Black mollies, also known as Black Molly, were artificially obtained in 1909 in the USA in a melanistic hybrid of the catilia. In nature, chilli are found in North and South America.
Separate species – in the coastal brackish waters of the Atlantic Ocean. In an aquarium contain from the XIX century.
In Europe, imported at the beginning of the XX century. In the USSR, imported after World War II.
The Russian-language name “mollinesia” is derived from the erroneously adopted reference to the genus Mollienesia. Now it belongs to the Poecilia genus of the family of petsilians.
Appreciated for the unusual color, the ability to breed in the general aquarium and livability.
The body is elliptical, elongated. Compressed from the sides. The mouth is large, oriented upwards.
The color of the body and fins is velvety black. The presence of bright spots aquarists consider marriage.
The last achievement of breeders is the black molly’s tail fin in the shape of a rotated letter “Ω”. The ends are pointed.
There are species with a dorsal fin elongated in the direction of the tail.
Males grow to 50–60 mm, females – up to 60–80 mm.
Mobile in any areas of the aquarium, playful. Males are particularly active.
In an overpopulated tank, and with a lack of females, they are aggressive to their congeners, protecting the territory. Keep at the rate of 2 females per 1 male.
The situation is similar with the lack of food. Only aggression is already shown by females.
In nature – schooling fish. In captivity, schooling manifests itself weaker.
The black mollies fish lives for 3–3.5 years.
Black mollies are considered unpretentious fish, but are more demanding than other types of pets to contain conditions. Sensitive to temperature.
Prefers hard water. Air purge is desirable, filtration is required.
Provide a floodlit area in the center of the tank. Place shelters in the form of plants or stones, snags, grottoes.
Do not keep molly alone. Ideal – 1 male to 3 females.
Reduces the hostility of males.
Provide a spacious aquarium: from 15 liters per pair in a general aquarium. From 50 liters with a separate content of flocks of 3 individuals.
Mollies do not tolerate acidified medium.
- Water temperature: 23–28 ° When cooling below 21 ° C little active, do not grow. Pale color.
- Stiffness: 5–20 ° W.
- Acidity: pH 7.5–8.5.
If it is permissible for other inhabitants, add sea salt: 2–4 grams per liter (2–4). In a teaspoon “with a hill” – 10 g, without it – 7 g. Other inhabitants will not like the salinity.
To comply with the norms of acidity weekly replace from 1/4 of the volume of water. Old water is sour.
Mollies are prone to eating soft foliage of plants. Prefer greenery with rough leaves.
- Wallisneria maintains salinity up to 20.
- Stigolisty (sagittariya).
- Javanese moss – ready refuge for fry.
- Riccia grows faster than it eats.
- Elodea swims in the water column or is fixed. They will not have time to eat: they will grow, they will have to cut it.
- Indian fern (water cabbage).
In dense thickets, fry and females hide during spawning.
Irrelevant. But black mollies look favorably on a light background.
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Publication from AQUAFANATIC (@_aquafanatic_) 9 Nov. 2018 at 1:47 PST
Stones and snags serve as a refuge. Females rest after them from the activity of the males.
Be careful with kryagam. Incorrectly prepared, lower pH.
- Compressor with spray. Air blowing will be needed in an overpopulated aquarium and with a lack of plants. Performance for aeration – from 0.8 liters of air per hour to 1 liter of water.
- A filter for containers up to 150 liters is suitable internal. With connection to the compressor. Otherwise – external. Productivity of pumping is required from 8 volumes per hour. The current created for mollies is familiar.
- Siphon for cleaning the bottom of food debris and waste.
- Equipped with a thermostat heater. For volumetric aquariums submersible horizontal soil is convenient. Does not need to be turned off when changing water.
- Scraper for removing algae from the front glass. There is no need to clean the back and side surfaces if there are no decorations. Black Molly eats green growth with pleasure.
- Net with a frame of 4 “.
The backlight is bright, the light output is 80–100 lumens per liter. Choose LED and fluorescent light sources with a color temperature of 5,000 K. Lamps are energy efficient.
Do not heat the aquarium.
Light day – 11-13 hours.
Aquarists recommend 2-3 hours per day of natural and sunlight. The benefits of “tanning” is not justified. But infection with algae is guaranteed.
Partially parasites mollies eat. But not all types of unwanted vegetation can not cope with the rapid growth of weeds.
Active algae growth is triggered by ultraviolet light and the presence of nitrite and ammonia in water.
Black mollies are omnivorous fish. Kindred in nature eat more plant food.
Aquarium hybrids need a variety of food.
Feed 1-2 times daily. In addition to the mandatory unloading day.
Bloodworm and tubule calories, contain the necessary substances and vitamins. With regular meals, they cause obesity. Mined at the bottom of standing water.
There is a risk of infestation of parasites and infection, poisoning of fish.
Coretra is not so dangerous because it lives and eats in the water column. Not so nutritious.
Daphnia, gammarus and artemia are bred at home. Experienced aquarists thus solve the problem of the safety of live food.
Nauplii, larvae of Artemia, feed juveniles.
- Live food contains nutrients and nutrients available in fish form.
- Uneaten, does not spoil the water.
- Mined in dirty waters is dangerous.
Safe against infections and parasites. Even the products of proven manufacturers of fish are poisoned.
During storage and delivery there is the likelihood of defrosting, which is unacceptable.
- Contains the same ingredients as live food.
- It is necessary to siphon the remains.
- Threatens poisoning.
It is produced in the form of powders, flakes and tablets. Feed balanced, contain vitamins, micro-and macronutrients. Manufacturers:
If you leave, put the automatic feeder with a timer.
- Does not require training.
- Contains the necessary ingredients.
- The presence of the host is optional.
- Removal of residues is required.
- Black mollies require plant fiber. Vegetable food is from 30% of the diet.
- Tablets and flakes with spirulina. Spirulina is a cross between a bacterium and an alga. From this composition is specific. Fiber is not enough (9-11%). Contained vitamins, micro-and macronutrients will strengthen the immune system.
Blanched vegetables – cucumber, zucchini, cabbage. Suit spinach, greens. Dried nettle rich in vitamins.
- Pounded and blanched oatmeal (Hercules), semolina.
Used for a variety of diet. Feed hard-boiled egg yolk. Cutted boiled meat, liver.
Shredded sea fish. Raw river fish cannot be given due to the presence of parasites and infections.
- None of the listed feeds are suitable for continuous feeding. Diversify your diet.
- A lack of plant food intake will affect the condition of the plants. Black Molly will eat algae and take over the grass.
- Overfeeding threatens violations in the digestive tract, obesity. Do not forget about the fasting days.
- Remove uneaten food. It spoils the water, provokes the growth of algae.
Black Mollies live with diverse neighbors. Large predators, catfish are contraindicated.
The skin of goldfish is covered with mucus, which mollies eat together with scales and fins. Males conflict with tiger barbs.
Contain with other patsilii is not recommended. Due to cross insemination.
Live harmoniously with all viviparous.
Occurs without stimulation under recommended conditions. Molly refers to viviparous fishes.
Black mollies fry are active from the moment of birth and are hidden from adults. Reproduction in the general aquarium is permissible.
Survive healthy and with reaction.
For breeding, pregnant mollies are deposited in an internal spawning tank or in a separate container.
Females are larger than males, anal fin – triangular. The male has a fin in the form of a gonopody, a thin tubule for the fertilization of the calf in the abdomen of the female.
Mollies females change their sex. Before childbirth, after childbirth. Age does not matter.
The reason is not known. Characteristic for the placium.
Do mollies occurs continuously. The male pursues females, actively moving gonopody.
Pregnancy is determined by the swollen abdomen. The first pregnancy lasts 30–40 days.
2-3 days before the birth, the abdomen is “squared”. Set the fish ready for the mark into a container with an abundance of plants. Greens, mosses will serve as a shelter fry.
Females eat fry right during childbirth.
For the first time, up to 50 fry are born. Adult fish brings up to 200.
At the end of the birth, the female is returned to the general aquarium.
The seed of the male is preserved. A pair of births without a male is possible.
A nightmare breeder.
It is not recommended to keep fry in close internal spawning. Poorly developed, not afraid of large fish.
Replace 1/3 of water 3-4 times a week.
Feed the fry “live dust”, nauplii. In pet stores sold powder feed for young.
Fit mashed adult dry food. Plant foods – phytoplankton, mashed oatmeal.
Get phytoplankton by yourself, putting a jar of water for a couple of days in the sunlight. When flowering, add to the jar to the fry.
Feed the yolk rubbed through the fine mesh net, egg powder.
When the first sexual signs appear, separate the females from the males. Early pregnancy is destructive.
Males reach puberty in 9–11 months, females in 4.5–5.5. Males are transferred to a common aquarium for growing up to 15 mm.
Council To save the breed reject fry with light spots.
Black mollies are prone to disease. Before the treatment, perform tests, check the water parameters.
Monitor the content of nitrates, nitrites, ammonia.
Ichthyophthiriosis (“semolina”) appears white spots, growths on the scales and fins. Caused by parasites infusoria. Treated:
- Super Ick Cure by Aquarium Pharmaceuticals.
- Faunomor from Aquarium Munster.
- Sera Costapur.
- Ichthyophor from “Zooworld” (in difficult cases).
Proceed in accordance with the attached instructions.
Oodiniosis (“golden dust”) is similar to semolina, but the spots are golden in color. Infection with cutaneous parasites.
Treated JBL Oodinol according to the instructions.
When parasitic and fungal diseases help salt baths with potassium permanganate. From ichthyophthiriosis not get rid of.
Occurs with a sharp cooling of water. Symptoms: lack of appetite, inactive, floating near the surface.
Restore the recommended thermal conditions.
Oxygen poisoning – excess oxygen content. It arises due to the replacement of unstable water, excessive air ventilation of the vegetable aquarium.
Symptoms: restless behavior, darkening of the gills.
Chlorine poisoning occurs when replacing unsteady chlorinated water. Symptoms: rotation around the longitudinal axis, attempts to jump out.
Treatment: put the diseased in the separated water, conduct intensive air ventilation of the vessel.
Ammonia poisoning. Causes: organic contamination of the bottom or filter.
Symptoms: active inappropriate behavior, convulsions. Lying on the ground with open mouth and gills. Treatment: transfer to a tank with separated water, to another aquarium.
Replace water, remove contamination.
Aquarists appreciate the black molly for the exterior, livable. The ability to produce offspring in the general aquarium.
Does not need separate food.
Unhappy eating plants. Not satisfied with the appearance: gloomy.
Cases of unexpected aggression have been recorded.
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Black Molly is attractive to aquarists. Fish with an unusual exterior.
Omnivorous, active, changes sex. Compatible with any fish.
Exceptions are rare. Demanding on the vessel’s clearance, cleanliness and water parameters.