maintenance, care, compatibility
Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review
SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect.
In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.
Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
Ph acidity: 6-7.5.
Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors – discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium.
See the article – compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes.
Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.
The scalar has a peculiarity – they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat – there is nothing wrong with that.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking.
In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry.
Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, scalars live in northern South America
The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural – the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others.
In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived – with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish
The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as “pteron” – a feather and “phyllon” leaf, and together a “winged leaf”.
Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier.
He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name “Blattfische”, translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B.
Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.
Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called “Angelfishes” or simply “Angel”, in Germany “Segelflosser”, which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they “dovozili”, but alas, the dead.
Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the “aquarium-scalar boom” begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg – I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L.
Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy – the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear.
Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov – in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously.
As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always – at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars.
In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA.
In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.
Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.
High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body.
Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options. But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views.
Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and reach a length of 15 cm.
Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries?
They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.
The scalar fish was first described by Schulz in 1823. It was first introduced to Europe in 1920, and divorced in the United States in 1930.
Although the fish that are sold now and called ordinary, but from the fish that lives in nature, they already differ very significantly. It lives in slow-moving reservoirs in South America: the birthplace of the fish in the central Amazon and its tributaries in Peru, Brazil and eastern Ecuador.
In nature, they live in places with a small number of plants, where they feed on fry, insects, invertebrates and vegetation.
Currently, there are three species in the genus: common Pterophyllum scalare, scalp altum Pterophyllum altum and scalar leopold Pterophyllum leopoldi. At the moment, it is quite difficult to understand which types of them are now most common in aquaristics, since crossing has played a role.
Consider each of their wild forms of scalar:
Angelfish form a stable, monogamous couple, and they actively spawn in the general aquarium, but it is rather difficult to save caviar. As a rule, caviar is deposited on vertical surfaces: a piece of snag, a flat sheet, even on the glass in an aquarium.
For reproduction often put special tools or cones, or a piece of plastic pipe, or a ceramic pipe.
Like all cichlids, the scalar developed progeny care. Breeding is not easy to spawn, the parents take care of the roe, and when the fry hatch, they continue to care for them until they swim.
Since the angelfish themselves choose a pair, the best way to get such a pair is to buy six or more fish and grow them until they are determined. Very often the aquarist learns about the beginning of spawning only when he sees caviar in one corner, in the other all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But, if you are careful, you can see a pair that is preparing for breeding.
They stick together, drive away other fishes, and protect a secluded corner in an aquarium.
Angelfish usually reach the adult age of 8-12 months, and can spawn every 7-10 days if taken from them. Spawning begins with the fact that the couple chooses a place and begins to methodically clean it.
Then the female lays a chain of eggs, and the male immediately fertilizes them. This continues until the whole caviar (sometimes a few hundred), will not be postponed, the scalar caviar is rather large, of a light color.
Parents care for caviar, fan it with fins, eat dead or unfertilized eggs (they turn white). A few days later, the eggs peck up, but the larvae remain attached to the surface. At this time, the larva does not eat yet, it consumes the contents of the yolk sac.
After about a week, she becomes a fry and begins to swim freely. You can feed the scalar fry with the nautilia of Artemia or other fry feeds. Millions of scalar fry were raised precisely on the nautilia of Artemia, so this is the best choice.
You need to feed them three or four times a day, in portions which they can eat in two or three minutes.
In an aquarium with fry, it is better to use an internal filter with a washcloth and without a lid, as it provides sufficient filtration, but does not suck the fry inside. Clean water is just as important as regular feeding, because of the accumulated harmful substances the fry often die.
Often aquarists ask why the angelfish eat their eggs? This may be due to stress, when they spawn in a common aquarium and are distracted by other fish, or in young couples who are still inexperienced.
Probably most of the currently sold ordinary angelfish belong to this species. Traditionally considered the most unpretentious and easy to breed.
Wild Angelfish caught in nature
It is rarely found, very similar to an ordinary scalar, but its dark spots are somewhat lighter, and there are a couple of black stripes on the body, and one on the dorsal fin, but not moving onto the body.
Or the Orinoco scalar, it is the largest fish of all three species, it can be one and a half times larger than the usual scalar and grow up to 40 cm in size. There is also a sharp transition between the forehead and the mouth, forming a depression. There are red dots on the fins.
For many years, this species could not be diluted in captivity, but in recent years it has been possible to get fry from the scalar altum, and it went on sale along with individuals caught in nature.
Scalaria Altum or Orinoco
Altum in nature and in the aquarium, though the video is in English, but it’s worth a look:
What to feed? Angelfish are omnivores, in the aquarium they eat all kinds of food: live, frozen and artificial. The basis of feeding can be high-quality flakes, and additionally provide live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, artemia, and a coretica.
It is important to know two things, they are gluttons and cannot be overfeed, no matter how much they ask. And very carefully give the bloodworm, but it is better to give it up altogether. A little overfeed with bloodworms, and the scalar begins intestinal distention, and such bubbles come out of the anal bladder.
It is much safer to feed branded feed, the benefit they are now of high quality.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, though not often. In my case, they regularly tear off the tops of Eleocharis and tear off the moss from the snag.
In this case, you can add in the diet with spriulina.
Discus and Angelfish in the huge aquarium, the Amazon biotope:
Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more.
Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.
The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters.
The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients.
And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple. Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig.
It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite. In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.
The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it.
It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current. Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but you need to remember that it is still a cichlid, and it can be somewhat aggressive to small fish. The same goes for fry and shrimp, they are gorgeous and insatiable hunters, in my aquarium there are countless hordes of neocardin shrimps, they knocked out clean. They keep together while young, but adult fish are divided into pairs and become territorial.
They are a little shy, they can be afraid of sudden movements, sounds and turning on the light.
Who can you keep a cichlid with? With a large and medium-sized fish, it is desirable to avoid very small, such as cardinals and micro-selection of the galaxy, although they wonderfully live with neons with me.
Definitely need to avoid barbs and preferably any, except cherry. In my practice, a flock of Sumaran barbs didn’t touch the angel at all, and a flock of fire barbs almost destroyed their fins in 24 hours.
Although you think that should be the opposite. Also fins can gnaw on ternation, tetragonopterus, black barb, schubert barb and denison.
You can keep with viviparous: swordtails, petilia, mollies, even with guppies, but note that in this case you should not count on the fry. Also marble gourami, pearl gourami, moonlight, congo, erythrosalonus and many other fish.
Angelfish – one of the most popular aquarium fish. Interesting colors, unusual body structure and, moreover, the rather good compatibility of the angelfish with other fish make them very attractive pets.
It is about the latter and I would like to talk today.
Angelfish get along well with almost all peace-loving fish. But with some species only theoretically compatible, in practice, the picture is somewhat different.
So let’s take a closer look at a few examples of possible neighborhoods.
Barbus fish are relatively not aggressive, very mobile and fast. Such fuss is not particularly enjoy the rather slow scalar. In addition, having settled in, the barbs may well be interested in long attractive scalar fins and thoroughly pat them.
Especially black and Sumatran barbs are prone to such hooliganism. But if all the fish are bought at the same time and from a very early age live in the same aquarium, then a peaceful neighborhood is quite possible.
Another important factor here is the volume of your aquarium: if there is enough space, algae and secluded corners, then most likely these types of fish will not be particularly interested in each other.
And the scalar and goldfish are very popular among aquarists, but to keep them together will not work for several reasons:
- goldfish prefer cooler water than scalar;
- scalaries are very demanding on the purity of water, and gold ones very quickly pollute it;
- these fish have different characters, and the grown-up angelfish can quite spoil the fins of goldfish.
These two types of aquarium fish will become very good neighbors. In the scalar and discus, similar conditions of detention and food preferences: both species are prone to overeating, so you need to strictly monitor the quantity and quality of food.
In addition, a flat disc-shaped body shape similar to a “crescent” scalar of a discus and it is also very difficult for them to collect food from the bottom. So discus, like scalar, will be happy special feeding trough.
The only condition is the presence of a large aquarium, as discus fish are schooling fish, it is better to contain 5-6 individuals, and even adult angelfish have decent sizes and love space.
Angelfish and other fish
Guppy smaller in size angelfish, and therefore they are not the best neighbors for large neighbors. After all, the angelfish tend to take the fish less than themselves as food and may well swallow all guppies.
Sword and scalar can quite peacefully live together with each other, if the swordtails are not very interested in the long fins of the scalar. To better guarantee peaceful coexistence, it is advisable to keep them together from an early age.
Angelfish and cockerels also a pretty good neighborhood option. Usually, these species of fish live by themselves, without paying much attention to their neighbors.
Males will rather distort each other (especially males) than with scalars. True, during spawning the scalar may become too aggressive, protecting offspring, and pounding cockerels.
In order to avoid this, there should be enough water plants and secluded places in the aquarium for shelter and solitude.
Angelfish are quite friendly fish, but there are a number of exceptions that must be considered so that none of your pets are hurt. And one of the main conditions concerning all compatibility options is an aquarium of the required volume. Even for only 1-2 pairs of angelfish, an aquarium with a volume of 60 liters is needed, and taking into account the neighbors, this figure increases significantly.
This must be remembered when deciding on the choice of fish.
Compatibility of aquarium fish – a very important issue for beginners and experienced razvodchiki. Each fish has an individual character, style of behavior, regardless of whether it is a herbivore or a predator. Some fish quickly eat plants and shrimp, others attack the fish themselves.
Of course, there were cases when practically incompatible species coexisted in one reservoir.
Aquarium fish compatibility chart
To systematize this issue, you should familiarize yourself with the habitat conditions of each hydrobiont, and then decide who to share it with. Assess the degree of aggressiveness of each species, the water parameters that are acceptable for them, in which layers of the reservoir they usually swim.
To ensure that your aquarium is filled with life, a table is provided that lists the compatibility of freshwater fish.
Watch the video about the compatibility of aquarium fish.
What fish are compatible with scalar? With them you can settle the representatives of non-aggressive species of medium size. These include:
Between themselves, the scalars get along quite well in the conditions of a spacious reservoir, but from the age of the young stock they must live in a group of 4-8 fish, among which they choose a mate for life, as is typical of the Cichlids. With representatives of loach fish and shrimps are partially compatible, however, the risk of cohabitation in the common tank is high. Do not settle scalar with such fish:
- African and South American cichlids;
- Carp koi;