maintenance, care, compatibility
Angelfish (Latin “fish-angel”) attracts with its grace and unusual shape. These pets are loved by many aquarists for their unique graceful appearance, original coloring, meek, peaceful temper.
They are considered the most popular aquarium fish in the cichle family. What kinds of these inhabitants of domestic water bodies are best known, what are the conditions of their maintenance, with whom these representatives of cichlids feel comfortable in the neighborhood, let us consider further.
These representatives of the underwater fauna come from South America, where their favorite habitats are leisurely flowing or even standing waters of local water bodies, densely overgrown with reeds.
The flat, as if flattened laterally, scalar body shape allows it to easily move between vertically growing stems of aquatic flora. Here they are comfortable: you can easily hide from predatory brethren, spawn caviar in silence.
Usually they live in small flocks of 20 or more individuals.
The unusual shape of a scalar for fish, resembling a crescent, was formed by stretching the dorsal and anal fins, while the fins on the abdomen were transformed into threads that felt and recognized surrounding objects.
The natural habitat has formed the color of an angelfish: the light-silvery background of the body of the fish is crossed by vertical stripes of a dark color, constantly changing saturation depending on the degree of illumination. These transverse strips are nothing more than the protective coloring of the fish, making them invisible in the reed.
Only the eyes are sharply accented with bright red spots.
This aquarium pets peculiar to:
- graceful manner of movement;
- ability to coexist with non-aggressive species of fish;
- reverent care for their offspring.
It is impossible to say that the angelfish fully corresponds to its translated name of the angelfish: it, like many cichlids, is run by the predator instincts.
Attempting to share this fish with some other aquarium dwellers does not always end successfully. Simply put, for example, every detail scalar easily eaten, and for adult members of other breeds there are some limitations.
Large breeds of aggressor fish themselves will attack the scalar. You can try to hook up to them fish that can quickly hide, for which our representatives of the Tsikhlovyhs will be dangerous only at night.
Based on the foregoing, these angel pets are compatible with:
- danios who need to be able to dodge and quickly hide;
- specialty partners;
- Labo and tetra, if you grow them together.
In short, everything in relation to the compatibility of different breeds of fish is relative. Scalaria of the cichl breed. A priori, this means that it is a predator for which every small fish is food.
And any larger fish with the same predatory inclinations will not miss the opportunity to pat the delicate antennae of scalar. Probably, it makes sense, buying this cichlid, to negotiate with the seller about the possibility of its return to the pet store in case of such incompatibility.
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.
High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body.
Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options. But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views.
Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and reach a length of 15 cm.
Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters.
How many live scalaries? They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.
Probably most of the currently sold ordinary angelfish belong to this species. Traditionally considered the most unpretentious and easy to breed.
Wild Angelfish caught in nature
It is rarely found, very similar to an ordinary scalar, but its dark spots are somewhat lighter, and there are a couple of black stripes on the body, and one on the dorsal fin, but not moving onto the body.
Or the Orinoco scalar, it is the largest fish of all three species, it can be one and a half times larger than the usual scalar and grow up to 40 cm in size. There is also a sharp transition between the forehead and the mouth, forming a depression. There are red dots on the fins.
For many years, this species could not be diluted in captivity, but in recent years it has been possible to get fry from the scalar altum, and it went on sale along with individuals caught in nature.
Scalaria Altum or Orinoco
Altum in nature and in the aquarium, though the video is in English, but it’s worth a look:
Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more.
Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.
The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters.
The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients. And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple.
Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig. It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite.
In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.
The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it. It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current.
Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but you need to remember that it is still a cichlid, and it can be somewhat aggressive to small fish. The same goes for fry and shrimp, they are gorgeous and insatiable hunters, in my aquarium there are countless hordes of neocardin shrimps, they knocked out clean.
They keep together while young, but adult fish are divided into pairs and become territorial. They are a little shy, they can be afraid of sudden movements, sounds and turning on the light.
Who can you keep a cichlid with? With a large and medium-sized fish, it is desirable to avoid very small, such as cardinals and micro-selection of the galaxy, although they wonderfully live with neons with me. Definitely need to avoid barbs and preferably any, except cherry.
In my practice, a flock of Sumaran barbs didn’t touch the angel at all, and a flock of fire barbs almost destroyed their fins in 24 hours. Although you think that should be the opposite.
Also fins can gnaw on ternation, tetragonopterus, black barb, schubert barb and denison.
You can keep with viviparous: swordtails, petilia, mollies, even with guppies, but note that in this case you should not count on the fry. Also marble gourami, pearl gourami, moonlight, congo, erythrosalonus and many other fish.
Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review
SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect.
In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.
Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
Ph acidity: 6-7.5.
Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors – discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium.
See the article – compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia.
The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.
The scalar has a peculiarity – they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat – there is nothing wrong with that.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc.
Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, scalars live in northern South America
The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent.
Natural – the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived – with even longer fins.
Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish
The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as “pteron” – a feather and “phyllon” leaf, and together a “winged leaf”.
Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier.
He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name “Blattfische”, translated as leaf fish.
This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.
Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called “Angelfishes” or simply “Angel”, in Germany “Segelflosser”, which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they “dovozili”, but alas, the dead.
Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the “aquarium-scalar boom” begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg – I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn.
It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy – the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear.
Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov – in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater.
The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always – at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred.
In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.
Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar
Scalar is a common name for several members of the cichlid family living in the wild in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers. They have a similar compressed torso structure on both sides.
In the wild, these fish hunt small animals – shrimp, whitebait, various larvae. Accordingly, they belong to predators, so they should have neighbors who will not allow themselves to be offended easily.
Consider who the scalar live with, using the example of a neighborhood with the most common types of aquarium fish:
- Cichlids and Angelfish Compatibility. These fish belong to the same species of living creatures. But the scalars themselves are not as mobile as most of their relatives, so wars often arise between them. African cichlids (princesses of Burundi and others) can pick them up and drive them away from the feeder. Some aquarist lovers suggest examples when their wards have been quietly behaving towards their neighbors for years. But as soon as they repeated this experiment with other fish, cruel fights immediately began between scalars and “Africans”. It all depends on the temperament of the neighbors.
- Barbus and Angelfish – compatibility. In many tables it is written that these fish should definitely make friends. But you need to be attentive, and watch the first time for their wards. The usual games of “catch-up” and the demonstration of one’s superiority do not lead to serious consequences. But when the barbs begin to strongly pinch the angelfish, it is better not to pull and immediately take action.
- Gourami and scalar compatibility. Most fans are confident that these fish can be safely settled together without fear of unpleasant consequences. Most often, they try not to notice the neighbors. But in a small aquarium, disputes and small skirmishes are possible.
- Angelfish and Neons Compatibility. Let’s say right away what happens in different ways. Some breeders are lucky, and they don’t touch the scalar neons. Most often this happens when they are launched into the aquarium while still fry. Nimble neons rush around their glass apartment, enlivening the interior. But do not be surprised if one day one of them is not enough. Do not forget that the scalar are predators. One day they will get bored, and they will simply drive a couple of neons into the corner to find out what their neighbors taste like.
Well, if the fish occupy different zones of the aquarium. For example, the angelfish live in its upper or middle part, but catfish prefer the space near the very bottom. They will not divide the territory among themselves.
There will also be no war if the neighbors are not much inferior to them in size. A large enough fish for them will not look like tasty game, and will fight back in time.
With whom the scalar can live, you can find out from numerous tables published on the Internet. But they should not be completely trusted, there are many examples when the fish broke the truce, mercilessly devouring their neighbors. If the aquarium is spacious, there are many shelters in it, the fish are well chosen, then your angelfish will behave quite peacefully.
Heat and satiety is the key to good behavior of your wards. To attack his neighbor, your fish are capable of only during a strong famine.
But hooligan tricks are in their blood, and therefore in a multi-species aquarium, especially if it is small, various quarrels often occur.
Angelfish care and maintenance spawning breeding description
Scalyarius fish belonging to the family of cichlids. Their homeland is South America, its central part. In reservoirs dense with plants, they acquired their form.
Its name is translated as winged sheet.
She looks like a leaf. And in Europe she was given the name Angel Fish. A flat body allows it to move easily among plants.
Aquarium angelfish grow up to 15 cm in an ordinary aquarium. If the goal of an aquarist is to grow only them, and all the necessary conditions are created for them, then their value can reach 26 cm.
How many live angelfish in an aquarium? Well, somewhere around 10 years, although there have been cases when this period was increased almost 2 times.
This allows the choice of the inhabitants of the aquarium to give her preference.
Because if the inhabitants of the aquarium do not live long, and you get used to them, then the death from old age of those who have a life span of just over 2 years very sad aquarist.
SPREAD OR BREEDING SCALARIES
if you want to get a baby angelfish, you need a ready to spawn couple. How to get it?
Consider that the scalars themselves choose their partner, so make sure that they have someone to choose from.
It is better to acquire several individuals fry and grow them. The number of individuals should be about six, and this is not a far-fetched figure.
Some fry may die in the process of growth, since the scalar is very sensitive to changes in water parameters; Another option is that the fry you grow may not grow to normal size, the reason for this is frequent intraspecific crossing.
You can choose a fry in a store or on the market as follows: keep an eye on the two biggest fry (these must be males), take them; choose the two smallest (most likely females), and take two fry at random, this time of medium size. This method of selection does not guarantee you one hundred percent success, but the chances of success are quite large.
You can say for sure that a pair has formed in you, when two fishes determine some territory for themselves and start protecting it from alien invasion.
The sexual maturities of the scalar reach ten to twelve months. If by this time both partners have reached approximately equal sizes and are large enough, you will be able to count on the pair’s spawning soon.
You may have some difficulties with determining the sex of your fish, but believe me, the fish will not have such problems, so let them choose their own partner – they will not be mistaken.
A tall aquarium of about 80-100 liters for an spawning angelfish pair is what you need. It is desirable to have plants, koryag, but we should not forget about the place in the center of the aquarium, which must be left free for swimming. Scalarium eggs can be laid on the bottom, or on a wide flat leaf of a plant.
Sometimes, not finding a convenient place for laying, the angelfish lay eggs on the filter and on the thermometer.
It is better that this does not happen, so it is possible that you yourself will put a flat stone (for example, slate) on the aquarium, on which the angelfish will lay eggs, after having cleaned it (note that these cichlids prefer to lay eggs on the top of the aquarium) . The day before the spawning of the female, the egg-deposit is visible, and the male has a narrow seed wire.
The female, when the time comes, lays its eggs on the chosen place in even rows, followed by the male, fertilizing the eggs. This action takes about an hour. Spawning takes place in several stages.
The total number of eggs ranges from 100 to 500, possibly more.
Caviar can do differently. If you have a separate aquarium specifically for the spawning angelfish pair – this is good.
Especially if it is large enough. If you plan to give parents their own care for caviar and fry, a couple and a brood of 200-250 fry should have plenty of room for swimming (and in a large aquarium, the couple will not have a sense of danger for the offspring, in a rush of which they can eat caviar and fry).
If you do not have the opportunity to deposit spawning angelfish from the common aquarium, it is better to take the delayed caviar from the pair. The potential danger posed to scalar parents by every fish in an aquarium, and even by a partner, will cause restless parents to eat offspring.
To avoid this, remove the plant or stone with caviar and place it in a special incubator, not forgetting caviar aeration, temperature inside the incubator, and general water parameters. It is recommended to add antifungal medication to the incubator so that non-fertilized eggs will not harm the fertilized ones.
The larvae hatch in about a day or two after fertilization, if the temperature is optimal. About a week from now, they feed on the shell of the egg they were in, so they do not need feeding.
Then dry, frozen food and substitutes will make up the diet of your growing fry.
MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION
Continuing to discuss the compatibility of scalar with other species of fish, you need to remember the carp. In fact, these two species of fish are incompatible with each other – neither according to the table, nor in reality – although, of course, there are pleasant exceptions.
For example, barbs (especially Sumatran) often bully up the slow-moving angelfish, pull out of their fins and bite. Fin rot and white plaque after that are not uncommon.
And if you really want to have goldfish – for example, a red hat voilehvost? How do the scalars react to this guest?
Is there a risk in breeding these two types of fish?
Scalaries get along in different ways with the Cyprinidae family. There are aquariums, where Sumatran barbs and scalars live quietly and without fights, and there are aquas, where hooligan tricks from the barbs are a daily matter.
Scalar definitely will not get along with goldfish. First, the first are too different in content requirements. Veiltails, for example, require a water temperature of 14 to 25 degrees, and a hardness of 6 to 18 degrees.
But the data for Sumatrans: temperature from 24 to 27, hardness – from 6.3 to 7.5. Angelfish all the same – more delicate and noble fish compared with gold.
Angelfish with goldfish may conflict. The initiators of fights are goldfish, in principle, a little aggressive in nature of creation.
There is more waste from goldfish than from scalar. In addition, they often eat plants from the aquarium.
Angelfish will never spoil the leaves.
So these completely different fish are completely incompatible with each other.
I would like to immediately say that about compatibility of angelfish with other types of fish, everything is very relative. The scalar belongs to the cichlid genus, which means it is a predator.
Small fish and crustaceans, she may well take for organic food, filed by the owner.
Other fish – cichlids, carp, etc. – do not mind pinching scalars for fins and tail.
In such a case, you must agree in advance with the sellers of the pet store to return if the fish are incompatible.
In conclusion, I want to say that you should always have a spare aquarium in case of seating pets.
Parrot fish, or red parrot (Red Parrot) – a representative of the Cichlow family. It is a hybrid of aquarium fish, which appeared as a result of selection of two representatives of Cichlids.
In 1991, the fish became the property of the first aquariums. Its production has increased, with time it received the name “red parrot”.
The history of creating a hybrid carefully classified, however, this applies to many fish, artificially bred. There is a version that the Red Parrot is a descendant of several South American Cichlovas, as a result of triple crossing.
Asian breeders strictly protect the right to the maintenance of this fish. The red parrot can interbreed and bring offspring, but very few people managed to see their eggs.
Aquarium parrot fish has an unusual body color. Thanks to him, she is popular among breeders and lovers. All the pet shops and aquariums in the world do not deny themselves the pleasure of settling this wonderful creature.
In Russia, a red parrot appeared in the 90s of the twentieth century.
Disputes continue to this day as far as compatibility of parrots with scalars is possible, as there have been cases of attacks on these fish and peaceful coexistence. Angelfish prefer to hide in algae, and parrots love to feel their plates, inadvertently damaging the fish.
Once having “tasted” a scalar, this creature will not stop, and will touch the rest.
There were examples when parrots got along in the redistribution of one “communal apartment”, but its volume should be at least 200 liters. During spawning of fish, parrots drive the angelfish into the far corner, holding them there.
Since the angelfish are slow, the parrots can bite off their fins. If you have no other choice but to settle them together, then build comfortable shelters for everyone.
For parrots fit fish fast, similar sizes. If you follow all the recommendations, your aquarium will turn into a friendly nursery, life in which will become a real idyll for each fish.
See also: Cichlids – rules of keeping in home aquariums