquatic environment. Caring for aquarium fish involves monitoring their condition.
If they become lethargic, change their color, then they are probably sick.
These basic tips for beginners in the maintenance of an aquarium will help you to equip it with love, so that it becomes an ornament of your apartment, a picture from which it is impossible to look away!
During cleaning it is necessary to turn off electrical equipment. Only an external canister filter can be left on if its water intake hose is low enough and remains below the water level.
As for the internal filter, if the cleaning is ordinary and does not take long, it can be left in the aquarium in the off state. If the cleaning is large, general, cleaning all the decorations, weeding and transplanting plants, draining a significant part of the water, the internal filter is placed in the drained aquarium water and turned on so that the bacteria colony does not die.
At the time of cleaning the fish are usually not evicted from the aquarium.
First proceed to clean the glass. To do this, you can use different devices, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages:
- Long-handled scraper with permanent or replaceable metal razor blades. A very effective thing, but not suitable for cleaning Plexiglas aquariums, as it can scratch them. When choosing such a scraper, you need to pay attention to the strength of the handle (if it is too flexible, you will not succeed with the necessary force and at the right angle to press on the glass). In addition, the metal blade should not be longer than the plastic cover and stick out of it on the sides, as in this case, when cleaning around the corners, you can damage the silicone joints of the aquarium.
- Magnetic scraper is extremely handy when cleaning large and deep containers. Suitable for cleaning plexiglass. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account what thickness of glass the scraper is designed for, otherwise the power of the magnet may be insufficient and the scraper simply will not attract. Using this device, you must be very careful when cleaning the glass near the bottom, so that there is no pebble or grain of sand between the scraper and the glass. They will leave deep and visible scratches on the glass. Usual household sponge washcloth. Many aquarists use just such, but they are made from materials of different stiffness, and some are completely capable of leaving scratches on aquarium glass, which individually are almost invisible, but over time make the glass all the more cloudy.
- The usual bank plastic card has perfectly proved as a scraper. It does not spoil the glass, and its only drawback is the lack of a handle and, accordingly, some inconvenience of use.
Green algae, torn off from the surface by a scraper, if there are not too many of them, can be left out of the aquarium, and left in the water, the fish usually eat them instantly and with great pleasure.
Some aquarists recommend that the rear window of an aquarium should not be cleaned of algae, as it is usually almost completely hidden by decorations and plants, and the algal plaque usually does not spoil the appearance of the pond, and nitrates and nitrites from the water slowly consume. And if you lead several algae fish, then the raid will not remain either on the rear window or on the viewing window.
Now, when our glass is clean, it is the turn of the ground.
The frequency and intensity of water changes depend on the biological load, that is, on the quantity, size and voracity of the aquarium inhabitants, as well as on their requirements for water quality: it is clear that the concepts of cleanliness differ from the discus and, for example, spore frogs.
With the average population of the reservoir and the fastidiousness of its inhabitants, substitution is usually carried out on a third, quarter or fifth of the volume every week. Ideally, to establish a substitution schedule, it is necessary to test the water in the aquarium and determine the nitrate content in it.
It should be at the level of no more than 10-30 mg / l. Accordingly, if the concentration of nitrates in water is higher, then water must be changed more often.
To carry out a substitution, it is necessary to prepare water with the same or very close parameters (temperature, acidity) as in the aquarium. Most aquatic animals prefer water that settled for at least 24 hours.
If you can not defend the water, you can use air conditioners, for example, Tetra Aqua Safe or Dennerle Avera.
Part of the water from the aquarium is drained using a siphon or hose, the end of which must be placed near the bottom. In order to easily navigate how much water you need to drain, it is convenient to make a mark on the glass.
Fresh water is poured with a hose, bucket or other container, while the jet is directed not to the ground, which is thus easily eroded, but, for example, to the grotto or placed on the bottom of the saucer.
The aquarium filter has several functions. The most important: it must trap particles of dirt and turbidity (dead organic matter, food residues, mineral turbidity from the substrate) and be home to biofilter bacteria. The accumulated dirt in the cleaning process should be removed, while the colony of bacteria should be left as safe as possible.
These conditions determine the rules for cleaning the filter.
First question: when is it time to clean the filter? It is easy to determine by the power of its jet. Having bought a new filter or having its next general cleaning, notice or remove on video what kind of power the jet has, you can see it, for example, by the vibrations of nearby plants.
If the jet is weakened, it’s time to wash the filter.
Usually, internal sponge filters are washed once a week, as are often sponges of internal filters, where there are compartments with porous fillers (these compartments themselves often do not need to bother!). External canister filters are cleaned less often, once in 6-10 weeks, in some models the prefilter sponges, parts of which perform preliminary mechanical filtration, are washed weekly.
In any case, the filtering materials are carefully washed and rinsed in water drained from the aquarium in order to minimally damage the colony of nitrifying bacteria. The same rotor head is washed and cleaned with the same water with a cotton swab or toothbrush – the engine compartment of the filter.
After cleaning, the filter is placed in the aquarium as soon as possible and turned on.
After acquiring a new artificial pond for the house, keeping the fish is better to start with its feeding no more than once a day. Of course, then you can feed it more often, but little by little. After all, an aquarium is, first of all, a closed habitat.
If there is a lot of food, it is not eaten by fish, then it gets into the ground and begins to rot. From overfeeding the fish start to hurt, and then they completely die.
How do you know if the fish are overfed or not? It’s simple. Food, after getting into the aquarium should be eaten immediately, and not sink to the bottom.
True, there are such fish as catfish. It is they who eat the food that fell to the bottom.
Also, the fish need to arrange fasting days, but only once a week.
The third rule – conditions for fish: what should they be?
The fourth condition is the right equipment.
Remember the main rule. First you need:
- Aquarium and minimal equipment for it.
And only after the acquisition of all of the above, you can think about choosing the fish. Artificial pond need to choose not very small.
What is necessary from the equipment? So it refers to:
- heater with thermostat;
And when all this is acquired, you can do the installation of the vessel in your room. It is best to do this on a flat surface, before laying the tourist mat under the bottom of the aquarium.
You also need to wash the soil and sand, pour it into the aquarium and fill it with cold tap water. Install a filter and heater (especially important to monitor the temperature of the water in the winter).
Because from the cold fish can die.
Next, heat the water to 20 degrees and begin to plant the plants. Planting a home aquarium should be live plants. They are simply necessary.
Even if there are fish in the aquarium that like to feed on plants, it is better to simply feed them more. Water will be muddy at first.
And it is here that you should not hurry. It is best to wait about 7 days.
And already after the water becomes clear, you can launch fish.
Important! Buying fish, do not forget to clarify whether they will get along together.
The fifth rule – the filter must be washed in the aquarium water
The seventh rule – the launch of a new fish spend slowly!
As mentioned above, the launch of the fish should be done only when the artificial reservoir is settled at home. Remember that if all the rules are not followed, the water in the aquarium will quickly become cloudy and the fish will die.
Quite often, a situation arises when, after acquiring a fish, many beginners do not know what to do next .. For experienced aquarists, this is not a problem, since their launch of the fish takes place on the machine. But beginners may have problems.
First you need to put the bag with the fish just in the aquarium. Let it float there. Thus, the fish gets used to the new environment.
And the fish that are already in the aquarium in this way will get to know it. Then you need to start lowering the package below, so that the water from the aquarium is filled in the package.
Let it still be a little time, and then launch the fish into the aquarium from the package.
Important! The more expensive a fish is, the more bother it is!
The tenth rule – aquarism is my hobby!
The most important thing in aquarism is to fish with great enthusiasm, but without forcing yourself. Make it so that it brings pleasure and enjoyment. After all, this is a real vacation at home.
Near the artificial reservoir can spend a lot of time watching the behavior of fish.
In addition, scientists have proven that running and monitoring fish leads to normal blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And if there are small children at home, then this is also a very good educational moment.
After all, since childhood, caring for fish will teach them to care and attention. After all, probably, very few people want to see that the first experience with the aquarium is bitter and ends with the death of the fish.
After all, it often happens that novice aquarists, who have not coped with the problems, put an end to their dream.
Do not leave immediately, and after a while there will come a period when an experienced aquarist grows from an inexperienced beginner who will help the same beginners, like him, who buy aquariums for beginners himself just a few weeks or months ago. Believe it is not difficult!
Simple instructions: how to care for fish in an aquarium
Argued that the maintenance of fish does not require time and financial costs. Experienced aquarists will talk in detail about the complexity of this lesson, which requires care and unhurriedness. You control a small underwater world that cannot exist without competent support.
For beginners, help how to care for the fish in the aquarium (point by point).
Excessive care for such pets is not required. To understand the process will help the instruction.
How to care for fish in an aquarium, even children can remember.
The first serious oversight that is allowed at this stage is the purchase of a small aquarium, considering that the capacity of 20-30 liters will meet the needs of the beginner amateur fish. In reality, the opposite is true.
Maintaining artificial biocenosis in balance is much easier in a large aquarium, at least 50-70 liters. In it several species of inhabitants can coexist and develop normally.
The next question, which will consider a brief instruction on how to care for the fish in an aquarium, is what is inside the tank. They create a cozy atmosphere for small inhabitants, starting from the ground. Small pebbles will do the job best.
When selecting, take into account its caliber and color, focusing on the species of fish that are planned to contain. Inhabitants of bright shades look better on a background of gray stones.
Plants are rooted in the soil, they take nutrients from it. Flora serves as a refuge for individual fish, who love to hide from active neighbors.
Artificial greens have an attractive appearance and do not require care, but give preference to natural plants.
Care for aquarium and fish – occupation not only interesting, but also useful. Even in cases where the aquarium is an exclusive design element, many owners are so keen on aquarium fish, caring for them and studying their behavior, that they become avid aquarists.
As a result of research scientists found that an aquarium with fish is very useful for the psyche and is an excellent remedy for stress. Moreover, aquarium fish and care for them It has a positive effect on the emotional state of children, and also fosters responsibility.
But, of course, we must not forget that aquarium fish are living creatures that need attention and care. In order to care for the aquarium and the fish was a pleasure, you should carefully study all the features and subtleties of this activity.
Let’s see what the experts advise for the correct maintenance of aquarium fish and care for them.
First of all, you need to think carefully about where the aquarium will stand, which one will most fit the shape and size. It is believed that a large aquarium is easier to look after than a small one, which is especially important for beginners.
Also in a large aquarium, you can contain a larger number of fish. For example, the care and maintenance of goldfish require a large amount of space, contrary to the prevailing stereotype that goldfish live in small aquariums.
Choosing an aquarium, do not forget about the equipment that is necessary for the care of fish. The more carefully every detail is thought out, the later it will be easier to care for the aquarium.
Choosing an aquarium, you can proceed to the selection of species of fish. This is a very important stage for the further maintenance of the aquarium. It is worth acquiring only compatible species of fish, in which the needs for temperature, water acidity and feeding coincide.
Based on the choice made, you need to calculate the number of fish. On average, 1 cm of the body of the fish requires 2 liters of water.
For proper care of a goldfish, a minimum of 40 liters of water per fish is required. The number of fish also depends on the needs of a particular species. Some fish can be kept alone, some need a company.
Plants for the aquarium is chosen based on the selected species of fish.
When all the preparatory work is completed, the aquarium is running, and the fish settle in their new habitat, it remains only to admire the work done and follow the simple rules of care for aquarium fish. The first step is to pay particular attention to feeding the fish.
Fish are prone to overeating and obesity, which can lead to various diseases and death. For example, feeding goldfish should be strictly limited in time, as they tend to overeat more than other species.
This complicates the care of goldfish, especially if other fish live in the aquarium and require more feed. The main principle of feeding aquarium fish is better to underfeed than overfeeding.
It is also recommended to do a fasting day once a month.
Care of aquarium fish depends largely on the needs of a particular species, so it is important to know the characteristics of the content of the selected fish. Using the example of the most popular species of fish, we will consider which parts you need to pay attention to first.
For most fish, a high water temperature is required – from 24 to 28 degrees C, but there are exceptions; therefore, it is impossible to place fish with different needs for water temperature in the same aquarium. For example, to care for goldfish requires a lower temperature – about 21 degrees C.
The number of fish of one species should be selected, guided by the volume of the aquarium and the behavioral characteristics of the flock. For example, to care for aquarium fish, the angelfish need a high aquarium, and they need to be lodged in pairs, so that each pair has its own angle.
And for the cockerel fish, care should be such that the fish do not become aggressive. Therefore, in one aquarium never they do not lodge more than one male, and at the same time they provide shelter for females with the help of plants, in case of aggressive behavior of the cockerel. Plants in the aquarium perform not only a decorative function, but also provide comfort to the fish.
For example, the care of aquarium catfish, telescope fish, and other benthic species will require a special arrangement of the bottom. Plants and snags should be located so that the fish could hide, but it was not injured and not stuck. Beginners best to pick unpretentious fish.
For example, for guppy fish, the care of which does not require compliance with complex rules or special conditions of detention.
Thanks to modern equipment aquarium fish and care for them do not require much time and effort. Even beginners can safely explore aquarium and enjoy the wonders of the underwater world right at home.