maintenance, care, compatibility
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.
High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options.
But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and can be as long as 15 cm. Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems.
The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries?
They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.
The scalar fish was first described by Schulz in 1823. It was first introduced to Europe in 1920, and divorced in the United States in 1930.
Although the fish that are sold now and called ordinary, but from the fish that lives in nature, they already differ very significantly. It lives in slow-moving reservoirs in South America: the birthplace of the fish in the central Amazon and its tributaries in Peru, Brazil and eastern Ecuador.
In nature, they live in places with a small number of plants, where they feed on fry, insects, invertebrates and vegetation.
Currently, there are three species in the genus: common Pterophyllum scalare, scalp altum Pterophyllum altum and scalar leopold Pterophyllum leopoldi. At the moment, it is quite difficult to understand which types of them are now most common in aquaristics, since crossing has played a role.
Consider each of their wild forms of scalar:
Angelfish form a stable, monogamous couple, and they actively spawn in the general aquarium, but it is rather difficult to save caviar. As a rule, caviar is deposited on vertical surfaces: a piece of snag, a flat sheet, even on the glass in an aquarium.
For reproduction often put special tools or cones, or a piece of plastic pipe, or a ceramic pipe.
Like all cichlids, the scalar developed progeny care. Breeding is not easy to spawn, the parents take care of the roe, and when the fry hatch, they continue to care for them until they swim.
Since the angelfish themselves choose a pair, the best way to get such a pair is to buy six or more fish and grow them until they are determined. Very often the aquarist learns about the beginning of spawning only when he sees caviar in one corner, in the other all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But, if you are careful, you can see a pair that is preparing for breeding.
They stick together, drive away other fishes, and protect a secluded corner in an aquarium.
Angelfish usually reach the adult age of 8-12 months, and can spawn every 7-10 days if taken from them. Spawning begins with the fact that the couple chooses a place and begins to methodically clean it. Then the female lays a chain of eggs, and the male immediately fertilizes them.
This continues until the whole caviar (sometimes a few hundred), will not be postponed, the scalar caviar is rather large, of a light color.
Parents care for caviar, fan it with fins, eat dead or unfertilized eggs (they turn white). A few days later, the eggs peck up, but the larvae remain attached to the surface. At this time, the larva does not eat yet, it consumes the contents of the yolk sac.
After about a week, she becomes a fry and begins to swim freely. You can feed the scalar fry with the nautilia of Artemia or other fry feeds. Millions of scalar fry were raised precisely on the nautilia of Artemia, so this is the best choice.
You need to feed them three or four times a day, in portions which they can eat in two or three minutes.
In an aquarium with fry, it is better to use an internal filter with a washcloth and without a lid, as it provides sufficient filtration, but does not suck the fry inside. Clean water is just as important as regular feeding, because of the accumulated harmful substances the fry often die.
Often aquarists ask why the angelfish eat their eggs? This may be due to stress, when they spawn in a common aquarium and are distracted by other fish, or in young couples who are still inexperienced.
The scalar living in nature has a silvery body with dark stripes. Body compressed laterally, with large fins and a pointed head.
On the tail fin in mature fish long thin rays can develop. This form helps them to mask among the roots and plants.
That is why the wild form colors in the form of vertical dark stripes. Angelfish are omnivores, in nature they lie in wait in the ambush of fry, small fish and invertebrates.
The average life expectancy of 12-15 years.
Of medium complexity, they are not recommended for beginner aquarists, as they require decent volumes, stable water parameters and can be aggressive to small fish. Also, they themselves may suffer from fish tearing fins, such as Sumatran barbs and terntions.
Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more.
Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.
The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters.
The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients.
And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple. Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig.
It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite. In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.
The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it. It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current.
Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but you need to remember that it is still a cichlid, and it can be somewhat aggressive to small fish. The same goes for fry and shrimp, they are gorgeous and insatiable hunters, in my aquarium there are countless hordes of neocardin shrimps, they knocked out clean.
They keep together while young, but adult fish are divided into pairs and become territorial. They are a little shy, they can be afraid of sudden movements, sounds and turning on the light.
Who can you keep a cichlid with? With a large and medium-sized fish, it is desirable to avoid very small, such as cardinals and micro-selection of the galaxy, although they wonderfully live with neons with me.
Definitely need to avoid barbs and preferably any, except cherry. In my practice, a flock of Sumaran barbs didn’t touch the angel at all, and a flock of fire barbs almost destroyed their fins in 24 hours.
Although you think that should be the opposite. Also fins can gnaw on ternation, tetragonopterus, black barb, schubert barb and denison.
You can keep with viviparous: swordtails, petilia, mollies, even with guppies, but note that in this case you should not count on the fry. Also marble gourami, pearl gourami, moonlight, congo, erythrosalonus and many other fish.
Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review
SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect.
In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.
Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
Ph acidity: 6-7.5.
Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors – discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium.
See the article – compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes.
Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.
The scalar has a peculiarity – they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat – there is nothing wrong with that.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking.
In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry.
Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, scalars live in northern South America
Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar
Angelfish are a very common type of aquarium fish belonging to the tsikhlovyh family. Almost every amateur – aquarist can see these colorful, very graceful fish.
The birthplace of the angelfish is South America, namely, calm, often standing bodies of water with dense vegetation.
In appearance, these are rather large fish, wild individuals have a fairly calm color of silver with black stripes. Their body is flattened in the form of a crescent.
The nature of this color and body shape were provided as a defensive reaction: the dark stripes can be invisible among underwater plants, the flat shape allows you to quickly and smoothly maneuver between them.
But the great advantage of this type of fish is that they are rather successfully and multifacetedly modified in the process of selection. So there were leopard, diamond, zebra, marble, gold and many other types of these fish.
Their size is very large, about 15 centimeters, but may be more. The life expectancy of an angelfish is up to 10 years, but with good care this period of time can increase significantly.
To feed they are quite unpretentious, they feed on all its varieties. It is better to choose food that does not sink, since the angelfish mostly float near the surface, and will not collect it from the bottom. You need to feed 2-3 times a day.
Do not overfeed in any case, as they are prone to obesity. This may lead to the impossibility of reproduction.
It is useful even to arrange a fasting day for them once a week.
Another undoubted advantage is the affordable price of scalar, their relative simplicity in content, high probability of reproduction. These fabulously beautiful fish willingly get along with a lot of other representatives of the underwater world.
It should be borne in mind that the scalar is a predatory fish, therefore, almost all small fishes settled to it will be perceived as food. And for larger fish of the predator family, the scalar herself can become an object of hunting.
Especially if you take into account its slowness when combined with a calm character. Another point is to move neighbors to these fish better from a young age; if they grow up together, they can coexist peacefully throughout their lives.
Let’s look at what kind of fish can live with scalars in an aquarium?
- SomicsPractically all get along with these calm and sluggish fishes. Somiks are bottom dwellers, the angelfish simply will not notice them, since they absolutely do not care for the aquarium bottom. These fish live well together in the aquarium.
- CichlidsAlthough they belong to the same species, the ideal symbiosis is not always obtained. It would seem, relatives, what should they share? But the thing is that in contrast to the scalar, other representatives are more nimble and more aggressive. Most often, fights occur because of a place at the trough. There is a high probability of a certain confrontation between stronger fish from different schools in the aquarium.
- Barbusses.Very often it is advised to move the barbs. This is quite justified, they live well together. But there are several points: the temper of the barbs is significantly different, they are more active, they can easily leave scalar without lunch. Also because of their activity, these fish can offend calmer cichlids, and sometimes even manage to bite off their fins. Therefore, when you obselenie need to carefully observe their behavior.
- Gourami.These fish are also quite large in size and, together with the scalars, create a beautiful composition in the general aquarium. But you need to settle them together from the young age, then problems should not arise. Otherwise, you can not count the representatives of both species.
- Danio.It is believed that danios can easily coexist with scalars. Yes, it is possible. But it is possible that in the absence of light, scalaries can easily open up a hunt for them with the purpose of eating. Although danios are not that simple either. If this happens, they develop a reflex, and with the onset of the night the fish in the aquarium hide closer to the bottom.
See how the pink angelfish and danios get along together perfectly.
- PequillyExcellent live in the same aquarium. Angelfish more often than not just notice the representatives of this species. Therefore, these fish will be excellent neighbors.
- The irisFully compatible, when taken into account, if they grow with scalars since childhood. Although sometimes you can miss a pair of iris in an aquarium.
- GuppyWith varieties of guppies, scalars can get along, but they can – not. If they are lodged together with fry, then most likely they will be quite comfortable. But of course, newborn fry will be eaten by angelfish. But it is worth remembering that adult guppies are also sinning this way, so this is not an indicator for separate coexistence in an aquarium.
- NeonsThey can live together, since neons live mainly on the bottom, for cichlids they are invisible, but if they often catch the eye, then these predators can easily get a grudge like very small fish.
- Labo and tetras.It is believed that the union is quite possible if these little fish have grown together.
- Pseudotropheus.In practice, they showed good livability with scalars, but nevertheless there were cases when pseudo-feitas gnawed fins on other fish. So you need to observe their behavior in the aquarium.
The floating crescent, winged leaf, or angelfish rightly takes the place of one of the favorite fish of many breeders, perhaps due to its unusual body shape and soft, but diverse and beautiful colors, and possibly due to its active behavior and livable character. This fish is quite capricious and demanding to the conditions of detention, especially with regard to the purity of water and the quality of food.
Therefore, if you decide to settle it in your pond, then you need to thoroughly prepare for it.
There are no special requirements here, as long as the food is of high quality. These cichlids eagerly eat live bloodworms, cortex, and daphnia.
You can give dry, granulated feed and flakes. They love to eat algae and pieces of leaves of underwater plants.
The menu can be diversified due to minced seafood, ground mussels and shrimp.
It is advisable to equip the feeding place with a special feeder, since, due to the shape of the body, the scalar cannot take food from the bottom.
These fish are prone to overeating, so you need to control portion sizes. Here is the rule: it is better to underfeed than to feed.
Sometimes you can observe a gratuitous refusal of food, but you should not worry. After a maximum of a week, everything will return to normal.
In general, the angelfish are amazing fish in both appearance and behavior. And the one who decides to start this beautiful crescent should know: the main thing is to prepare for this event, and then the content of the fish will not disappoint you!
The sexual dimorphism of the scalar is not pronounced, that is, the males and females are almost the same in appearance. Before the onset of puberty, sex cannot be determined, and even then it is rather difficult.
Aquarists joke about this: “Swam – it means the male, swam – the female.” However, in adults, it is possible to establish the scalar sex in most cases, although only those who are well aware of the anatomy of fish can usually do this. Let’s try to figure out the grounds for determining the gender of this type of fish:
- Mature males have a fat tubercle-hump on their foreheads;
- Males have a more prominent chest carina;
- If you look at the fish from the front, the lower part of her body resembles a wedge, and this wedge is sharp in the male, and blunt in the female;
- The diagnostic sign is the genital papilla (in females, it is called the ovipositor) – an outgrowth with a hole located between the anus and the anal fin, through which the genital products come out. In females, it is larger and thicker, and in the male, respectively, thinner, sharper and directed backwards. These differences are particularly clearly seen during spawning, as well as before and immediately after it;
- The distance from the genital papilla to the anal fin in males is much less than in females. In fact, in males the fin fin grows directly from the genital papilla, and since the striped scalar usually has the papilla located at the base of the central band, it can be said that in the male the anal fin starts from the base of the central band and in the female behind it;
The male scalar differs from the females in a more elongated long dorsal fin. In its back there are dark transverse stripes alternating with gaps. The number of these strips in females is not more than 6, and in males there are at least 7.However, sometimes it is impossible to reliably establish the sex of the fish by these attributes, especially in artificially bred forms with marble, golden, albino color.
In such cases, the sex of the fish is attempted to be determined by their behavior, when they form pairs and start spawning in the general aquarium. But this does not always work: in some cases, in the absence of males, females play their role in mating games and spawning, and same-sex couples even lay eggs (which naturally remains unfertilized).
Here you can advise the following: if you want to purchase an adult fish-producer, choose an individual with characteristic signs and behavior, or a fish that has already given offspring. Even better, it will immediately be a formed pair.
If you are going to grow the producers yourself, get 8–10 fry with wide and long fins, among them there will definitely be individuals of both sexes, and in the future they will break up into pairs, and you will be able to decide which one to use for further breeding.
To form a pair of scalar prefer independently, choosing a partner of several individuals of the opposite sex. But an aquarist may well pick up a pair of available young individuals.
Caught alone in the aquarium, the male and female scalaries of close age and size, as a rule, begin to “build love”. It is not recommended to separate already prepared pairs and pick up other partners – for fish this is the strongest stress, and they do not always form new alliances.
It is easy to determine a formed pair: the fish stick together, swim in a single file, the male begins to drive the female into the corners of the aquarium.
The Amazon River has a slightly acidic pH and a mild level of hardness. Perhaps the most unusual hydrobionts live there, distinguished by their unique appearance and special structure of the organism.
In the warm tropical waters of the scalar can live 20-25 years. However, in an aquarium where space is limited and the diet is not so diverse, their lifespan is halved.
The built environment, which is completely dependent on the person, does not always provide the fish with a balanced environment.
With proper care, regular cleaning of the reservoir, aeration, scalar live 10 years or more. If she is provided with constant care, without ignoring all the content requirements, she will live an order of magnitude longer, even 20 years.
It seems that 10 years is not a long time for joy, I would like more. But this figure is considered to be solid for not very big aquarium fish.
Watch a video on how best to care for scalars.
Because of the violation of metabolic processes, improper conditions of detention, untimely hygiene, fish can get sick, having lived in an aquarium for few years. With poor aeration, the fish have difficulty breathing, hold on to the surface of the water, gasping for air.
The eyes become pale, the gills from the inside become covered with necrotic plaques. In this case, you can gradually increase the aeration by adjusting the temperature of the water and the supply of oxygen.
If it seemed to you that the angelfish in the aquarium is sluggish, swims slowly, the anus is inflamed on the body, this is a disturbing signal. Hexamitosis is a parasitic disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Late intervention with the use of drugs can lead to infection of other fish or death.
It is possible to treat with erythrocycline baths with trichopol (50 grams and 10 grams, respectively, in proportions to one liter of water).
A scalar can form a fin rot, which is a consequence of infection with a rod-shaped bacterium. This is the result of heavily polluted water if it is rarely changed. On the body of a scalar appear white turbidity, also the eye corneas turn pale.
Later the rays of the fins begin to exfoliate and fall off, ulcers form. The consequences of such a disease can be lethal – a fish will live for few years if it is infected from time to time. Treatment of fin rot: take malachite green, hydrochloride and bacillin-5 (in proportions of 0.1 mg, 100 mg, 4000 units per liter of water, respectively).
The solution is added to a water tank. Be sure to process the decorations of the aquarium, plant plants bacillin.
Ringworm – a disease of fungal origin, which reduces the number of years of fish life. Late treatment will be fatal.
Symptoms: white bloom on the body. Later, the fungus can spread to the internal organs.
For treatment it is necessary to use streptotsid, bacillin-5, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate (in the proportions of 1 gram, 4000 units, 0.5 gram, 0.05 gram, respectively). Timely prevention of diseases, quarantine and quality treatment prolong the life of pets.
What fish are compatible with scalar? With them you can settle the representatives of non-aggressive species of medium size. These include:
Between themselves, the scalars get along quite well in the conditions of a spacious reservoir, but from the age of the young stock they must live in a group of 4-8 fish, among which they choose a mate for life, as is typical of the Cichlids. With representatives of loach fish and shrimps are partially compatible, however, the risk of cohabitation in the common tank is high. Do not settle scalar with such fish:
- African and South American cichlids;
- Carp koi;