Главная 7 Aquarium fish 7 Blue surgeon (paracanthurus hepatus): species (white-breasted or leucosternon, lineatus, triostegus, Japanese, pyroferus), maintenance, feeding, compatibility

Blue surgeon (paracanthurus hepatus): species (white-breasted or leucosternon, lineatus, triostegus, Japanese, pyroferus), maintenance, feeding, compatibility

The blue surgeon (Paracanthurus hepatus), aka “royal surgeon”, is a sea fish of the Surgeon family (Acanthur) is sometimes called a “blue surgeon”.

Area: reefs and rocks of tropical and subtropical zones of the Indo-Pacific region. In nature it grows up to 30 cm.

Fish surgeons are usually found in reef saltwater aquariums. Food is sought throughout the space of the aquarium.

Surgeons got their name because of the presence in the base of the caudal fin, hidden in a calm situation of the poison thorn in the form of a lancet. Used to intimidate the enemy. In extreme cases it can strike.

For a man is not fatal, but painful.

If they come under the hot tail, rinse the wound with hot water or heat it in another way. Heating causes disintegration of toxins.

Do not stop the bleeding, let the poison go.

The shape of the body is an elliptical disk, the color is from light blue to blue with a dark purple pattern. The back and anal fins are in body color, with an outer dark border. The tail fin is trapezoidal, lemon yellow with a continuation along the edges of the bodily pattern.

In some cases, the pectoral fins and abdomen of the blue surgeon have a yellowish tint.

The mouth is small, forward. The eyes are large.

A typical length in an aquarium is 20–22 cm.

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Active during the day, young fish gather in flocks, adults – singles. The exception is the harem.

Territoriality is expressed, but out of possession is not aggressive.

They love pinching algae. Rest in the thickets. Not shy.

Resist aggressive neighbors. Sleep upright or on its side. In need of shelters.

Hepatus do not dig the ground, do not spoil the equipment and do not encroach on the corals.

In captivity live 12-20 years.

The family of surgeons combines 6 genera. Representatives are similar in shape of the torso. Differ in a coloring and the sizes.

Conditions of detention are approximately the same.

Otherwise – the Arabian surgeon. Belongs to the genus Fish Surgeons (Acanthurus).

In nature, it is found on the reefs of the shallows of the Arabian coast of the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Territorial, aggressive, attacks a person in violation of boundaries.

At will, it grows up to 40 cm. The color is gray with violet stripes, in some cases form patterns.

Belly light. Anal and dorsal fins, tail bezel – purple. Thorns and prickly space highlighted in warning orange.

The tail fin has the shape of a rotated “Ω” symbol.

In captivity, the males get along badly with all the fish except the harem. Molluscs and crustaceans eats. For one individual, a vessel from 0.7 m3 is required.

With a harem – from 1 m3.

The genus Zebrasoma includes 7 species. Yellow zebrasomes (Zebrasoma flavescens) are common in aquariums.

In nature, found on tropical reefs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The species is endangered due to uncontrolled fishing.

At will, it grows up to 40 cm. In a jar – 20–25 cm. The color of the body and fins is lemon yellow, the spike is white.

Jaws elongated. The vessel will need from 0.4 m3.

Lives with large peaceful fish. Mostly herbivore, eats algae from live rock.

Inhabits tropical and subtropical zones of the Indian and East Pacific.

The body is blue or bright blue. The pectoral and dorsal fins, the base of the tail are yellow. The lower jaw, abdominal and anal fins are white.

The tail fin is white with black stripes and a border. The head and lips are deep purple.

White-breasted surgeon is aggressive in its territory. Undesirable neighborhood with surgeons of other types. In captivity it grows up to 30–35 cm.

The fish is gregarious. Bank required from 1 m3 for 4-5 representatives.

Omnivores, eat algae. Character is individual, recognizes the owner.

Otherwise, a bronze surgeon. Range: shoal reefs west of the Pacific Ocean, south of Japan.

Body color – gray-brown. Lemon-yellow stripes along the anal and dorsal fins and at the base of the tail.

The fins are black with blue neon edging. The tail fin is white with a blue neon border. It grows up to 14-15 cm.

Mostly herbivorous. But also eats shrimp, mussels.

Aggressive towards congeners. Not recommended content with other surgeons.

For one fish requires a vessel of 400 liters.

Lineatus acanturus or pjs surgeon lives on the coral reefs of the tropics and subtropics of the Indo-Pacific region. In nature it grows up to 40 cm, in captivity – 25–30 cm.

The abdomen is light blue. On the sides and back – blue neon, orange-yellow and black longitudinal stripes.

Abdominal fin – yellow or orange. Spinal and anal – gray-blue with blue neon trim.

The tail fin has the shape of a rotated “Ω” symbol, gray, with a neon blue stripe.

Acanthurus lineatus is territorial, aggressive to surgeons. Contained with females in a can of 1 m3.

Necessary abundance of greenery and spacious shelters.

And also called “convict” for a characteristic color. It lives on the reefs of the south Indian and East Pacific Oceans.

In search of food enters the estuary.

The body color of Acanthurus triostegus is a brilliant gray, sometimes with a yellowish sheen, with dark gray or black transverse stripes. The fins are transparent or white.

It reaches a size of 25 cm (10–15 cm in captivity).

Acanthurus triostegus is a schooling, non-aggressive fish. For 4-5 individuals need a vessel from 500 liters.

Herbivores, eats greens from living stones.

Area: Indo-Pacific reef banks, excluding Hawaii. It grows up to 25 cm (in captivity – 16-18 cm). Color – gray with a brown tint.

The gills, lower jaw and base of the tail are black. The fins are black, the caudal is black, in the shape of a rotated letter “Ω”.

Contain alone or with a harem. Bank for a single fish – 250-300 liters. For flocks – from 400 liters.

With surgeons get on badly.

Paracanthurus hepatus is usually found in reef saltwater aquarium hard and soft corals. If corals are present, then the conditions are determined by them.

Blue surgeons adapt more easily.

The shape is a rectangular parallelepiped or cube. The capacity for the flock is from 1 m3, for one – from 0.3 m3.

The linear dimensions of the cube will be 1 x 1 x 1 m. To provide free space for swimming, the width and depth should be envisaged more relative to height. To accommodate the banks and equipment will need a cabinet.

Ocean animals are accustomed to stable conditions and clean water over. In alkaline salt water, the likelihood of ammonia poisoning increases.

Therefore, with the unusual behavior of blue inhabitants, conduct emergency tests (sold in pet shops). Replace water if necessary.

  • Water temperature: 24–26 ° C. An increase to 29 ° C is critical due to the warming up of the environment or the break of the thermostat. Possible death of inhabitants.
  • Acidity: pH 8.1–8.4.
  • Carbonate hardness: dkH 8–11. When dkH falls below 7, blue fish eat corals.
  • Salinity: 35–36.
Salinity (‰)Density (kg / m3 at 25 ° C)Specific weight (g / cm3 at 25 ° C)
351023.31.0264
361024.11.0271

Maximum permissible concentrations:

  • NH3 (ammonia) – up to 0.1 mg / l;
  • NO2 (nitrite) – up to 0.2 mg / l.

The transparency of the water is provided by a mechanical filter. Harmful substances are removed by biofiltration: treatment with bacteria, oxidizing ammonia and nitrite to nitrates (NO3). And also used a chemical filter.

Given the high demands of the inhabitants, a samp is recommended.

A weekly replacement of 1 / 4–1 / 3 of the volume of water is required. For salting use the salt for the aquarium of the pet shop and osmosis.

Food residues and waste products provoke the formation of nitrogen-containing substances. Remove contamination with a siphon.

Algae absorb nitrates, phosphates and calcium. Dissolved carbon dioxide through photosynthesis is converted to oxygen. Blue gluttons will not let the green fill the space of the aquarium.

Thickets are used as shelters.

  • Caulerpa attached to the stones or floating in the water column.
  • Hetomorf grows in a demonstration bank and works in the sump.
  • Halimed grow rapidly, rooted in the soil.
  • Red bamboo is planted in the ground. Shrub reaches a height of 15-30 cm
  • Recommended coral with fragments up to 5 mm. Maintains a balance of acidity.

    Increase the content in the environment of the desired algae calcium, provides the necessary blue inhabitants of the corals and trace elements.

    Scenery in the form of snags and grottoes create additional shelters for blue surgeons. Buildings are made of live rock or dry reef rock (IBS).

    Fixing elements is carried out using plastic or stainless steel, titanium pins, special silicone sealants.

    Extensive surface area and flow cause intense evaporation of water. To preserve the level of salinity, use autodrain.

    Purchase in a store or make yourself. Use osmosis without salt topping up.

    Samp is intended for complex processing of the environment. It is a 1/3 capacity container divided into compartments.

    Pre-carried out mechanical purification of water from large particles.

    Additional purification from organic matter occurs in the skimmer. He is also a “pennic”, “floater”. Air blowing causes a concentration of excess substances in the foam on the surface.

    Foam is removed.

    Chemical cleaning is made of activated carbon. Nitrite and ammonia are being processed in the bio-compartment. In the scrubber and refudzhium (algae), phosphates and nitrates are absorbed by the algae (usually ketomorfa), under bright light.

    Disinfection is done with an ultraviolet lamp.

    It is common to put a heater in the samp with a thermostat and a thermometer. Estimated power – 1 W per 1 liter of volume.

    The flow of water is organized by the pump. Productivity – 8–10 volumes of the main aquarium per hour.

    The necessary equipment is hidden in the carrier cabinet. That improves the appearance of the structure and reduces noise.

    In some situations, an overheating of the medium occurs. A couple of degrees cool the aquarium air fan.

    Water evaporation causes it to cool. If the efficiency is not sufficient, get a liquid cooler purchased or manufactured.

    For feeding corals need a current. The best option is considered to be alternate operation of a pair of pumps with an aggregate capacity of 10–15 volumes of a demonstration vessel per hour.

    Corals need proper lighting. Part of the necessary substances polyps get from symbiotic algae.

    Algae for photosynthesis need sufficient light. Usually, a luminous flux of 70–80 lumens per liter of capacity is enough.

    Use tubular fluorescent lamps such as LB or LED lamps with a color temperature of 7000 K. LED sources are more durable (from 50,000 hours) and surpass all known for light output.

    In the natural environment, the blue surgeon eats zooplankton, algae. In the aquarium, 70% of the diet is plant food. Greens will get their own.

    To prevent algae from eating, give blanched vegetables, oatmeal, and spirulina tablets. Usually in the algal sump there is an excess of hetomorph.

    Send to blue pets.

    Give live or frozen food a couple of times a week. Useful meat shrimp, mussels, sea fish fillets.

    Feed 1-2 times a day. Required weekly fasting day.

    It has an even temper, which is not typical for surgeons with whom it does not get along. Seahorses are not suitable.

    In the general aquarium, perch, wrasse, angelfish, antias are permissible.

    Breeding these beautiful blue captive fish is considered impossible. Differences between the female and male are manifested in the peculiarities of behavior during the spawning period.

    Blue surgeons get sick easily. With timely treatment, they recover successfully.

    A common disease is cryptocaryon.

    Cryptocaryon is caused by parasites present in seawater. Fish caught in nature are highly likely to be infected. The disease manifests itself in connection with the stress of moving and weakening of the immune system.

    Symptoms: white growths 0.5–1 mm in diameter. As the disease progresses – up to 2 mm.

    For the treatment of otsadite sick blue pet. Copper products are sold in pet stores (copper sulfate). Dissolve the enclosed instructions.

    Treatment lasts 2–4 weeks. Procedures in the general aquarium are not possible due to the presence of corals that do not tolerate copper.

    For the prevention of the disease, regular water changes, UV exposure of the main can or sump are recommended.

    The owners celebrate the fascinating exterior of the blue fish, cheerful behavior. With a lack of calcium sting corals.

    Demonstrates individual character and ability to learn. Strives to communicate with other fish.

    Sick often, but usually without consequences.

    The sizeClassPrice (₽)
    Up to 3 cmS3300
    Up to 6 cmM4200
    Up to 8 cmL5700
    Up to 12 cmXL7500
    Up to 15 cmXXL10900




    Blue surgeon – decoration of the home sea. Not lost on the background of other bright fish.

    The content is not complicated (for marine life). Suitable for reef aquarium.

    The long-liver, needs a spacious bank, but in comfortable conditions does not show aggression. Disadvantage: does not reproduce at home.

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