maintenance, care, compatibility
If you are going to install an aquarium in your house, but do not know who to settle in it – aquarium fish for beginners will suit you! What are these types of fish? First, most of them are characterized by small body size, secondly – they are hardy and unpretentious in content, thirdly, they are easy to breed.
And, perhaps, one of the main points is that they have a peaceable, accommodating temper, which will allow them to share several floating neighbors with them.
Guppies are unpretentious, peaceful and hardy aquarium fish. Male guppies have a large and lush tail fin, sometimes multicolored. This is a viviparous species of fish, females bring to the light fry ready for a full life.
During one spawning, 10-60 small fish can be born. The content of guppy is possible in a small aquarium.
Breeding is also simple – it is enough to settle the females and males together. Guppies eat different food – both branded and live, frozen, vegetable, flakes and pellets.
For a beginner aquarist, it is better to have guppies of a non-hybrid breed, since such pets will be very capricious and difficult to maintain.
Fish of the Petsilievye family (mollies, swordtails, patsilias) are also viviparous fishes that are very easy to maintain and care for. Breeding also does not cause trouble to the beginner aqua player, since the female, after spawning, will reproduce the fry ready for life.
All Pecilliae are distinguished by bright coloring of scales, mobility, active lifestyle, and resistance to stress. They can quickly hide from a more annoying neighbor in the aquarium, and sometimes this and save their lives.
Watch the life of the Sword in the aquarium.
They eat all kinds of live, frozen and artificial feed. They prefer warm water with a neutral environment, they tolerate changes in water parameters, although this is undesirable.
For future owners of Sword bearers, caution is that males may fight for territory, or for females, so they are not suitable for a small tank.
Experts advise to populate the aquarium for beginners with fish that are not demanding to care. These include viviparous swordtails, mollies, patzili, guppies.
Inhabit small aquariums and fishes. These are Sumatran barbs, danio fish, larger scalar fish and parrots.
Bright neon chicks will look beautiful in an aquarium.
You can buy fish-sucker antsitrus. This indispensable aquarium cleaner will eat green algal growths and food remains from the plants and the walls of the tank and, thus, take care of the cleanliness of your aquarium.
It will help keep the aquarium clean and a fish like catfish corridor that lives on the bottom of the tank and loosens the ground, looking for food there for itself.
Do not overdo it, choosing the fish for your aquarium. A beginner aquarist should remember that in no case can one overpopulate an aquarium. This will immediately affect the health of your fish.
Therefore, you should not buy a lot of fish at once, and when buying each type of fish, be sure to ask the seller how large this or that individual can grow.
Calculating how many fish can fit in your aquarium, remember that for one fish with a length of about 7 cm you need from 3 to 5 liters of aquarium volume.
It is better not to buy expensive and rare fish at first, because of inexperience you can overfeed them, which is very dangerous for their lives. And first of all he can die of overfeeding the valuable fish.
It should not be settled in one aquarium fish, very different in their behavior. In addition, it is necessary to settle the entire volume of the aquarium evenly.
This means that you need to purchase an equal number of fish living in the bottom, middle and upper layers of the aquarium.
At first, you should avoid acquiring fish that are difficult to maintain. These include such fish as a black paca, which grows from a small fish with beautiful coloring up to 40 cm in length and weighs up to 4 kg. A beautiful and bright two-colored labo is a territorial fish that does not tolerate the neighborhood of another fish of a similar color.
We need a huge aquarium and for the predatory black-orange astronotus fish, which eats everything that goes into her mouth. Very aggressive and beautiful African cichlids, which are also not suitable for a novice aquarist.
Many undemanding fish can easily breed in aquarium conditions. The only exception is haracin, which breeding is only possible for experienced aquarists.
For beginners in breeding recommended all types of viviparous toothed fish. And speckled catfish, antsistrusy can easily spawn in the general aquarium. Also easy to breed danios and barbs.
Labyrinths build foam nests, and cichlids bear offspring in the mouth.
However, in order to be sure of the safety and comfort of spawning fish, it is better to provide them with a separate aquarium and find out if they have a predisposition for cannibalism in order to avoid the death of their fry.
Aquarium pets, which are easy to maintain, pose no problem for responsible beginners in the water world. But the lazy owners of the aquarium will have to comply with the conditions necessary for the normal functioning of the fish, such as clean water and timely feeding, as this will depend on their lifespan.
Otherwise, even the most unpretentious fish will not be able to stretch for a long time.
For novice aquarists, it is recommended to purchase fish of 5–9 cm in size for a starting aquarium of 40–60 liters. It is necessary to carefully study the characteristics of acquired fish, the optimal parameters of water and the rules of their nutrition.
Depending on the size, the number of fish and their characteristic behavior, a suitable aquarium with a decor is chosen.
For fish who like to dig the soil, it is not recommended to lay sand as a substrate, as they will burrow and dig in it, and muddy the water. For lovers of gnawing plants, it is best to install artificial branches or plant live plants in a pot.
Many small individuals like to hide in all sorts of shelters or thickets of dense plants.
One should take into account the peculiarities of the labyrinth and some other fish that need atmospheric air. It is necessary to leave a few centimeters between the surface of the water and the lid of the aquarium so that the fish can freely swim and breathe in the air.
The most unpretentious fish in an aquarium are viviparous, which originate mainly from the family of the petilium carpsaids. These fish breed independently in the general aquarium, and their fry are able to obtain their own food.
The most popular such viviparous unpretentious fish, like guppies, petilles, mollies, swordtails.
Almost all pezilliums have a mild disposition and get along with many kinds of small fish. For these representatives of viviparous, it is important to have a large number of shelters and thickets of plants in the aquarium, and they are not particularly sensitive to water parameters.
It is necessary to add only once a week 5 parts of water instead of evaporated liquid.
But what are the most common fish, unpretentious in the care and useful in the aquarium? Aquarium catfish are the best helpers in cleaning and cleaning from deposits and dirt in the aquarium. As food they use the remnants of not eaten feed lying on the bottom and algae.
Like labyrinth, aquarium catfish are able to breathe atmospheric air and do not require the presence of a compressor in the aquarium. It is advisable to replace the water once a week 30% of the total.
Among all the species should be distinguished antsistrusov that are compatible with any fish and perfectly clean the aquarium, sticking to the walls of the tank. For all beginners it is recommended to purchase a pair of antsistrus, they will help the owner with cleaning the aquarium, reaching the most inaccessible places.
The most attractive among all catfish are corridors, the most peaceful are speckled catfish, and in large capacity, Taracatums will take root well.
These wide-spread fish wonderfully enjoy the love of aquarists besides their beauty. The most unpretentious goldfish is a voiletail and fantail.
These pets can go without food for 2-3 days, they are undemanding to the content and food.
Basic rules for the selection and arrangement of aquarium for beginners
Where to begin? Of course, it is important to determine the aquarium. And here you cannot just say: “I want this one”.
The choice must be conscious. Often the rule about the connection of the aquarium and fish for beginners becomes fundamental. And this rule consists in the following: one centimeter of fish length should account for one liter of water.
At first glance it seems that the rule is quite simple. But an experienced aquarist knows that this rule is not bad for calculating the optimal size of the aquarium, but without reservation it cannot be applied.
What are these reservations?
First, the length of an aquarium fish is an indicator by which it is impossible to assess and determine the effect of a fish on a closed aquarium system. For example, some have a round body and, consequently, a greater mass, while having the same length as others, smaller in mass.
So it turns out that a home aquarium can comply with the stated principle, but in fact be overpopulated.
Secondly, the rule does not take into account such a characteristic as the surface area of the water in the aquarium. But it is the square that is the real deterrent. Aquarium residents need oxygen, they emit carbon dioxide while breathing.
The amount of oxygen dissolved in water largely determines how many fish can live in it, fully developing. Oxygen comes from the air, carbon dioxide, on the contrary, goes into the air.
From this we can conclude: the larger the surface area of the aquarium, the more intense the replacement of carbon dioxide with oxygen.
Thus, to choose the size of the aquarium, you need to pay attention not only to the length of the body of the fish, but also their weight, the surface area of the aquarium. The following rule is taken into account: one centimeter of the body of a fish, not taking into account the tail, must have at least 12 square centimeters of area.
Back to content
Once we have indicated that the most important thing to start with is an aquarium, then we will determine its shape in order to make the choice easier. What are the forms? So:
- usual sizes – used for various small fishes;
- elongated in height – designed to observe the inhabitants of the aquarium. They have a large height, which provides a fairly large area of the front glass. At the same time, such aquariums have a small width.
- elongated – perfect for small schooling fish.
In turn, elongated aquariums or elongated in length can be, for example, hexagonal or even octagonal. If you are going to choose an aquarium of a specific shape, you need to remember that a hexagonal aquarium has a smaller surface area than a regular one.
In general, you should not stop the choice on too wide or narrow aquariums. This ratio does not fit any fish for a comfortable stay.
The choice between beauty and convenience for fish, of course, is yours.
Back to content
Plants and fish need a very special beam spectrum. Special lamps provide better plant growth and fish development. Beginners are recommended to choose lamps Sylvania Gro-lux and Sylvania Aquastar.
The lighting in the aquarium should meet the criterion of intensity: not less than 0.6W per 1 liter of water. Thus, a 100-liter aquarium needs 60W.
This is at least. If the intensity increases to 0.9-1W, it will be not good, but excellent.
Another component that is needed to provide proper care. There is no error here; not only oxygen is important, but also a certain amount of carbon dioxide. It is needed for plant growth in the daytime.
Particularly, the role of carbon dioxide saturation systems increases in those aquariums where few fish live. However, novice aquarists do not need to install this system, and if installed, after the biological balance is formed in the aquarium, the plants will start to grow gradually.
So, you figure it out with the aquarium. What is missing?
Of course, the fish. Objectively speaking, it seems to many beginners that everything is as simple as possible with regard to the fish: I chose the ones I liked, and that’s all. However, in reality everything is different.
The fact is that fish have an impact on many factors: on the amount of money spent, on decorating, on the arrangement of the habitat, and so on. In addition, the choice of fish today is so great that it is simply difficult to determine the cutest ones.
Tips for beginners about the fish are as follows: strive to acquire representatives of the same group living in the same habitat. This will greatly facilitate care, and at first, this approach will only benefit.
Who can I choose? Beautiful and quite unpretentious are cichlids – perch-shaped fish.
They can also share the somobraznyh that will facilitate your maintenance of the aquarium. The fact is that representatives of catfish clean glasses and stones, pick at the ground, eat up the remnants.
And while they are absolutely harmless, and care for him is quite simple.
In short, do not rush to stop the choice on the rarest species of fish. It is better to start with simple varieties.
Back to content
Caring for an aquarium is like cleaning the house, the same simple rules for staying healthy and clean and regular. In this article you will learn how to properly care for a home aquarium, what important things there are and how often to do it.
Why do you need to siphon the ground? What cleaners can I use? How to wash the sponge filter?
Why and how to change the water in the aquarium? You will find answers to these and other questions.
None It is very important to wash the filter with water alone. And it is also important that the water was from the aquarium.
Tap water contains chlorine, which kills harmful bacteria in the water. But he does not know how to understand and also kills the beneficial bacteria living in the internal filter.
Separated water can be used. But here again, another water with a different hardness, acidity and temperature, and it can affect the colony of bacteria.
So the best method is to draw water from the aquarium and rinse the filter and its contents in that water.
Ideally, even the container in which it is washed should be used only for the needs of the aquarium, if you wash floors from it, then the chance that the chemistry will remain in the container is quite substantial.
And it is important not to wash everything to shine, just rinse well.
Despite the fact that some aquarists do not substitute water for years and say that they have everything ok, regular water changes are vital for an aquarium.
The amount of water that is worth changing varies from the conditions in your tank, but on average 10-20% per week is a normal amount for any tropical aquarium. Herbal plants or densely planted aquariums need a 10-15% change every two weeks.
The main task of the substitution is the removal of nitrates and ammonia, and the recovery of mineral balance. Without a water change, your aquarium will look good for a while, but only due to the fact that negative factors gradually accumulate.
For a long time, nitrates will accumulate, and the water becomes more and more acidic. But once the balance is broken and the aquarium will turn into a swamp.