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Aquarium fish angelfish care and maintenance

maintenance, care, compatibility

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review

SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect.

In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
Ph acidity: 6-7.5.
Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors – discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium.

See the article – compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural – the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others.

In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived – with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as “pteron” – a feather and “phyllon” leaf, and together a “winged leaf”.

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier.

He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name “Blattfische”, translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B.

Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called “Angelfishes” or simply “Angel”, in Germany “Segelflosser”, which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they “dovozili”, but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar.

And only from this moment on in Europe did the “aquarium-scalar boom” begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg – I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L.

Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy – the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear.

Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov – in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater.

The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always – at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars.

In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA.

In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

The nature of the angelfish is peace-loving, some individuals may not attack small fish and their brood, but it is worth remembering that all cichlids are predators. When settling in a common aquarium, you must be careful. Representatives of their species will be good neighbors for them, or other fish: corridors, tetras, gourami, lyalius, iris, plecostomus, combat, barium, rasbor.

With large aggressive cichlids, some species of barbs, cockerels, goldfish content is unacceptable. Proper care will ensure the fish a long life – the scalar can live 10 years or more.

Care and maintenance:

  1. The fish requires good aeration and filtration of the reservoir, as it is used to clean and oxygenated water. Replacement of 20-30% of water 1 time per week is required.
  2. The reservoir does not need to be tightly closed with a lid, the scalar is not jumping fish.
  3. Maintenance and care for the scalar will be comfortable if you provide them with moderate lighting with LB lamps of 0.4-0.5 W per liter of water. The tank can be placed in a quiet, quiet place where there is no access to bright sunlight. As plants, use hard-leaved species with wide leaves (vallisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne). Soil – washed coarse sand or gravel.
  4. Scenery for the reservoir: rocky rocks, caves, grottoes, snags. They love a large space, so one pair of fish is better to settle in a minimum 100-liter aquarium.

Watch a video about the content of angelfish in the home aquarium.

Angelfish care and maintenance spawning breeding description

    These fishes liked many aquarist lovers for a long time. They contain and breed scalar fish in aquariums for a long time, so these fish managed to adapt and get used to any conditions. What allows you to call them unpretentious fish.

    Scalyarium is suitable as soft water, and water with medium hardness.

    The optimum temperature for a comfortable fish is 23-26 degrees Celsius. They can withstand the gradual cooling of water to 16 degrees. If necessary, fish can and transfer the temperature rise to 38 degrees.

    Scalarfish grow large, especially males, and therefore for their favorable maintenance you will need an aquarium that will be high and in volume from 120 liters.

    And the width of the aquarium can be any. These fish prefer fresh and clean water, so you will need to regularly change the water in the aquarium.

    Angelfish love when calm and peaceful fish in the neighborhood. Not a single fish of prey can resist its long fins, an irresistible desire to bite and pull will appear.

    Therefore, for these fish, the best neighbors will be guppies, gourami, neons. But you should follow the rules, hook the fish about the same size.

    After all, an angelfish like any other large fish will be happy to eat fry of swordtails or neons.

    These beautiful angelfish are usually kept in groups of 4-6 individuals. During the life of the fish themselves are divided into pairs. In such groups, the principle of hierarchy prevails.

    The largest pair takes the best place in the aquarium. Those fish that were left without pairs become an object that everyone else is chasing. The latest single scalar get access to feed.

    In order to avoid actively chasing groups in the aquarium, it should be planted abundantly with plants or even fish should be planted.

    Fishes love to eat bloodworms, pipemakers, gamarus. Fry love to eat daphnia.

    In the diet need to introduce granulated feed and flakes. You should take into account the fact that with such a discoid body shape, the angelfish is difficult to lift the food from the bottom, so the fish should be fed in small portions, in different parts of the aquarium.

    Sometimes fish may refuse to feed, but this is temporary and completely normal. Content angelfish will require good aeration.

    Scalyarius fish belonging to the family of cichlids. Their homeland is South America, its central part.

    In reservoirs dense with plants, they acquired their form. Its name is translated as winged sheet.

    She looks like a leaf. And in Europe she was given the name Angel Fish.

    A flat body allows it to move easily among plants. Aquarium angelfish grow up to 15 cm in an ordinary aquarium.

    If the goal of an aquarist is to grow only them, and all the necessary conditions are created for them, then their value can reach 26 cm.

    How many live angelfish in an aquarium? Well, somewhere around 10 years, although there have been cases when this period was increased almost 2 times.

    This allows the choice of the inhabitants of the aquarium to give her preference.

    Because if the inhabitants of the aquarium do not live long, and you get used to them, then the death from old age of those who have a life span of just over 2 years very sad aquarist.

    SPREAD OR BREEDING SCALARIES

    if you want to get a baby angelfish, you need a ready to spawn couple. How to get it?

    Consider that the scalars themselves choose their partner, so make sure that they have someone to choose from.

    It is better to acquire several individuals fry and grow them. The number of individuals should be about six, and this is not a far-fetched figure.

    Some fry may die in the process of growth, since the scalar is very sensitive to changes in water parameters; Another option is that the fry you grow may not grow to normal size, the reason for this is frequent intraspecific crossing.

    You can choose a fry in a store or on the market as follows: keep an eye on the two biggest fry (these must be males), take them; choose the two smallest (most likely females), and take two fry at random, this time of medium size. This method of selection does not guarantee you one hundred percent success, but the chances of success are quite large.

    You can say for sure that a pair has formed in you, when two fishes determine some territory for themselves and start protecting it from alien invasion.

    The sexual maturities of the scalar reach ten to twelve months. If by this time both partners have reached approximately equal sizes and are large enough, you will be able to count on the pair’s spawning soon.

    You may have some difficulties with determining the sex of your fish, but believe me, the fish will not have such problems, so let them choose their own partner – they will not be mistaken.

    A tall aquarium of about 80-100 liters for an spawning angelfish pair is what you need. It is desirable to have plants, koryag, but we should not forget about the place in the center of the aquarium, which must be left free for swimming.

    Scalarium eggs can be laid on the bottom, or on a wide flat leaf of a plant. Sometimes, not finding a convenient place for laying, the angelfish lay eggs on the filter and on the thermometer.

    It is better that this does not happen, so it is possible that you yourself will put a flat stone (for example, slate) on the aquarium, on which the angelfish will lay eggs, after having cleaned it (note that these cichlids prefer to lay eggs on the top of the aquarium) . The day before the spawning of the female, the egg-deposit is visible, and the male has a narrow seed wire.

    The female, when the time comes, lays its eggs on the chosen place in even rows, followed by the male, fertilizing the eggs. This action takes about an hour.

    Spawning takes place in several stages. The total number of eggs ranges from 100 to 500, possibly more.

    Caviar can do differently. If you have a separate aquarium specifically for the spawning angelfish pair – this is good.

    Especially if it is large enough. If you plan to give parents their own care for caviar and fry, a couple and a brood of 200-250 fry should have plenty of room for swimming (and in a large aquarium, the couple will not have a sense of danger for the offspring, in a rush of which they can eat caviar and fry).

    If you do not have the opportunity to deposit spawning angelfish from the common aquarium, it is better to take the delayed caviar from the pair. The potential danger posed to scalar parents by every fish in an aquarium, and even by a partner, will cause restless parents to eat offspring.

    To avoid this, remove the plant or stone with caviar and place it in a special incubator, not forgetting caviar aeration, temperature inside the incubator, and general water parameters. It is recommended to add antifungal medication to the incubator so that non-fertilized eggs will not harm the fertilized ones.

    The larvae hatch in about a day or two after fertilization, if the temperature is optimal. About a week from now, they feed on the shell of the egg they were in, so they do not need feeding.

    Then dry, frozen food and substitutes will make up the diet of your growing fry.

    MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION

    These fish are so long bred in aquariums that they have become unpretentious and accustomed to various conditions. They are able to live in water of different hardness. The most acceptable temperature for the scalar is 24–26 ° С.

    They are very hardy and can tolerate both a rise in temperature to 35 ° C and a decrease in temperature to 16 ° C. But still, you should not allow significant fluctuations in temperature, so as not to harm the fish. Angelfish grow quite large, so the house in which they will live should be large (at least 60 liters).

    The content of the scalar in an aquarium assumes the presence of large, dense vegetation, stones and snags. The width of the aquarium does not really matter, as these fish species are adapted to life in narrow channels.

    Despite the fact that the scalar is very hardy, the maintenance and care of this fish must meet the following parameters: pH 6.5–7.3 (during spawning pH 6.5–6.8); dH – not higher than 18. It is necessary to constantly maintain the necessary parameters of water and saturate it with oxygen.

    Caring for scalars in an aquarium involves living in small groups. These are schooling fish that do not tolerate loneliness.

    In addition, they are very loyal to their partner. On average, 4–6 individuals should be settled, which will be further divided into pairs.

    The peculiarity of this species is that they are very shy and may lose their color. These surprises include lighted light or a knock on the walls of the aquarium.

    Angelfish are considered one of the most peaceful, and their content with other fish should not cause trouble and surprises. They live without problems with the same non-conflict individuals, as neighbors are perfect: gourami, mesonaut, apistogramma, swordtails, mollies, petilles, termination and other species. It is not necessary to move aggressive fish to the scalar, which can bite her fins or fast fish that will annoy her.

    Small species should be avoided, as they themselves can become food for scalar. During the spawning period, it is necessary to provide this pair of fish with peace and additional care.

    Feeding will not provide difficulties and special difficulty. They feed mainly on live food: coretroy, bloodworm, daphnia.

    It is necessary to avoid feeding the pipe worker, because it can become a source of fish disease. Young angelfish can eat the leaves of plants and algae.

    Young animals should be fed with fish fry and mosquito larvae. A supplement to the diet can be dry granulated feed.

    Adhere to simple rules on the content of these fish, and they will delight you for a long time.

    The first scalar were found in waters with a middle course in South America. It also becomes not a rare guest in the tributaries of the Orinoco and the Amazon.

    There she prefers dark transparent water and not strong current. If we consider scalar in its natural environment, then this small silver fish has only four vertical stripes, different in dark shades, which can be clearly seen in the photo.

    The first, for breeding fish in captivity, it was chosen by European aquarists at the very beginning of the XX century. The main advantages for this were the grace and beauty of the scalar.

    Surprisingly, after a few centuries, its popularity has not diminished, but on the contrary continues to gain popularity among beginners and professionals. The photo shows that the modern inhabitants of the aquarium are significantly different from wild ancestors. Breeders brought new breeds with significant differences in the appearance of the fish.

    The scalar koi is the brightest representative.

    Even a novice can handle the content of scalar. They are unpretentious and perfectly survive in critical situations. The only prerequisite is a spacious aquarium, without it the fish will feel uncomfortable, which will certainly affect its appearance.

    One pair requires at least 70 liters, if you decide to start a flock, the minimum volume of the reservoir is 100 liters. Novice aquarists breathe a sigh of relief when they learn that tap water is suitable for these inhabitants. It is advisable to track the rigidity from time to time.

    It is important that it does not reach the maximum performance. Most of all these fish love neutral or slightly acidic water.

    Water requirements:

    • Temperature 24-28 degrees;
    • Clear water;
    • Mandatory round-the-clock aeration;
    • The filter does not create a strong flow;
    • A huge amount of greenery;
    • Swimming place.

    A distinctive feature of the scalar koi is its fearfulness. She will feel more confident if you plant a part of the aquarium with shelter plants.

    This fish does not tolerate loneliness, so most often in the photo next to it there is another individual. They are usually kept in pairs or flocks. It is important that the number of females is equal to the number of males.

    Surprisingly, these fish themselves are divided from the flock into pairs. You can start them only for those who are confident in their constancy, since the minimum number of years lived with normal care is about 10.

    As feed is better to choose live food. They are happy to feed on live food and eat fry, because they belong to predators.

    Avoid getting stale feed and tubers in the tank. It is believed that this food can be “seasoned” with viruses that do not tolerate scalar. In addition to live food, you can give frozen, combined or dry food.

    It can only be used as an exception. It is important to correctly calculate the dose, otherwise, the voracious fish easily ruin their digestive organs.

    So, let’s start preparing for the new home for your new pets. Adult scalars are quite large – about 30 cm in height and 15 in length.

    Therefore, an aquarium for scalar needs a big one. For example, for two pairs of housing volume should be at least 60 liters. In the corners you need to locate aquatic plants, since the scalar are, by their nature, very cautious and shy and like to take shelter in dense thickets on occasion.

    In addition, these fish love bright light.

    Scalarians need clean water, so the filter should constantly work in the aquarium, and one fifth of the water should be replaced once a week. The tank should be washed periodically, at least once every couple of months.

    Angelfish in an aquarium get along quite well with almost all other peace-loving aquarium fish. The main thing is that all the fish should be about the same size, otherwise the smaller scalar neighbors can serve as food for them, and the larger ones may well pat the long scalar fins.

    And, of course, the size of your tank should match the number of its inhabitants.

    Aquarium fish angelfish in food is not particularly whimsical, the main requirement – the feed for angelfish must be of high quality. To feed them it is generally desirable with live food (bloodworm, shaker, etc.).

    It can be alternated with special dry food and cereal. The youngsters with pleasure eat live daphnia.

    It is best to use feeding troughs for feeding the scalar, because of the unusual body shape, it is very difficult for these fish to lift food from the bottom of the aquarium. It is also necessary to monitor the amount of feed, as they are prone to overeating.

    Grown-up scalaries form monogamous couples and, with proper care, often and successfully spawn. If you are going to breed fish, then it is advisable for you to purchase another aquarium that will become spawning.

    You can either spawn one caviar into it, or with your parents. The first few clutches are usually unproductive. and most often the fish themselves and eat their eggs.

    It’s best to let them do it. After a few spawning periods, the couple will train, her natural instinct will wake up, and parents will begin to actively take care of their offspring.

    During this period, the scalars become aggressive and will chase all their neighbors, protecting the clutch.

    With all the conditions of keeping the scalar, their life expectancy in the aquarium is approximately 10 years. Summing up, we can say that caring for aquarium fish is troublesome, but interesting and yet not very difficult.

    We wish you success!

    Scalaria is a popular aquarium fish, a representative of the Cichlidae family (Cichlids). The natural habitat is the freshwater bodies of South America (the Amazon and its tributaries). There, the water is saturated with a large amount of dissolved oxygen, which allows it to adapt to different conditions of life.

    She has a hardy body, body shape and diet allowed to adapt to captivity, transferring some changes in water parameters. Aquarists containing these fish often have the question: “How many scalar live?”.

    Like a fish belonging to the Tsikhlid family, its lifespan at home can be more than ten years. Under proper conditions of maintenance: proper feeding, clean water, a spacious aquarium, attentive care, the life span of this beautiful pet can be significantly extended.

    Instances of long-livers among scalar also met.


    The life expectancy of an angelfish in an aquarium can be 15-25 years, if you follow a number of requirements. First, be sure to launch these fish into a spacious tank of at least 100 liters per pair (female and male). Secondly, install the compressor and the aerator, the fish saturated with oxygen will only be delighted.

    The compressor must be turned on for 20-30 minutes twice a day.

    As for the general cleaning in the aquarium, it does not need to be carried out too often. If you remove the remnants of food and rotted plants in time, the water can be changed less often, some people manage to keep the water in crystal purity for more than six months.

    Otherwise, water replacement should occur at least 3 times a month. Be sure to clean the soil, wash the walls of the tank and the filter from the accumulated dirt, green algae.

    Watch the water temperature – the new water should correspond to all the parameters of the “old” one.


    Do not forget that the angelfish will live more years if the feed in the aquarium is not worse than they are fed in the wild. In the wild, they are omnivorous: they feed on insect larvae and insects, zooplankton, and plants. Therefore, they can be fed all appropriately feed: artificial for cichlids, dry, frozen and live.

    You can not give bloodworms and tubers, because they do not live in weakly acidic water. You can see how the fish form brownish blisters at the anus – these are the negative effects of feeding the bloodworm and the strawman.

    What decorative angelfish eat: micro-worm, artemia, earthworms, snails, koretra, daphnia, cyclop, lettuce and spinach. It is not recommended to give meat to warm-blooded animals that are saturated with fats.

    Feed pelleted with spirulina can be additional feeding. You need to feed such portions so that the fish ate the food in 2-5 minutes.

    Overfeeding is also harmful and shortens the life of fish, food debris can oxidize water, spoiling its quality.

    See how to care for scalars to prolong their lives.

    Because of the violation of metabolic processes, improper conditions of detention, untimely hygiene, fish can get sick, having lived in an aquarium for few years. With poor aeration, the fish have difficulty breathing, hold on to the surface of the water, gasping for air.

    The eyes become pale, the gills from the inside become covered with necrotic plaques. In this case, you can gradually increase the aeration by adjusting the temperature of the water and the supply of oxygen.

    If it seemed to you that the angelfish in the aquarium is sluggish, swims slowly, the anus is inflamed on the body, this is a disturbing signal. Hexamitosis is a parasitic disease of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Late intervention with the use of drugs can lead to infection of other fish or death. It is possible to treat with erythrocycline baths with trichopol (50 grams and 10 grams, respectively, in proportions to one liter of water).


    A scalar can form a fin rot, which is a consequence of infection with a rod-shaped bacterium. This is the result of heavily polluted water if it is rarely changed.

    On the body of a scalar appear white turbidity, also the eye corneas turn pale. Later the rays of the fins begin to exfoliate and fall off, ulcers form.

    The consequences of such a disease can be lethal – a fish will live for few years if it is infected from time to time. Treatment of fin rot: take malachite green, hydrochloride and bacillin-5 (in proportions of 0.1 mg, 100 mg, 4000 units per liter of water, respectively).

    The solution is added to a water tank. Be sure to process the decorations of the aquarium, plant plants bacillin.

    Ringworm – a disease of fungal origin, which reduces the number of years of fish life. Late treatment will be fatal. Symptoms: white bloom on the body.

    Later, the fungus can spread to the internal organs. For treatment it is necessary to use streptotsid, bacillin-5, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate (in the proportions of 1 gram, 4000 units, 0.5 gram, 0.05 gram, respectively).

    Timely prevention of diseases, quarantine and quality treatment prolong the life of pets.

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