maintenance, care, compatibility
Molliesia is a viviparous fish, which does not bring much trouble and pleases both novice aquarists and experienced ones. This fish is from the coastal waters of small fresh and brackish waters of Central America.
Aquarium mollies are represented by many species that have different colors and appearance, although they all belong to the same order. Males and females of various species can be kept and bred in the same aquarium.
Prefer upper and middle layers of water. During daylight, they float throughout the area independently and in flocks, in the dark – they group together into one flock and keep the upper layer of the water column.
Summary of aquarium mollies
In the presence of comfortable conditions, mollies bring posterity within a month after settling. During reproduction, the male uses gonopodia, in which there is a chute for transferring seminal fluid to the female, and a hook, which allows it to keep better during fertilization, increasing the chances of pregnancy. Only one of 10 copulations ends in success.
Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 8-12 months for males and 5-6 months for females.
Successfully fertilized, the female bearing the fry is distinguished by a dark spot in the lower abdomen, near the anal fin, and a large belly. The duration of pregnancy in mollies is about four weeks, after which the female produces up to 100 fry, with age and growth large mollies can give birth to 250 fry.
There is no need to create special spawning grounds for black mollies, since they do not pursue their offspring.
After giving birth, the female remains slightly fat, because at one time she does not give birth to all of her fry, but continues to carry fertilized eggs. Due to this, the female can produce offspring for 6 months without male participation.
The most successful breeding takes place in an aquarium with various types of mollies. Fry are born quite large. For their rapid growth you need to use vegetable and live food of the appropriate size, you can feed dry food, pounded or crushed into dust.
To get the dust enough to put a certain amount of feed in a mortar and carefully crush. Special fry food available at pet stores.
Feed you need often and abundantly.
In the recent past, guppies were considered the most suitable fish for beginners, but now everything has changed. Many species of viviparous fish began to be bred in large quantities in South Asia.
Depending on the markets, they are grown according to certain standards, using hormones and antibiotics, because of which the price of fish and its endurance directly depend. Poor survivability is compensated by a low price.
It is best to buy mollies from European breeders or adult producers from personal acquaintances. Wild types of mollies are practically not common in pet stores, they are difficult to obtain, but it is not difficult to care for them.
On the video you can clearly see how the birth of mollies goes:
Molliesia (lat. Mollienesia): black, snowflake, veifera, sphenops, latypin – which of these types you name, they are all popular and common in an aquarium and belong to the same species, although they sometimes look very different.
And all due to the fact that they have a lot of advantages – they are peaceful, very hardy and unpretentious, inexpensive, and simply multiply. These are purely American fish, as they live in North and South America.
Wild species can be divided into two groups – with short fins, such as black molly and with long fins, for example, Velifer molyneziya or marble.
Most species appeared in aquariums in 1899, and various hybrids since 1920. Now you can find black aquarium mollies, snowflakes (completely white or yellow), silver, stained.
And the number of diverse species continues to grow and gain popularity.
For novice aquarists, the best choice is the usual black aquarium mollies, as it is less demanding, easier to breed and requires smaller aquariums. For the maintenance of all types you need a well-overgrown aquarium, quite spacious.
It is important that in their diet was a lot of plant substances and algae.
How to feed mollies? Omnivorous fish that eat all kinds of live, frozen or artificial food. But, they need a very large amount of feed with fiber, such as algae or vegetables.
The fact is that in nature, mollies fish have a lot of algae and various fouling in the diet, their lips and behavior speak about it. You can often see how they scrape off fouling from glass and decor in an aquarium.
From vegetable feed, the easiest way is to give molly flakes with spriulina, or pieces of slightly boiled cucumbers, zucchini, lettuce leaves. Of the animals – bloodworm, pipe worker, Artemia.
In general, there are no problems with feeding mollies, the main thing to remember is that vegetable food is very important for them.
All types are similar in form. They represent the usual rounded bodies and tail fins of the lyroform. Breeders received a slightly modified form – slightly impacted.
Such fish are called disc. These fish have disrupted natural proportions, which make them seem unattractive to many.
But lovers of exotic fish happy to replenish their collections with black mollies.
In the photo you can track how changing color ryki. Black mollies can be dirty yellow or spotty. It depends on the habitat and the content of the fish.
In the European part of this fish appeared relatively recently, about 150 years ago. In the forties, the black coloring of this fish was considered the most popular, so a real hunt began behind the dark fish.
In the USSR, black mollies began to spread only from the 60s.
Black mollies not rarely compared with the usual swordsmen. Indeed, the resemblance of fish is surprising, but mollies have wide tail fins and more voluminous dorsal fins.
In the wild, they can be confused with the specials.
Look at the photos of these beautiful viviparous fishes and see why they deserve an honorable place in most aquariums. Special attention is attracted by the wide-fledged body, which has an olive-gray color with small darkening spots.
Males have five thin transverse stripes on which pearl specks can be seen. With proper care and maintenance, the male aquarium fish can reach 6-7 centimeters, and the female – 8. In nature, their size varies from 10 to 15 centimeters. The beauty of this fish is easily distinguished sexual characteristics.
The male has a special organ – gonopodia. If you look closely at the photo, it is not difficult to notice.
One of the most beautiful mollies is recognized by Velifers. Due to the high large upper fin it is called sailing.
Thanks to the efforts of breeders today you can find red, brown-golden, black and even marble colors.
Despite its small size, black mollies are demanding of conditions. With proper care, individuals can live in an artificial reservoir for up to 8 years.
Molliesia is not suitable for newcomers. Only experienced aquarists can afford it, as it is difficult to maintain proper water levels.
- Spacious aquarium;
- Salted water;
- Temperature from 24 to 26 degrees;
- The absence of drafts and a sharp drop in the thermometer;
- Abundance of plant foods;
- Bright cleansing;
- Active filtration and aeration of water;
- Periodic water change.
You need to change the water at least once a week. It is preferable to pour no more than 1/3 of water. These fish are peaceful enough and do not touch the neighbors of similar sizes.
It is important to provide shelter for them, various snags, thickets and stones – to cope with this task. If the neighborhood is too close, then the males begin to fight for the territory. It is optimal to have 25 liters of water for one fish.
Mollies prefers the middle layer of aqua. If you plan to breed offspring, then one male is enough for several females.
The content of mollies means feeding with plant food. Fish will not refuse from lettuce and oatmeal. Thanks to such feeding, the fish grows faster and looks much more beautiful, it can be seen in the photo.
If you only brought home fry, then you need to feed them in large portions as often as possible. When the fry begin to grow, the diet is reduced to 1 time per day.
- The fish are examined and the anal fin is found. You should look at the belly of the individual and find the anus. It is located near the tail unpaired fin. If the individual is feminine, then it has a triangular fin, if masculine, then the shape of the fin resembles a tubule. With this fin, the individual produces internal fertilization, as the viviparous fish. This sign is used to determine the sex of any viviparous fish.
- There are individuals of mollies, which are distinguished by size. The size of the male is smaller than the female. The activity of males is higher. She talks about the ability of individuals to produce healthy offspring. Sailing mollies look different than usual.
- The adult male Mollienesia velifera has a huge dorsal fin in the form of a sail, so this fish is called Sailing: photo
The female has an ordinary, not large dorsal fin.
Going to the store or the market for fish, you need to be able to distinguish a girl from a boy, because the seller’s task is to sell his goods quickly and he may not understand such matters. You can get a beautiful fish in the aquarium, only it should have the ability to breed.
Of course, who would not want to get luxurious mollies with paired fins in the form of large brushes. Only in this case it is difficult to distinguish the male individual from the female individual, because the pair fin will also end in a large brush.
The same with the anal fin. This occurs because this fish was created from two species of individuals and is called guppinesia.
Having stumbled into a similar fish in a store, it is worth knowing that it is sterile and not suitable for breeding.
Tropical beauty lovers of aquarium fish noticed in the last century. She lives in the waters of the United States and belongs to the family “petsilievye”.
Now mollies is considered the most popular viviparous fish that can live and breed in an aquarium.
These fish have a fairly bright appearance. They are green, black, silver, yellow. Food for mollies use the usual.
Special delicacies they do not apply.
The length of this fish is 3-18 cm. The large individual has a very beautiful and graceful look.
It is difficult to break away from mollies floating in an aquarium. The life span of a beautiful fish is about four years if it is provided with proper care, and comfortable living conditions are created.
Water for mollies must contain oxygen, so you should use a compressor. In addition, the maintenance of cleanliness is required.
This can be achieved with a daily change of a quarter of the water in the aquarium. Late care will lead to a deterioration of the health of the fish.
She will have toxemia, become inhibited movement. Her fins will snuggle, she will stand in one place.
When aquarium inhabitants begin to descend, it indicates that the water has already become polluted.
General cleaning should be carried out at mollies at least once every two months. To do this, use distilled water with an acidity of eight and a half units.
When cleaning the aquarium, add salt with the calculation of three grams per liter. It is used to mimic the natural environment in which mollies live.
In addition, it is an excellent natural antiseptic. Fishes living in such an environment rarely get sick and feel comfortable.
Molliesia (lat. Mollienesia, Poecilia) – the name of the fish of the genus Pecillia. There is a popular aquarium fish with black scales – mollies black.
Other names of this fish: mollies lyre, sphenops mollies, black molly.
The black low-claw molly is a breeding species, which appeared as a result of the rigorous selection of Poecilia sphenops fish from several generations. In 1926, mottled mollies were made by sphenops, and in 1936 – black velvet.
However, scientists have long argued, who is the true ancestor of black mollies – sphenops or latipin? Even in the USSR, this fish did not have a common name.
Reproduction occurs in a vivifying manner: fry are born ready to live. Keeping a fish and caring for it does not require special preparation for a responsible aquarist, so it quickly spread to domestic nurseries. It has a peaceful nature, high endurance, undemanding content.
In pet stores is cheap, reproduction is easy – fry live independently.
All members of the genus Poecilia are endemics of North and South America. They live in the confluence of rivers in the ocean, that is, in salted water.
Many species appeared in nurseries at the end of the 19th century, and in the 20s of the 20th century, the first hybrids were bred. Among them are black aquarium mollies, snowflakes, silver and spotted molly.
The number of such forms is growing rapidly due to the emergence of new colors.
This aquarium fish is an excellent choice for an amateur; its maintenance is possible in a small tank with water. They love to swim among dense thickets, and eat plant food.
For novice aquarists, the best choice is the black mollies sphenops, as it is less demanding, easy to breed, and adapts to smaller aquariums. For the maintenance of this species you need a well-overgrown aquarium, spacious.
It is important that dietary fiber and algae are present in the diet.
Black splenops mollies are small fishes that eat almost all the food that the host will give. Prefer dry, frozen and artificial food. They require high-quality, high-fiber plant food.
In Mexican waters a lot of vegetation, which they used to nibble their lips. Mollies scrub growths appearing on the glass and tank décor.
Care for molly requires regular feeding. Give the fish vegetable food with spirulina, or sliced cucumbers, zucchini, lettuce.
Add to the diet animal feed: brine shredder, pipeker, bloodworm. It is not difficult to feed sphenops, only do not forget about the fiber necessary for them.
Aquarium is definitely an excellent decoration for any interior. He will bring a new stream into his usual way of life, he will paint it with bright colors or calm his soul. Aquarium fish: mollies, guppies, catfish and so on are quite unpretentious pets.
They will not spoil a favorite sofa, will not wake up at night. However, the fish will quickly learn to recognize the one who brings them food, will swim closer and have fun playing, waiting for food.
Aquarium fish mollies is one of the most common (both among experienced connoisseurs and beginner aquarists). These are specimens with body length from 4 to 16 cm, elongated; females of this species are larger than males. Thanks to the long-term selection, copies of various colors (mottled and so on), as well as various forms, for example, veils, are bred.
For a long time, the most common type was Black Molly. In nature, these fish are found from Texas to Venezuela and Colombia.
Moreover, they inhabit not only freshwater bodies, but also slightly brackish and even sea coasts. The fish is viviparous, although among the representatives of this family is considered, perhaps, the most capricious.
Like other viviparous aquarium fish, mollies in appearance makes it possible to determine sex. To do this, just look at the anal fin.
If it is rounded, then this specimen is a female, and if of acute form, it is a male.
Conditions of detention
In order for this aquarium fish to feel good, it is necessary to fulfill quite stringent requirements. First of all, she does not like cramping, so the aquarium should have at least 6 liters of water per pair of this species. Filtration must be ensured, since mollies do not like dirty water (and even turbidity), and sufficient aeration is necessary.
In order for these hardworking fish to move freely, there must be enough free space in the aquarium. However, like other aquarium fish, mollies will also require the presence of plants, drifts and other shelters. The temperature that they need for normal life is 25-30 degrees.
Sharp fluctuations in the temperature of water mollies transfer very badly. It is also advised for the comfort of these fish to add a small amount of salt to the aquarium water (about 2–3 g per liter of water).
Mollies prefer to swim in the upper and middle layers of water. It is also necessary to replace a small amount of water (not more than a third) every week.
These fish are omnivores. They need plant food (in dry form and in the form of algae). They will also require live feed or complex specialized feed.
It is necessary to create conditions under which the feed will not immediately sink to the bottom (so that mollies could catch it).
With sufficient care and caring attention, like other aquarium fish, mollies can deliver many pleasant moments to its owner. Good luck and have a good rest for contemplating the beauty of the aquarium!