Family Belontidae (Belontidae).
Indochina and Malacca peninsulas, Kalimantan islands, Sumatra and Java inhabit the area.
Kept in rich vegetation streams, small rivers, ditches, as well as in swampy waters of lowlands and mountainous places.
The body is elongated, slender, almost round in cross section. The dorsal fin is short, anal long, may be with an elongated end.
The first rays of the ventral fin are elongated.
Fish breathe atmospheric air through the gill labyrinth.
You can keep the general aquarium, which must be closed from above, so that there is warm air above the surface of the water, otherwise fish, catching cold air, can catch a cold. Thickets of plants and snags will provide females with shelter from the pursuit of males, who are also pugnacious among themselves.
Water: 24-26 ° C, dH 4-15 °, pH 6-7.5.
Food: live, substitutes.
Spawning doubles both in general and in the spawning aquarium.
In one group of fish, the male builds a nest of foam on the surface of the water, under which spawning occurs, then it cares for and protects eggs and larvae from other fish. Spawning aquarium with a length of 25 cm for a couple, without soil, with a dark substrate, several bushes of plants for the female and floating plants.
The pair is kept separately for spawning during the week. First, the male is planted, then after a few hours, the female with a swollen belly. The temperature of the water is raised by 2-3 ° C.
After spawning, the female is removed, and the male when the fry swim. The incubation period is 1-2 days, the fry swim after 1-5 days.
The water level is reduced to 5 cm or the fry are transferred to a nursery aquarium with the same water level, which is then increased as the fry grow.
Starter feed: live dust.
In another group of fish, the male is usually incubated in the mouth. Spawning aquarium with shallow soil, sometimes thickets and floating plants, you can with a cave.
The pair forms the territory, protecting it from other fish in the general aquarium.
Spawning is usually over a free, shaded area of soil.
The male incubates the eggs in the mouth, hiding in the shelter. In the general aquarium the female protects the territory, in the spawning it can be removed.
Fry swim after 9-12 days.
Starter feed: small cyclops nauplii, artemia.
Betta pict Betta picta (Cuvier, Valenciennes, 1846).
Synonym: Panchax plctum.
Inhabit the district of Singapore, the island of Sumatra and Java.
Length up to 5 cm.
The body is brown, to the belly is lighter. Three dark longitudinal stripes run along the body, the middle one goes from the snout to the caudal fin the rest begins behind the gill cover.
During spawning, transverse bands appear.
The male is larger, all fins, except the chest, from yellowish to red-brown, on the anal black and blue stripe, the elongated rays of the ventral fin are light blue.
The female has colorless fins.
It is better to contain a group of fish, the females form and protect the territory, the males are peaceful.
Water: 22-26 ° C. O. Rybakov recommends dH 6-20 °.
The male incubates the eggs in the mouth. Spawning occurs at the surface among the leaves of plants. Up to 85 fry leave the male’s mouth in 10-12 days at 25 ° C.
Betta striped. Betta taeniata Regan, 1909.
Synonyms: V. tvifasciata, V. macrophthalma.
They inhabit Thailand (south of Bangkok), Malacca Peninsula, Kalimatan and Sumatra.
Length up to 8 cm.
The body varies from yellow to red-brown in color with variable longitudinal stripes and dark spots on the head and fins.
The male is larger, with a more powerful and rounded snout. Before spawning, its body darkens, longitudinal bands more clearly protrude and brilliant greenish dots appear. With the beginning of spawning, the bands gradually disappear, and the incubating male spawn becomes dark brown.
The female with a sharp snout becomes light yellow during spawning.
The fishes are rather shy, they keep mostly near the ground, willingly in shelters.
It is better to keep a group of fish in a large species aquarium, the males are a little aggressive.
The female lays up to 50 eggs, which she herself incubates in her mouth.
H. Richter reports content and dilution in water: 24-27 ° С, dH 21 °, КН 7 °, with frequent partial change of water.
Betta smaragdovaya. Betta smaragdina Ladiges, 1972.
They inhabit the rice fields of Thailand.
Length up to 7 cm.
The body is dark, olive-brown in color with shiny green specks on the scales. Anal and tail fin dark red with green and blue stripes along the rays.
The dorsal fin has a brilliant green-blue color with oblique dark stripes between the rays. Abdominal brownish with white tips.
The male with larger fins, the female on the body often irregularly shaped transverse stripes.
The fish are quite peaceful, keeping in the middle and upper layers of water. Can contain a group. When building a nest, spawning and caring for offspring, the male is very aggressive.
Up to 200 fry.
Crosses with cock.
Betta Unimakulata. Betta unimaculata (Popta, 1905).
Synonym: Parophiocephalus unimaculatus.
The length of the male is up to 14 cm, the females are up to 12 cm.
The body is strongly extended in length, the tail stalk is almost as tall as the torso.
The main body color is green-blue with a greenish sheen, the back is darker. On the side is sometimes a dark longitudinal stripe. There may be a black spot on the tail stem.
Anal, caudal and dorsal fin base with rows of spots, whitish abdominal tip.
At the excitement of the male, the side darkens on the back half of the body, and dark transverse bands appear on it.
The female is light brown in color.
It is better to keep fish in groups in a specific aquarium with dense thickets, caves and snags. There are clashes between males, but only after the change of water.
Fish jumping, aquarium close from above. The male incubates the eggs in the mouth.
H. Richter reports on the content and dilution in water dH 22 °.
Betta is black. Cockerel dwarf. Petus black.
Betta imbeIIis Ladiges, 1975.
Marsh reservoirs, rice fields and ditches of the Malay Peninsula inhabit the area.
Length up to 5 cm.
Body ocher color with brownish transverse stripes. Fins are orange-reddish.
Before spawning, the body of the male acquires a black and blue color with rows of spots, iridescent bluish to greenish. Fins are blue to dark purple with dark rays.
The tail fin with a black border, behind which is a red stripe. The tips of the anal and abdominal red.
The fish are quite peaceful, you can keep several males with females in a large tank overgrown with plants.
But before spawning, the males capture the territory and start fighting. The male builds a nest of foam.
Up to 300 eggs.
Crosses with cock.
Cockerel. Betta splendes Regan, 1909.
Indochina and Malacca inhabit the Peninsula.
They are kept in standing and very slowly flowing, heavily vegetated reservoirs with a swampy bottom.
Length up to 6 cm.
The color of the wild form varies depending on the place of origin.
Usually dark brown with rows of shiny green specks.
The male with large fins is red-brown in color with brilliant green or blue color.
Female with short fins, on the body, besides the spawning period, dark transverse bands are often visible.
As a result of breeding, forms of cockerels with different colors (blue, green, red, etc.) and veil fins were bred.
It can be kept in the general aquarium, but not with fish with veil fins, as roosters can bite them off.
Males are very aggressive towards each other, and a fight usually ends with the death of one of them. You can keep in a very large aquarium with dense thickets of plants of co-grown males, but even then dangling fins cannot be avoided as a result of skirmishes over the territory. It is better to have 1 male with several females, worse pair; the male will constantly pursue a female not ready to spawn.
The aquarium should be closed from above, the male sometimes jumps out of the water.
The male builds a nest of foam. Spawning is better to plant at the age of 6-12 months.
Up to 600 eggs. Sexual maturity at 3-5 months.
Crossed with smaragd and black betta.