maintenance, care, compatibility
Apteronotus, or knife fish – elegant aquarium fish, whose body length is 12-20 cm. The body is elongated, the ventral fin is long and well developed, for which the fish got its name.
The color of the body is black; there are several white stripes on the base of the tail. Apteronotuses are characterized by a peaceful nature, however, it is better to keep them alone.
Fish are nocturnal, smaller neighbors perceive for food. It is also not recommended to keep them in a pair (especially in a close aquarium), to their relatives show aggression.
See what a knifefish looks like.
Astronotus “Black Star” – different pronounced intelligence and interesting behavior. Aquarium fish astronotus – the favorites of many aquarists.
Over time, recognize their owner, playful, can take food from the hands. The color of the body is dark, on the scales are visible stains of orange or red hue.
As representatives of the Cichlids family, they prefer to live in a pair, in a spacious tank among the rocky scenery. Descendants can produce green, white or red pigments.
It is recommended to be kept in a species aquarium, as small fish are perceived as food.
The black or black shark of the Labeo is a rather large aquarium fish up to 60 cm long. The dorsal fin is high, triangular in shape, with velvety black scales. The color of young individuals is silver-black.
Aquarium fishes of this species grow quickly, therefore with age they need spacious conditions of maintenance. The Black Labo is distinguished by its territorial character; it cannot be maintained with representatives of its own species. The best neighbors are cichlids, plexostomus, gourami, ball sharks.
Laboos are active during the daytime, swimming in the middle layers of water.
Mollies content feeding compatibility spawning care description
Mollies, like other viviparous fishes, are very hardy, not complicated in maintenance, unpretentious to the stern. Mollinesia has a dense short body with a strong fin and a bright belly. Females are much larger than males: the body size of males is ten centimeters, females – sixteen centimeters. Yellow-gray color – is the main body tone of individuals, with scattered on it spots of green, blue, black and yellow colors.
The sex of individuals is established in the form of a fin – in females it is rounded, in males it is rolled up into a tube, forming genopodia, which is their common organ. Life expectancy of Mollies is five years.
Black Molly requires a volume of water from 60 for normal development and vital activity, and ideally from 100 liters.
Here are the most popular types of mollies: black mollies (lira-molly), Velifer mollies, sailing mollies, sailing mollies. Silver mollies (also called snowflake mollies) is a selection form of sailing mollies.
Keep them better in groups or in pairs.
This fish lives mainly in the upper and middle layer of water, loves the water space and light.
The light day of mollies should be at least 12-13 hours. It is useful for fish, if at least a couple of hours a day lighting is natural, but if there is no possibility, then you can do without it.
Of course, she also needs natural shelters: thickets of plants, snags, decorative ornaments that can serve as a refuge.
Mollies feed on all types of dry and live food.
The only condition that helps to maintain the activity and health of these fish is that they definitely need plant fiber.
Therefore, along with others, use vegetarian feed, plant in the aquarium plants with soft leaves, which the fish can eat. You can also feed them in small portions of chopped boiled vegetables.
Another important point in the content of mollies: at home, they live where the river water mixes with the sea water, and therefore they like hard water. If you only have mollies and placilia in your indoor pond, you can even add some salt to the water on purpose.
If other fish also live with them, then of course you should not do this. But in the case of illness or quarantine, the fish can be deposited in an aquarium with salted water – so it will come back to normal faster.
The name “molliesia” originated from the genus name – Mollienesia. The natural range of these fish is fresh and slightly saline waters of Central America.
Wide mop mollies live mainly in reservoirs with standing waters or small currents in southeastern North America. The natural color of these fish is very colorful, mostly dominated by yellow-gray and spotted species.
For the first time these fish appeared in Europe more than 150 years ago, it was the spotted mollies that became the favorites of aquarists. Then, the popularity of the hybrid form, which acquired the name black mollies, gained popularity.
Black mollies were obtained as a result of breeding in the United States, and in the early forties of the last century they were bred in the territory of the Soviet Union.
In the sixties, it became fashionable to keep other mollies – the lira mollies. Which, in turn, were also bred by selection, as well as fish with a short disk-like body.
At first glance, domesticated mollies resemble swordtails. But mollies have wider tail fins and more dorsal fins.
The females of these fish are slightly larger than the males. With good care and favorable conditions, females grow up to 8 cm, and males up to 6 cm.
Wild representatives of this species and a half times more. In addition, the fish living in the wild have a somewhat oblong and more rounded body, they are somewhat reminiscent of the placium.
Even an inexperienced eye can distinguish females and males; the males have a long process at the anal fin – gonopodiums.
Mollies are viviparous fishes, they are loved for a magnificent and bright color. For example, in sailing fish of this species of extraordinary beauty, a gray body with an olive sheen, on which, like a brush, transverse stripes and nacre specks form dark points.
Aquarium species of mollies are the result of the cultivation of North American species, or their selection. Despite a number of differences, all the fish have common qualities.
- Females of all types of mollies are an order of magnitude larger than males: for example, Velifer’s mollies reach 18 cm in length, female Latipeny 12 cm, sphenops 8 cm. Sexual dimorphism is expressed: except for the difference in body size, the anal fin of a male cone-shaped (genopod) in females it is fan-like. All the mollies females are viviparous fishes that bear fry, bringing them to the light ready for full-fledged life activity.
- Pet shops sell different sphenops and latexes, how many of them are actually bred – only experienced ichthyologists know. Black mollies are common. Sometimes among their brood there are other forms — spotty, with light scales, or blue-green skin. New species – fork mollies, which has a “carved” tail fin, elongated in the upper and lower parts; scarf molly, in which the dorsal fin is long and elongated.
Summary of aquarium mollies
Now in each apartment you can find different animals, including aquariums with fish. There are no people who would not be enchanted by the life of the inhabitants of the aquarium.
Moreover, it is all well distracting from stress and problems. If desired, it is better to buy in the store aquarium fish of different types and shapes. The article will be talking about a fish black knife.
View photos of fish can be on the Internet.
Karl Linney was able to write about it for the first time in the 17th century. The fish lives in Amazon and, if the name is translated, it means “black ghost”.
Under natural conditions, the fish knife lives in places where there is not a strong current and a sandy bottom. When the rainy season comes, it migrates to the mangrove forest.
Very often uses various shelters that are at the bottom. That is why she has poor eyesight, since such shelters are usually poorly lit.
This aquarium fish is predatory and this should be considered when breeding.
This species of fish got its name because it has the shape of a knife. They can grow up to several tens of centimeters. They have a rather long body, and there is a thick belly line.
In the area of the tail of the black knife, you can see a special body that can produce an electric pulse. This gives her the opportunity to defend herself from various enemies and to orient herself well in muddy water.
In individuals there is no fin on the back, but there is an anal fin, which is well developed. He goes all the way to the tail. That is why such an individual usually moves in any direction.
Black knife has a velvet black color. They have white lines on their backs. If you look at them in more detail, you can find yellow stripes closer to the tail.
If we talk about females, they differ from males, as they have a smaller size. The belly has a convex appearance.
In males, you can find behind the head a small fatty bump. You need to know that this aquarium fish is calm, although carnivorous. If you decide to start such a fish, you need to know that there should not be small representatives in the tank.
Pay special attention to guppies and neons. If this is not followed, then small aquarium fish will become food for a black knife.
You should not plant barbs with this individual, as they can bite off her fins. She has no problems with other types of fish.
- Algae “black beard” are removed by chemical preparations – boric and brown acid, antibiotics. The first two tools are very effective, but will harm fish and other broadleaf plants.
- The biological method is to run into the tank of fish that eat black algae: Labo, Siamese seaweed, Catfish antsistrus, fish of the family Karpazubye. They clean the diseased plant from the parasite, but do not completely destroy it.
Look at how Stiphodon graceful eats “Vietnamese” algae.
- Changing the parameters and conditions of water in the aquarium – after this process, harmful algae can not live. The hardness of the water should be brought to the level of 8 dGh. In order for the new water that you add during the replacement to be exactly like this, 2 ml of calcium chloride solution should be added to 1 liter of water. The pH can be adjusted to alkaline: this will help 1 gram of food soda per 5 liters of water. The conditions of the water must be changed gradually so that the living creatures will not suffer, or temporarily transfer them to another aquarium.
- Get rid of excess organic matter – food debris provides the basis for the development of a harmful environment. Keep the bottom clean, do not overfeed fish, remove excess food with a net or siphon.
- Replace water in a timely manner – 20-30% of old water should be replaced with fresh and clean water once a week. These methods will not immediately give a result, but you will notice that in 2-3 months the number of black beards has decreased.
- Coal dust will help destroy the Vietnamese algae in a matter of days. Add this powder to the water, stirring until the dust settles. In a few tricks, the beard will completely disappear. Fish should be deposited from the aquarium with coal dust.
- If the indicated methods did not produce results, do daily 10–25% of water changes. New water should be free of chlorine, ammonia, phosphates and nitrates. Determine its parameters using instruments with indicators. Nitrates and phosphates – a nutrient medium for all types of algae.