Aporetogram Borelli (Apistogramma borellii) Regan, 1906, beautiful dwarf cichlids from the Amazon.
Southern Brazil, Paraguay and Northern Argentina. In the streams and tributaries of the Rio Paraguay and the lower basin of the Rio Paraná.
It is now generally accepted that it is more widespread in most of the rivers of Paraguay, the lower reaches of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers in southern Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay.
Borelli apistograms live in shallow water, where they live under protective vegetation cover.
In very heavily overgrown areas, fish can be found at a depth of up to 50 cm. The water temperature and the pH value vary considerably in different seasons.
Usually oval body shape, which is compressed from the sides; dorsal and anal fins elongated, with long pectoral fins.
Borellii apistogram is a polychrome species. That is, they are found in different colors, and in many cases one population will have several different options.
There are many color forms in the wild, some of which are especially colorful.
Some individual males with bright red strokes on their heads look truly breathtaking. Sometimes these color variations are given commercial names, including the general Apistogram and the special “Opal / Opal” or “Yellowhead / Yellowhead”.
Standard male length: 6.5 cm and females: 5 cm.
Keep one male with several females, as they are polygamous. These fish are among the most soothing dwarf cichlids.
They are beautiful in the aquarium and, as a rule, quite peaceful. The Borelli apistogram is best kept from a similar size, peaceful, and small-sized calligate or loricarid catfish, or together with other dwarf cichlids of the same size and temperament.
The basic dimensions of about 45 * 30 cm are suitable for one pair, the group needs much more space.
This look is unassuming, in a decor useful additions in the form of ceramic pots and tubes are preferable. A more natural look to the aquarium can give a soft sandy substrate with natural snags, roots and branches placed in such a way that a lot of secluded, shaded places and caves are formed.
Adding dried leaves (beech, oak, almond, and so on) will further enhance the natural look. Decomposition produces beneficial colonies of bacteria, they can serve as a valuable secondary source of food for fry, while tannins and other chemicals model naturalistic conditions. Leaves can be left in the aquarium to be completely decomposed or removed and replaced every few weeks.
Peat can also be added.
A rather dim lighting and suitable types of aquarium plants are recommended, better, such as the Thai Fern (Microsorum), Javanese Moss (Taxiphyllum), Cryptocoryne and Anubiase, as they will grow in such conditions. A bit of floating vegetation so that the light is diffused even more.
Filtration and flow of water should not be very strong and it is better to avoid abrupt changes in water parameters, replacement of 10-15% per week is a normal condition.
This species is sensitive to poor water quality and is very sensitive to nitrates, but tolerates / adapts to most of the basic water parameters.
Temperature: 20 – 27 ° C
pH: Commercially bred fish are relatively unassuming, wild populations were caught in habitats with an acidity in the range 5.0 – 8.0.
Stiffness: Mild and Medium: DGH range 5.0 – 19.0.
Borelli apistograms live in a wide range of natural habitats, and water parameters in these places vary greatly. This shows that Borelli can adapt to a wide range of water conditions – from pH 5 to pH 8, and hardness from 1 to 15 °.
However, they prefer cool, soft water and are very sensitive to water quality.
The Borelli apistogram is primarily carnivorous and apparently, in nature, feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates.
Frozen food such as artemia, daphnia, tubule and bloodworm should be in the diet on a regular basis, although most will also accept high-quality dry food.
Males are larger, more colorful and have more elongated fins than females.
Females, more yellowish in comparison with males, they will become even more bright yellow when ready for spawning. The female will also have a more rounded body when she spawns.
Spawning substrate in which caviar is usually deposited is crevices or voids in the decor, pots and tubes. The female protects and cares for the offspring and in small aquariums it may be necessary to remove the male, since she can become very aggressive.
A 10 liter aquarium is sufficient for breeding. The temperature will need to be raised slightly (up to 27 ° C) to stimulate the spawning process. The pair selected for breeding should be fed a variety of live / frozen food twice a day.
The pH should be acidic (from 5.5 to 6.0), and the water should be very soft. Distillate or reverse osmosis is recommended for breeding these fish.
To stimulate spawning, the aquarium needs a large number of plants (moss, floating and rooting plants), flower pots (at least one shelter per female) and snags.
The Borelli Apistogram females usually lay 40 to 70 eggs in a well-hidden shelter (hence the need for numerous caves), the female attaches the eggs to the shelter ceiling, where they are later fertilized. Caviar development from 2 to 4 days (depending on temperature).
After a week, the female will start breeding fry in search of food.
Borelli females demonstrate fantastic care for the offspring and will protect the fry from fish much larger than herself, including from her partner. The intensity of the protection will increase if the danger is nearby. If there is a threat that the female cannot provide protection, then she demonstrates this with her body, which is a sign for fry that there is a danger.
Having received this signal, the whole brood falls to the substrate and lies motionless until the threat disappears.