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Where does it live and what does artemia look like?

About 100 million years ago, a first-class food for aquarium fish appeared on Earth, and a little later a component of therapeutic mud and biological additives, an extractor for creating medical and cosmetic preparations, as well as a pink dye for some salt lakes under the modern name “Artemia crustacean”. At the moment – this is the object of scientific research.

The stability of these creatures makes them ideal organisms for test experiments.

In nature, Artemia lives and breeds in salt lakes, most often located in resort areas.

For the first time, Artemia was described by Karl Linnaeus in 1758, after she was discovered in England in the city of Leamington. Since then, scientists have not left crustaceans alone, using their unique properties in their experiments.

In nature, Artemia lives and breeds in salt lakes, most often located in resort areas. More precisely, the resort areas with mud baths are located where Artemia lives. The studied habitats include:

  • Marina – Salina – a lake in the United States;
  • “Salt Lake” in the Stavropol Territory;
  • Lake Tengiz and Burlu in Kazakhstan;
  • Shira and Tus in Khakassia;
  • Ajigol, Chongar and Sakskoe lake in Crimea;
  • Bear Lake in the Urals;
  • Bolshoy Yarovoye in Altai and many others in our country and abroad.

Artemia lives in Cyprus and in Italy, Spain and France, in the Philippines and in Argentina. The area is very large.

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Adult crustaceans can grow from very tiny to a size of 15 mm. They have 11 pairs of legs, two pairs of antennae (antennas) and three whole eyes.

Artemia looks like a little shrimp. The color of her body depends on the concentration of salt in water and varies from greenish to rich red.

Hemoglobin is present in the blood of the crustacean.

These primitive crustaceans are bisexual. The male has two joint organs: an enlarged second pair of antennas resembling ticks, with which it captures the female during mating, and a copulatory organ for fertilization.

During coitus, the male takes up a position behind and firmly embraces the female with antennas. In this position, the pair can be up to several days, until the important process ends.

The female is slightly larger than the male. At the end of her body is clearly visible egg sac, where she stores up to 300 eggs – cysts at a time.

She is able to give offspring every 4−5 days. Under favorable conditions, babies appear in the mother’s body already active.

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When external factors change for the worse (drying, freezing, lack of oxygen, increasing salt concentration), a protective coating is formed around the cysts, and they “fall asleep”, turning into cysts. In such a sleeping state, the female throws them into the water, where cysts will wait for conditions suitable for further development.

Under a strong protective shell, embryos can exist for decades, being in absolute peace. Artemia cysts are very small – 0.2–0.25 mm.

They have a special structure that allows you to securely attach to the feathers of birds and thus increase their range.

As soon as the environmental conditions become suitable, water penetrates through the cysts sheath. It causes the envelope to swell and stimulates the awakening of the embryo.

After a few days, the cyst ruptures and nauplii, the newborn Artemia, are born.

Adult crustaceans can grow from tiny to 15 mm in size.

Externally, the newborn nauplia does not look like its parents. It has a small – only 0.5 mm – elongated body, two antennas (antennae), with the help of which it floats and pulls food to the mouth opening, and one single eye, which only distinguishes light.

The eye helps to find food, indicating the most illuminated places. Nauplii eat algae, bacteria and detritus – a microscopic suspension of dead plants and animals scattered in water.

As they grow and develop, the nauplios grow in size, they have two real complex eyes, antennas and a number of limbs. The third eye remains in place.

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Young brine shrimp become a miniature replica of adult crustaceans. Growing up, they acquire sex differences and the ability to multiply.

In nature, artemia exists in lakes with different concentrations of salt, which practically makes it the only inhabitant of water bodies where other similar organisms do not survive. It firmly occupies its niche and is of interest on an industrial scale.

The significance of Artemia for economic use is very high. Its chemical composition includes:

  • essential amino and fatty acids;
  • squirrels;
  • fats;
  • vitamins;
  • hormones;
  • biologically active compounds.

Artemia – a highly nutritious food for aquarium fish, widely used by aquarists

Cysts are especially valued as a rich source of nucleic acids. Great biological value quickly found its application. Artemia is used:

  • In food. In some countries, pasta is made from crustaceans, replacing meat.
  • In mud therapy. Mixing up with silt, salt and minerals, the dead bodies of crustaceans form curative mud. It is used to treat a variety of diseases.
  • In medicine. The powder of the cyst is included in some dietary supplements.
  • In cosmetology. Extracts and extracts of artemia abroad are used for the manufacture of external cosmetics and injections. Anti-aging and anti-aging products from leading companies in Israel, Spain and Germany are very popular.
  • In science. On crustaceans they test the toxicity of chemicals, study the structural organization of chromosomes, the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis and other processes necessary for the advancement of science.
  • In aquarium and industrial fish farming. Nauplii is a highly nutritious food for aquarium fish. Industrial fish farms use artemia because of its high feeding value and ability to increase physiological parameters.
  • As a feed additive in poultry farming and animal husbandry. Productivity is increased several times.
  • As fertilizers and plant growth stimulants.

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