A toad is a small amphibian from the family of the same name. A distinctive feature of this species is the original and incomparable color.
It is for this that the frog gained popularity among aquarium lovers. It is unpretentious in care and does not require special conditions of detention, which allows even amateur aquarists to get this representative of the fauna.
Toad the toad is a tiny creature, which by its appearance attracts the attention of all aquarium lovers. She leads an active lifestyle, so it’s nice to watch her from the side.
This type of amphibian gets on well with some other inhabitants and does not interfere with their development.
This kind of frogs refers to the smallest, since the size of his body rarely reaches 6 centimeters in length. Such an inhabitant of aquariums has many common features with a toad, which is why inexperienced aquarists often confuse them.
The body of an amphibian has an unusual color, which combines both light and bright shades. The frog’s back is bumpy, colored brown and has large dark green spots, the abdomen is smooth and has a bright red or orange color.
Over its entire surface are dark blue specks, which have an original and never repeated shape.
The head of the toad is small and shaped like a slightly elongated oval. It has a pair of large eyes with triangular pupils. The ears of these toads are not, therefore, the function of the hearing organs is performed by small bumps on the head.
Thanks to them, the frog is able to distinguish low-frequency oscillations coming from another animal or person. The toad has well-developed hind legs, but it does not have any special sprint qualities.
Sex differences are hardly noticeable to non-professionals. A careful examination of the male can discern small tubercles on the toes of the front paws.
Females differ from males in larger size and smooth skin.
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In the wild, toads are one of the most common frogs. During evolution, they developed and adapted to life even in the most severe conditions, due to which they settled practically throughout the whole territory of Europe.
This type of amphibian prefers dirty ponds, which are overgrown with marsh grass and other vegetation. An ideal place for them would be a pond or a small lake with stagnant water.
Almost all types of water bodies are suitable for these toads, where there is no sandy bottom and a strong current.
Todents, like most other members of their family, lead daytime life. At this time, they can be found both on land and in water.
After sunset, they hide in secluded places and crawl out of them only with the onset of the next day.
If the reservoir is ideally suited to a frog, then it is able to live in it and multiply for 12 years. Aquarium representative, with proper care, can please the owner twice as long.
In nature, there are only 4 species of these representatives of the fauna.
They are classified according to skin color and habitat.:
- Red-bellied. The species is distributed in Eastern Europe, Turkey, and the western regions of the Russian Federation. The red-bellied toad adores small swamps, ponds, lakes with dense vegetation and weak currents. There it can be easily found in any place where there is stagnant water.
- Far East. By name, you can easily guess that this frog lives in Primorsky Krai of the Russian Federation, China and South Korea. This toad is very similar to the red-bellied, but has several differences – smaller spots on the abdomen and a bright orange color.
- Yellow bellied. Toad lives in regions that extend from Central Europe to the Carpathians. Unlike other species, it can live at an altitude of up to 2 kilometers above sea level.
- Big. This amphibian can be found in the western territory of China and in the Himalayan mountains. The frog is distinguished by its size (about 7.5 centimeters in length) and a large round head.
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The toad, like any other frog, has quite a few enemies. Because of its small size, it is a source of food for small mammals, small snakes and birds of prey.
Among the most dangerous for the toad individuals can be identified such:
- larger frog species;
- birds of prey (egret, bittern, rook, roach, buzzard);
Seeing a potential enemy, the toad stops and tries to scare the enemy with its appearance. Very often she turns the legs, shows a bright throat or abdomen.
Sometimes animals confuse it with poisonous species and are left alone.
Toad is perfectly adapted for life in captivity. It is unpretentious and perfectly adapts to its new habitat conditions.
Despite this, the little toad needs proper nutrition and the presence of constant moisture.
Very important for a comfortable life toads are the size of its “house”. For each individual It is necessary to allocate at least 5 liters of volume.
It is important to take into account that these frogs cannot live separately from each other, therefore it is best to settle at least 4 individuals. Based on this, you should choose a tank of at least 20 liters.
It is important to note that the toads are amphibians, so they need both aquatic and land. The ideal combination would be their equal ratio.
So the pet will be able to choose where it is more comfortable for him to be at one time or another.
Heating is no less significant for toads. Experienced aquarists advise to equip the tank with any available heating device.
It should be located above artificially made land and raised to a safe height for amphibious. In some designs of the aquarium the possibility of heating the bottom is provided, however, this option is not ideal.
In the dwelling of frogs need to maintain a constant temperature. The most comfortable indicator is within + 20 … + 25 ° С.
With the onset of night, the temperature can be reduced by 5 degrees. So you can recreate the drops that are inevitable in natural habitat. The water part of the aquarium should also be heated.
It is best to try to keep the level at + 18 … + 20 ° С.
Fine materials such as river sand and gravel are recommended for bedding. For the organization of sushi, you can apply 2 layers – gravel and soil.
To create conditions more close to natural, you can land small plants or moss on the dry part.
This species of frogs lives in wetlands with lots of algae and other aquatic plants. Therefore, it is recommended that the water half of the aquarium be properly filled. You can plant such plants:
For greater decoration, you can come up with a small wooden platform on the water. She will look great and will be one of the favorite places of pets.
The basis of pet health is proper and timely nutrition. It will help the toad to stay active and multiply quickly.
Toad food can be used:
- a pipemaker;
- flour worm;
- special vitamins for amphibians.
The latter product can be easily purchased at any pet store in the locality. It is inexpensive and helps to maintain a healthy pet.
Giving such vitamins should be several times a month.
For little frogs do not need to look for special food. They will gladly eat the same food as their parents, only it must be ground beforehand.
It will not be superfluous and additional feeding with calcium. As its source it is best to use egg shells.
The toads very poorly tolerate cold weather, so their wintering should be taken seriously.
It is important to try to create such conditions for them so that they survive the frosty period comfortably and without problems.
To do this, the following:
- With the onset of December, it is necessary to gradually reduce daylight hours for pets from 12 to 8 hours. At the same time it is necessary to reduce the temperature of the aquarium. After two weeks, the heating is completely turned off.
- Over the next week, pets should be moved to another tank filled with natural peat. It contains a little carbolic acid, which has an antibacterial effect. This will help protect frogs from various diseases in the difficult period of the year for them.
- For three days, the “house” with toads is placed in a room with a temperature of not more than + 15 ° C, after which the tank is placed in the refrigerator.
The duration of wintering should be approximately 2 months. After its completion it is necessary to carry out all the same actions, only in reverse order.
The whole procedure is quite time consuming, but it allows frogs to easily winter and gain strength for the whole year.
In the wild, toads begin to mate only in April, when warmer weather sets. The period can be more than three months and stretch out until the beginning of July.
At home, these representatives of the fauna are able to reproduce immediately after leaving hibernation.
After fertilization the female lays from 300 to 500 eggs, their number depends on the health, age and size of the frog. The female does this operation in the water and only at night.
Small eggs fall to the bottom of the aquarium and settle on moss or algae.
A week later, tadpoles appear from them, which live in this form for 2 months. During this period, it is very important to properly feed them not only plant food, but also animal food.
In addition, you need to ensure good aeration for babies and keep the temperature at + 21 ° C. Once the tadpoles are 4.5 centimeters in size, they will begin to transform into a frog.
Toads are a type of amphibians that have excellent immunity and rarely get sick. However, even they have several problems with which their masters must fight.
Among them most common:
- Defeat worms. This disease can occur as a result of improper diet and poor water quality. It can be treated with special powders for amphibians, which are added to their food.
- Oral abrasions. This is the result of any damage. Comprehensive antibiotic therapy (rubbing ointments and applying compresses) will help to cope with them. It is very important to immediately isolate the diseased individual and keep it alone until complete recovery.
Frogs toads – this is a very unpretentious amphibians, which are enough easy to keep at home. With the right approach to business and compliance with all the recommendations of professionals, you can provide pets with the most comfortable conditions for life and reproduction.
Small frogs will live long and delight the owners with their appearance and behavior.
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