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Angelfish photo

maintenance, care, compatibility

Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.

High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.

Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options.

But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.

Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and can be as long as 15 cm. Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems.

The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries?

They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.

Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.

Probably most of the currently sold ordinary angelfish belong to this species. Traditionally considered the most unpretentious and easy to breed.

Wild Angelfish caught in nature

It is rarely found, very similar to an ordinary scalar, but its dark spots are somewhat lighter, and there are a couple of black stripes on the body, and one on the dorsal fin, but not moving onto the body.

Or the Orinoco scalar, it is the largest fish of all three species, it can be one and a half times larger than the usual scalar and grow up to 40 cm in size. There is also a sharp transition between the forehead and the mouth, forming a depression.

There are red dots on the fins. For many years, this species could not be diluted in captivity, but in recent years it has been possible to get fry from the scalar altum, and it went on sale along with individuals caught in nature.

Scalaria Altum or Orinoco

Altum in nature and in the aquarium, though the video is in English, but it’s worth a look:

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review

The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good.

There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring.

This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders.

Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and scalar
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar


Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy “Skalyarii” 2009

Kochetov Sergey “Skalyarii” 2005

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia.

The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity – they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat – there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.

Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking.

In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry.

Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural – the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others.

In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived – with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as “pteron” – a feather and “phyllon” leaf, and together a “winged leaf”.

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier.

He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name “Blattfische”, translated as leaf fish.

This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called “Angelfishes” or simply “Angel”, in Germany “Segelflosser”, which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they “dovozili”, but alas, the dead.

Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the “aquarium-scalar boom” begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg – I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn.

It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy – the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear.

Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov – in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater.

The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always – at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred.

In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review

The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too.

Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring.

This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders.

Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and scalar
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar


Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy “Skalyarii” 2009

Kochetov Sergey “Skalyarii” 2005

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia.

The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity – they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat – there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.

Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc.

Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent.

Natural – the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived – with even longer fins.

Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as “pteron” – a feather and “phyllon” leaf, and together a “winged leaf”.

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier.

He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name “Blattfische”, translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B.

Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called “Angelfishes” or simply “Angel”, in Germany “Segelflosser”, which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they “dovozili”, but alas, the dead.

Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the “aquarium-scalar boom” begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg – I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L.

Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy – the scalar was very valuable.

However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov – in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater.

The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always – at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred.

In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Angelfish (Latin Pterophyllum scalare) is one of the most beautiful aquarium fish, the history of their breeding in aquariums in many countries of the world has been over 100 years old. The natural origin of the fish is the territory of South America, the freshwater Amazon River and its tributaries.

In these bodies of water, the water is mild and slightly acidic, relatively warm. In some countries, the fish has been nicknamed the “angelfish” (angelfish) because of its elegant appearance and mannerism, giving it an aristocratic charm.

In addition to these signs, the scalar fish has a developed intellect, its maintenance in the home environment is simple. Aquarium fish scalar are also good parents who can independently take care of offspring.


They live in reservoirs with a slow or medium course, where there is a lot of reed beds. Their disc shape is the result of evolution. This body shape allows you to beautifully maneuver among underwater plants.

In nature, fish are kept in packs of 8-10 individuals.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare

Family: Cichlids (Cichlids)

Comfortable water temperature: 22-30 ° C

“Acidity” pH: 6.0-7.5

Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.

The nature of the angelfish is peace-loving, some individuals may not attack small fish and their brood, but it is worth remembering that all cichlids are predators. When settling in a common aquarium, you must be careful. Representatives of their species will be good neighbors for them, or other fish: corridors, tetras, gourami, lyalius, iris, plecostomus, combat, barium, rasbor.

With large aggressive cichlids, some species of barbs, cockerels, goldfish content is unacceptable. Proper care will ensure the fish a long life – the scalar can live 10 years or more.

Care and maintenance:

  1. The fish requires good aeration and filtration of the reservoir, as it is used to clean and oxygenated water. Replacement of 20-30% of water 1 time per week is required.
  2. The reservoir does not need to be tightly closed with a lid, the scalar is not jumping fish.
  3. Maintenance and care for the scalar will be comfortable if you provide them with moderate lighting with LB lamps of 0.4-0.5 W per liter of water. The tank can be placed in a quiet, quiet place where there is no access to bright sunlight. As plants, use hard-leaved species with wide leaves (vallisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne). Soil – washed coarse sand or gravel.
  4. Scenery for the reservoir: rocky rocks, caves, grottoes, snags. They love a large space, so one pair of fish is better to settle in a minimum 100-liter aquarium.

Watch a video about the content of angelfish in the home aquarium.

They are considered omnivorous fish, therefore, in captivity, care for them is not difficult. Can eat live, frozen, artificial feed.

The main diet consists of: koretra, artemia, cyclops, daphnia, snails, earthworms. You can give granules with spirulina, lettuce, spinach.

It is not recommended to give live cranks and tubers – they are harmful for their digestion. Angelfish after a meal can make attempts to collect food from the bottom, but everything can end in failure – their symmetry of the body does not allow to “get to the bottom” and take the leftovers.

Your scalar may occasionally refuse to eat – this is not always a sign of illness, but rather a saturation – for the next 1-2 weeks she may not eat. Angelfish can be harmful to warm-blooded animal meat: chicken, beef, pork.

Products are saturated with animal fats that fish cannot digest.

Of course, feeding the fish should be varied, in small portions. 1-2 times a day, you can give food, but metered, so that pets eat it in 2-5 minutes.

Some species and breeds of scalar should be given feed with additional trace elements that saturate the color of scales. They are sold in pet stores.

Angelfish care and maintenance spawning breeding description

Scalyarius fish belonging to the family of cichlids. Their homeland is South America, its central part.

In reservoirs dense with plants, they acquired their form. Its name is translated as winged sheet.

She looks like a leaf. And in Europe she was given the name Angel Fish. A flat body allows it to move easily among plants.

Aquarium angelfish grow up to 15 cm in an ordinary aquarium. If the goal of an aquarist is to grow only them, and all the necessary conditions are created for them, then their value can reach 26 cm.

How many live angelfish in an aquarium? Well, somewhere around 10 years, although there have been cases when this period was increased almost 2 times.

This allows the choice of the inhabitants of the aquarium to give her preference.

Because if the inhabitants of the aquarium do not live long, and you get used to them, then the death from old age of those who have a life span of just over 2 years very sad aquarist.

SPREAD OR BREEDING SCALARIES

if you want to get a baby angelfish, you need a ready to spawn couple. How to get it?

Consider that the scalars themselves choose their partner, so make sure that they have someone to choose from.

It is better to acquire several individuals fry and grow them. The number of individuals should be about six, and this is not a far-fetched figure.

Some fry may die in the process of growth, since the scalar is very sensitive to changes in water parameters; Another option is that the fry you grow may not grow to normal size, the reason for this is frequent intraspecific crossing.

You can choose a fry in a store or on the market as follows: keep an eye on the two biggest fry (these must be males), take them; choose the two smallest (most likely females), and take two fry at random, this time of medium size. This method of selection does not guarantee you one hundred percent success, but the chances of success are quite large.

You can say for sure that a pair has formed in you, when two fishes determine some territory for themselves and start protecting it from alien invasion.

The sexual maturities of the scalar reach ten to twelve months. If by this time both partners have reached approximately equal sizes and are large enough, you will be able to count on the pair’s spawning soon.

You may have some difficulties with determining the sex of your fish, but believe me, the fish will not have such problems, so let them choose their own partner – they will not be mistaken.

A tall aquarium of about 80-100 liters for an spawning angelfish pair is what you need. It is desirable to have plants, koryag, but we should not forget about the place in the center of the aquarium, which must be left free for swimming. Scalarium eggs can be laid on the bottom, or on a wide flat leaf of a plant.

Sometimes, not finding a convenient place for laying, the angelfish lay eggs on the filter and on the thermometer.

It is better that this does not happen, so it is possible that you yourself will put a flat stone (for example, slate) on the aquarium, on which the angelfish will lay eggs, after having cleaned it (note that these cichlids prefer to lay eggs on the top of the aquarium) . The day before the spawning of the female, the egg-deposit is visible, and the male has a narrow seed wire.

The female, when the time comes, lays its eggs on the chosen place in even rows, followed by the male, fertilizing the eggs. This action takes about an hour. Spawning takes place in several stages.

The total number of eggs ranges from 100 to 500, possibly more.

Caviar can do differently. If you have a separate aquarium specifically for the spawning angelfish pair – this is good.

Especially if it is large enough. If you plan to give parents their own care for caviar and fry, a couple and a brood of 200-250 fry should have plenty of room for swimming (and in a large aquarium, the couple will not have a sense of danger for the offspring, in a rush of which they can eat caviar and fry).

If you do not have the opportunity to deposit spawning angelfish from the common aquarium, it is better to take the delayed caviar from the pair. The potential danger posed to scalar parents by every fish in an aquarium, and even by a partner, will cause restless parents to eat offspring.

To avoid this, remove the plant or stone with caviar and place it in a special incubator, not forgetting caviar aeration, temperature inside the incubator, and general water parameters. It is recommended to add antifungal medication to the incubator so that non-fertilized eggs will not harm the fertilized ones.

The larvae hatch in about a day or two after fertilization, if the temperature is optimal. About a week from now, they feed on the shell of the egg they were in, so they do not need feeding.

Then dry, frozen food and substitutes will make up the diet of your growing fry.

MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION

Angelfish VIDEO

The first scalar were found in waters with a middle course in South America. It also becomes not a rare guest in the tributaries of the Orinoco and the Amazon. There she prefers dark transparent water and not strong current.

If we consider scalar in its natural environment, then this small silver fish has only four vertical stripes, different in dark shades, which can be clearly seen in the photo.

The first, for breeding fish in captivity, it was chosen by European aquarists at the very beginning of the XX century. The main advantages for this were the grace and beauty of the scalar. Surprisingly, after a few centuries, its popularity has not diminished, but on the contrary continues to gain popularity among beginners and professionals.

The photo shows that the modern inhabitants of the aquarium are significantly different from wild ancestors. Breeders brought new breeds with significant differences in the appearance of the fish.

The scalar koi is the brightest representative.

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